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  1. România - Wikipedia

    ro.wikipedia.org › wiki › România

    Urban (53,93%) Rural (46,07%) Conform recensământului din 2011 , România are o populație de 20 121 641 de locuitori, iar sporul natural este negativ. Populația scade astfel, și din cauza acestuia, dar și din cauza migrației negative. Astfel, raportul Eurostat din 2014 arăta că România era țara din Uniunea Europeană cu cea mai abruptă scădere demografică între 1994 și 2014 ...

  2. Tiếng România – Wikipedia tiếng Việt

    vi.wikipedia.org › wiki › Tiếng_Romana

    Có sẵn phiên bản Tiếng Romania của Wikipedia, bách khoa toàn thư mở ^ a ă Liên minh Latin báo cáo rằng 28 triệu người nói tiếng Romana, trong đó 24 triệu người nói như tiếng mẹ đẻ: Latin Union - The odyssey of languages: ro , es , fr , it , pt ; see also Ethnologue report for Romanian

    • 34 (tiếng mẹ đẻ)
    • Ngôn ngữ mẹ đẻ: 24 triệu người, Ngôn ngữ thứ hai: 4 triệu người
  3. Limba română - Wikipedia

    ro.m.wikipedia.org › wiki › Limba_română

    Zone majoritare Zone minoritare sau bilingve Țări și teritorii vorbitoare de limbă română țară vorbitori (%) vorbitori populație (2012) Terra 0.33% 23 623 890 7 035 000 000 România, Republica Moldova și țările vecine oficială: România 90.65% 17 263 561 19 043 767 Republica Moldova 2 76,5% 2 588 355 (2004) 3 383 332 Transnistria 3 31,9% 177 050 (2004) 555 500 Voivodina (Serbia) 1 ...

  4. History of Romania - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › History_of_Romania
    • Prehistory
    • Dacia
    • Early Middle Ages
    • High Middle Ages
    • Early Modern Period
    • Independence and Kingdom of Romania
    • World War I
    • Greater Romania
    • World War II and Aftermath
    • Communist Period

    34,950-year-old remains of modern humans with a possible Neanderthalian trait were discovered in present-day Romania when the Peștera cu Oase ("Cave with Bones") was uncovered in 2002. In 2011, older modern human remains were identified in the UK (Kents Cavern 41,500 to 44,200 years old) and Italy (Grotta del Cavallo 43,000 to 45,000 years old) but the Romanian fossils are still among the oldest remains of Homo sapiens in Europe, so they may be representative of the first such people to have entered Europe.The remains present a mixture of archaic, early modern human and Neanderthal morphological features. The Neolithic-Age Cucuteni area in northeastern Romania was the western region of the earliest European civilization, which is known as the Cucuteni–Trypillia culture. The earliest-known salt works is at Poiana Slatinei near the village of Lunca; it was first used in the early Neolithic around 6050 BC by the Starčevo culture and later by the Cucuteni-Trypillia culture in the pre-Cu...

    The earliest written evidence of people living in the territory of present-day Romania comes from Herodotus in Book IV of his Histories, which was written in c. 440 BC; He writes that the tribal confederation of the Getae were defeated by the Persian Emperor Darius the Great during his campaign against the Scythians. The Dacians, who are widely accepted as part of the Getae described earlier by the Greeks, were a branch of Thracians who inhabited Dacia, which corresponds with modern Romania, Moldova, northern Bulgaria and surrounding nations. The Dacian Kingdom reached its maximum expansion during the reign of King Burebista between 82 BC and 44 BC. Under his leadership, Dacia became a powerful state that threatened the regional interests of the Romans. Julius Caesar intended to start a campaign against the Dacians due to the support that Burebista gave to Pompey but he was assassinated in 44 BC.[citation needed] A few months later, Burebista was assassinated by his own noblemen. An...

    Between 271 and 275, the Roman army and administration left Dacia, which was invaded later by the Goths. The Goths mixed with the local people until the 4th century, when the Huns, a nomadic people, arrived. The Gepids, the Avars, the Bulgars and their Slavic subjects ruled Transylvania until the 8th century. The territories of Wallachia and Moldavia were under the control of the First Bulgarian Empire from its establishment in 681 until around the time of the Hungarianconquest of Transylvania at the end of the 10th century. After the disintegration of Great Bulgaria following Khan Kubrat's death in 668, a large group of Bulgars followed Asparukh, the third son of the great Khan, who headed westwards. In the 670's they settled in the area known as the Ongal to the north of the Danube delta.[citation needed] From there, Asparukh's cavalry in alliance with local Slavs annually attacked the Byzantine territories in the south. In 680, the Byzantine Emperor Constantine IV led a large arm...

    The Pechenegs, a semi-nomadic Turkic people of the Central Asian steppes, occupied the steppes north of the Black Sea from the 8th to the 12th centuries, and by the 10th century they were in control of all of the territory between the Don and the lower Danube rivers. During the 11th and 12th centuries, the nomadic confederacy of the Cumans and Eastern Kipchaks dominated the territories between present-day Kazakhstan, southern Russia, Ukraine, southern Moldavia and western Wallachia. It is a subject of dispute whether elements of the mixed Daco–Roman population survived in Transylvania through the Dark Ages to become the ancestors of modern Romanians or whether the first Vlachs and Romanians appeared in the area in the 13th century after a northward migration from the Balkan Peninsula. There is also debate over the ethnicity of Transylvania's population before the Hungarian conquest.[citation needed] There is evidence the Second Bulgarian Empire, at least nominally, ruled the Wallach...

    By 1541, the entire Balkan peninsula and northern Hungary became Ottoman provinces. Moldavia, Wallachia, and Transylvania came under Ottoman suzerainty but remained fully autonomous and until the 18th century, had some external independence.[citation needed] During this period, the Romanian lands experienced a slow disappearance of the feudalism and the distinguishing of some rulers like Vasile Lupu and Dimitrie Cantemir in Moldavia, Matei Basarab and Constantin Brâncoveanu in Wallachia, and Gabriel Bethlen in Transylvania. At that time, the Russian Empire appeared to become the political and military power the threatened the Romanian principalities.[citation needed] John II, the non-Habsburg King of Hungary, moved his royal court to Alba Iulia in Transylvania and after his abdication from the Hungarian throne, he became the first Prince of Transylvania. His 1568 Edict of Turda was the first decree of religious freedom in the modern European history.[citation needed] In the aftermat...

    In an 1866 coup d'état, Cuza was exiled and replaced with Prince Karl of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen. He was appointed Domnitor, Ruling Prince of the United Principality of Romania, as Prince Carol of Romania. Romania declared its independence from the Ottoman Empire after the 1877-1878 Russo-Turkish War, in which the Ottomans fought against the Russian empire. In the 1878 Treaty of Berlin, Romania was officially recognized as an independent state by the Great Powers. In return, Romania ceded the district Bessarabia to Russia in exchange for access to the Black Sea ports and acquired Dobruja.[citation needed] In 1881, the Romania's principality status was raised to that of a kingdom and on 26 March that year, Prince Carol became King Carol I of Romania.[citation needed] The period between 1878 and 1914 was one of stability and progress for Romania. During the Second Balkan War, Romania joined Greece, Serbia and Montenegro against Bulgaria.[citation needed] In the Treaty of Bucharest of...

    The new state, which was located between the Ottoman, Austro-Hungarian, and Russian empires, looked to the West—particularly to France—for its cultural, educational, military and administrative models.[citation needed] In August 1914, when World War I broke out, Romania declared its neutrality. Two years later, under the pressure of the Allies—especially France, which was desperate to open a new front. Between 14 and 27 August 1916, Romania joined the Allies, for which it was promised support for the accomplishment of national unity, including recognition of Romanian rights over Transylvania, which was part of Austria-Hungary. Romania declared war on Austria-Hungary. The Romanian military campaign ended in disaster for Romania as the Central Powers conquered two-thirds of the country and captured or killed the majority of its army within four months.[citation needed] Moldavia remained in Romanian hands after the invading forces were stopped in 1917.[citation needed] In May 1918, Rom...

    In 1918, at the end of World War I, the union of Romania with Bukovina was ratified in 1919 in the Treaty of Saint Germain, and some of the Allies recognized the union with Bessarabia in 1920 through the never ratified Treaty of Paris. On 1 December, the Deputies of the Romanians from Transylvania voted to unite Transylvania, Banat, Crișana and Maramureș with Romania by the Proclamation of Union of Alba Iulia. Romanians today celebrate this as the Great Union Day, that is a national holiday. The Romanian expression România Mare (Great or Greater Romania) refers to the Romanian state in the interwar period and to the territory Romania covered at the time. At that time, Romania achieved its greatest territorial extent, almost 300,000 km2 or 120,000 sq mi), including all of the historic Romanian lands. Most of the claimed territories were granted to the Old Kingdom of Romania, which was ratified in 1920 by the Treaty of Trianon that defined the new border between Hungary and Romania. T...

    During the Second World War, Romania tried to remain neutral but on 28 June 1940, it received a Soviet ultimatum with an implied threat of invasion in the event of non-compliance. Under pressure from Moscow and Berlin, the Romanian administration and the army were forced to retreat from Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina to avoid war. This and other factors prompted the Romanian government to join the Axis powers. Southern Dobruja was awarded to Bulgaria while Hungary received Northern Transylvaniaas result of an Axis arbitration. In 1940, Romania lost territory in both its east and west: In June 1940, after receiving an ultimatum from the Soviet Union, Romania ceded Bessarabia and northern Bukovina Two-thirds of Bessarabia was combined with a small part of the USSR to form the Moldavian SSR. Northern Bukovina and Budjak were apportioned to the Ukrainian SSR.[citation needed] In August 1940, Northern Transylvania was awarded to Hungary by Germany and Italy through the Second Vienna Aw...

    Soviet occupation following World War II strengthened the position of Communists, who became dominant in the left-wing coalition government that was appointed in March 1945. King Michael I was forced to abdicate and went into exile. Romania was proclaimed a people's republic and remained under military and economic control of the Soviet Union until the late 1950s. During this period, Romania's resources were drained by the "SovRom" agreements; mixed Soviet-Romanian companies were established to mask the Soviet Union's looting of Romania. Romania's leader from 1948 to his death in 1965 was Gheorghe Gheorghiu-Dej, the First Secretary of the Romanian Workers' Party. Between 1947 and 1962, people were detained in prisons and camps, deported and put under house arrest and administrative detention. According to writer Cicerone Ioniţoiu, there were hundreds of thousands of cases of abuse, death and torture against a large range of people from political opponents to ordinary citizens. Betwe...

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  6. Romanian language - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Romanian_language

    Romanian (dated spellings: Rumanian or Roumanian; autonym: limba română [ˈlimba roˈmɨnə] (), "the Romanian language", or românește, lit. "in Romanian") is a Balkan Romance language spoken by approximately 24–26 million people as a native language, primarily in Romania and Moldova, and by another 4 million people as a second language.

  7. Kingdom of Romania - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Kings_of_Romania
    • Unification and Monarchy
    • Romanian Old Kingdom
    • World War I
    • Union with Transylvania, Bessarabia and Bukovina
    • Industrial Development
    • The Interbellum (Inter-War) Years
    • Monarchs
    • Demographics
    • Administrative Division
    • Timeline

    The 1859 ascendancy of Alexandru Ioan Cuza as prince of both Moldavia and Wallachia under the nominal suzerainty of the Ottoman Empire united an identifiably Romanian nation under a single ruler. On 24 January (O.S.) / 5 February 1862, the two principalities were formally united to form the Principality of Romania, with Bucharestas its capital. On 11 (O.S.) / 23 February 1866 a so-called Monstrous coalition, composed of Conservatives and radical Liberals, forced Cuza to abdicate. The German prince Charles of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen was appointed as Prince of Romania, in a move to assure German backing to unity and future independence. He immediately adopted the Romanian spelling of his name, Carol, and his cognatic descendants would rule Romania until the overthrow of the monarchy in 1947. Following the Russo-Turkish War of 1877–1878, Romania was recognized as an independent state by the Treaty of Berlin, 1878 and acquired Dobruja, although it was forced to surrender southern Bessa...

    The Romanian Old Kingdom (Romanian: Vechiul Regat or just Regat; German: Regat or Altreich) is a colloquial term referring to the territory covered by the first independent Romanian nation state, which was composed of the Danubian Principalities – Wallachia and Moldavia. It was achieved when, under the auspices of the Treaty of Paris (1856), the ad hoc Divans of both countries – which were under Imperial Ottoman suzerainty at the time – voted for Alexander Ioan Cuza as their prince, thus achieving a de facto unification. The region itself is defined by the result of that political act, followed by the inclusion of Northern Dobruja in 1878, the proclamation of the Kingdom of Romania in 1881, and the annexation of Southern Dobrujain 1913. The term came into use after World War I, when the Old Kingdom was opposed to Greater Romania, which included Transylvania, Banat, Bessarabia, and Bukovina. Nowadays, the term is mainly of historical relevance, and is otherwise used as a common term...

    Romania delayed in entering World War I, but ultimately declared war on the Central Powers in 1916. The Romanian military campaign ended in stalemate when the Central Powers quickly crushed the country's offensive into Transylvania and occupied Wallachia and Dobruja, including Bucharest and the strategically important oil fields, by the end of 1916. In 1917, despite fierce Romanian resistance, especially at Mărăşeşti, due to Russia's withdrawal from the war following the October Revolution, Romania, being almost completely surrounded by the Central Powers, was forced to also drop from the war, signing the Armistice of Focșani and next year, in May 1918, the Treaty of Bucharest. But after the successful offensive on the Thessaloniki front which put Bulgaria out of the war, Romania's government quickly reasserted control and put an army back into the field on 10 November 1918, a day before the war ended in Western Europe. Following the proclamation of the union of Transylvania with th...

    At the Paris Peace Conference, Romania received territories of Transylvania, part of Banat and other territories from Hungary, while as well Bessarabia (Eastern Moldavia between Prut and Dniester rivers) and Bukovina. In the Treaty of Trianon, Hungary renounced in favor of Romania all the claims of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy over Transylvania. The union of Romania with Bukovina was ratified in 1919 in the Treaty of Saint Germain, and in 1920 some of the Western powers recognized Romanian rule over Bessarabia by the Treaty of Paris. Thus, Romania in 1920 was more than twice the size it had been in 1914. The last territorial change during this period came in 1923, when a few border settlements were exchanged between Romania and Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes. The most notable Romanian acquisition was the town of Jimbolia, while the most notable Yugoslav acquisition was the town of Jaša Tomić. Although the country had no further territorial claims, it aroused the enmity of Bu...

    Pre-Kingdom Era to World War I

    At the time of the proclamation of the Kingdom, there were already several industrial facilities in the country: The Assan and Olamazu steam mills, built in 1853 and 1862 respectively, a brick factory built in 1865, and two sugar factories built in 1873, among others. In 1857, the first oil refinery in the world was built at Ploiești. In 1880, after several railways were built, the CFRwas founded. After proclamation of the Kingdom, the pre-established industrial facilities began to be highly...

    Interwar years

    Despite the destruction provoked by the First World War, Romanian industry managed significant growth, as a result of new establishments and development of the older ones. The MALAXA industrial engineering and manufacturing company was established in 1921 by Romanian industrialist Nicolae Malaxa and dealt especially with rolling stock maintenance and manufacturing. It developed rapidly, and by 1930 Romania had managed to cease importing locomotives altogether, all required rolling stock being...

    Armament industry

    Romanian military industry during World War I was mainly focused on converting various fortification guns into field and anti-aircraft artillery. Up to 334 German 53 mm Fahrpanzer guns, 93 French 57 mm Hotchkiss guns, 66 Krupp 150 mm guns and dozens more 210 mm guns were mounted on Romanian-built carriages and transformed into mobile field artillery, with 45 Krupp 75 mm guns and 132 Hotchkiss 57 mm guns being transformed into anti-aircraft artillery. The Romanians also upgraded 120 German Kru...

    The Romanian expression România Mare (literal translation "Great Romania", but more commonly rendered in English: "Greater Romania") generally refers to the Romanian state in the interwar period, and by extension, to the territory Romania covered at the time. Romania achieved at that time its greatest territorial extent (almost 300,000 km2 (120,000 sq mi)). At the 1930 census, there were over 18 million inhabitants in Romania. The resulting "Greater Romania" did not survive World War II. Until 1938, Romania's governments maintained the form, if not always the substance, of a liberal constitutional monarchy. The National Liberal Party, dominant in the years immediately after World War I, became increasingly clientelist and nationalist, and in 1927 was supplanted in power by the National Peasants' Party. Between 1930 and 1940 there were over 25 separate governments; on several occasions in the last few years before World War II, the rivalry between the fascist Iron Guard and other pol...

    According to the 1930 Romanian Census, Romania had a population of 18,057,028. Romanians made up 71.9% of the population and 28.1% of the population were ethnic minorities.

    After Independence, the Romanian Old Kingdom was divided into 33 counties. After World War I, as a result of the 1925 administrative unification law, the territory was divided into 71 counties, 489 districts (plăși) and 8,879 communes. In 1938, King Carol II promulgated a new Constitution, and subsequently he had the administrative division of the Romanian territory changed. Ten ținuturi (approximate translation: "lands") were created (by merging the counties) to be ruled by rezidenți regali(approximate translation: "Royal Residents") - appointed directly by the King. This administrative reform did not last and the counties were re-established after the fall of Carol's regime.

    Selection of newspapers of the Kingdom of Romania
    Alegătorul liber, January 23, 1875
    Bukarester Tagblatt, August 10, 1880 (in German)
    Voința naționala, November 1, 1884
  8. Poliția Română - Wikipedia

    ro.wikipedia.org › wiki › Poliția_Română
    • Istoric
    • Poliția Română Astăzi
    • Structură
    • Departamente
    • Critici
    • Conducerea
    • Echipament
    • Lectură Suplimentară
    • Vezi și
    • Legături Externe

    Primele atestări privind Poliția Română datează din vremea lui Neagoe Basarab sau a lui Mihai Viteazul (crearea instituției agiei), continuă cu domnia lui Mihai Suțu (organizarea pazei Capitalei, emiterea primelor acte de identitate și reglementarea portului armelor) iar din 1806, organele de pază și ordine din Capitală primesc denumirea generică de POLIȚIE. In 1821, Tudor Vladimirescu acorda scutiri de taxe și impozite celor însărcinați să mențină ordinea publică și să apere proprietatea cetățenilor, iar în 1831, prin Regulamentele organice, atribuțiile poliției sunt extinse. În timpul Revoluției de la 1848are loc reorganizarea poliției, prin apariția instituției șefului poliției Capitalei căruia i se subordonează Guardia municipală. La 9 iunie 1850, domnitorul Ghica Vodăemite “Cronica polițienească” prin care, în cele 158 de articole, erau reglementate sarcinile “înaltei poliții” și "obișnuitei poliții”, ceea ce a constituit momentul creării primei structuri centrale cu atribuții...

    Programul și politicile de reformă ale Ministerului Afacerilor Interne au în vedere alinierea Poliției Române la standardele Uniunii Europene, consolidarea ca instituție civilă în folosul persoanei și comunității locale.

    În conformitate cu Legea nr.360 din 6 iunie 2002 privind Statutul polițistuluiPoliția Română a fost structurată în două corpuri, a fost demilitarizată, iar gradele militare ale polițiștilor au fost echivalate cu grade profesionale. 1. Corpul ofițerilor de poliție(cuprinde ofițeri de poliție cu studii superioare): 1. Corpul agenților de poliție(cuprinde agenți de poliție cu studii liceale sau postliceale cu diplomă): În Art. 73 al acestei legi se specifică faptul că: La data intrării în vigoare a prezentei legi gradele militare ale polițiștilor vor fi echivalate cu gradele profesionale, conform pregătirii și studiilor fiecăruia, cu menținerea drepturilor câștigate anterior, după cum urmează: A. Ofițerii de poliție: 1. a) sublocotenent devinesubinspector de poliție; 2. b) locotenent devineinspector de poliție; 3. c) căpitan devineinspector principal de poliție; 4. d) maior devinesubcomisar de poliție; 5. e) locotenent-colonel devinecomisar de poliție; 6. f) colonel devinecomisar-șef d...

    Direcția de Combatere a Criminalității Organizate (D.C.C.O.) este o unitate specializată din structura Inspectoratului General al Poliției Române.Direcția are în subordine 15 brigăzi (Brigada de Combatere a Criminalității Organizate — B.C.C.O.) și 27 servicii județene (Serviciul de Combatere a Criminalității Organizate — S.C.C.O.) cu linii de muncă corespondente structurii centrale, corespunzătoare structurilor teritoriale ale DIICOT, DNA și DGA și investighează infracțiunile din competența acestor instituții.În unele județe (cele în care există Curți de Apel) găsim brigăzi, în altele doar servicii.Ambele sunt în subordinea IGPR, însă colaborează cu DIICOT, DNA și DGA. Direcția Operațiuni Speciale (D.O.S.) este o unitate de suport informativ, tactic-operational și tehnico-operativ specializat ce deservește structurile din componența Ministerului Afacerilor Interne - Inspectoratul General al Poliției Române și a Ministerului Public care solicită sprijinul de specialitate în instrumen...

    În octombrie 2015, APADOR-CHa dat în judecată IGPR și MAI pe motiv că nu vor să facă publice informațiile privind procedurile de legitimare, amprentare, fotografiere, percheziție corporală și de bagaje și conducere administrativă la secție.

    Vehicule

    Mașina de poliție oficială și cel mai des întâlnită este Dacia Logan. Poliția Română a primit în folosință pe bază de comodat, un Seat Leon Cupra de 240 CP pentru patrularea pe Autostrada Soarelui, cel mai puternic model de la Rutieră. Modelul oferit de Porsche România a fost dotat cu toate sistemele specifice mașinilor care patrulează pe drumurile publice, accelerează de la 0 la 100 km/h în doar 6,4 secunde și atinge o viteză maximă de 247 km/h.Modelul are sistem de avertizare optică acustic...

    Armament

    1. România: Carpați Md. 1974 1. Italia: Beretta Px4 Storm 2. Austria: Glock

    Istoria Poliției Române de la origini până în 1949, Lazăr Cârjan, Editura Vestala, 2000
    Din istoria Poliției Române, Florin Șinca, Tipografia RCR Print, București, 2006
  9. Romanian alphabet - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Romanian_alphabet

    The Romanian alphabet is a variant of the Latin alphabet used for writing the Romanian language.It is a modification of the classical Latin alphabet and consists of 31 letters, five of which (Ă, Â, Î, Ș, and Ț) have been modified from their Latin originals for the phonetic requirements of the language:

  10. Steaua Română - Wikipedia

    ro.wikipedia.org › wiki › Steaua_Română

    Steaua Română Câmpina este o rafinărie de petrol din România.A fost înființată în anul 1895 și are un capital integral privat românesc.Este situată în orașul Câmpina, la circa 100 kilometri nord de București și ocupă o suprafață de 49,6 ha.

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