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  1. The International Phonetic Alphabet ( IPA) is an alphabetic system of phonetic notation based primarily on the Latin script. It was devised by the International Phonetic Association in the late 19th century as a standardized representation of speech sounds in written form. The IPA is used by lexicographers, foreign language students and ...

  2. The prototype of the alphabet appeared in Phonetic Teachers' Association (1888b). The Association based their alphabet upon the Romic alphabet of Henry Sweet, which in turn was based on the Phonotypic Alphabet of Isaac Pitman and the Palæotype of Alexander John Ellis.

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  4. 最早出版的字母出現在Passy(1888年)。該協會以Henry Sweet的Romic alphabet(1880年或1881–1971年)為基礎,而這套字母建立於Isaac Pitman的 英語標音字母 ( 英語 : English Phonotypic Alphabet ) 和Alexander John Ellis的《Palæotype》。

    • History
    • Use of The Alphabet
    • Letters
    • Other Websites

    In 1886, a group of French and British language teachers formed the International Phonetic Association. These teachers used the Romic alphabetat first. They later changed the alphabet so that different languages would all write the same sounds with the same letters.

    The IPA is made to have one symbol for every sound. This means that every letter always makes the same one sound. This is different from English. In English, some letters make multiple sounds. For example, the letter in English normally is spoken as two sounds ([ks]), but could also mean [gz] or [z].

    The International Phonetic Alphabet has letters for three types of sounds: pulmonic consonants, non-pulmonic consonants, and vowels.

    Homepage of the International Phonetic Association Archived 2010-05-02 at the Wayback Machine
    • since 1888
    • Used for phonetic and phonemic transcription of any language
    • Vowels
    • Consonants
    • Stress, Tone and Prosody

    ⟨i y e œ æ ə a 𝑎 ɔ o u⟩ had basically the same values as in the IPA. Not all of the vowels seem to make sense when plotted on a modern chart, as below, either through jumbled graphic correspondence or according to the languages they were identified with, suggesting that the phonetic analysis was not sophisticated. For example, (a) is defined as unrounded (o), but (a) is identified as the 'a' of Italian matto and French chatte (that is, IPA [a]), whereas (o) is identified as the Italian 'open o' ("o aperto") and the 'o' of French homme (that is, IPA [ɔ]), and [a] is not unrounded [ɔ]. Nevertheless, all vowels are identified in their placement in the table through sets of definitions that lock in place each of nine tetrads (such as the four close front vowels i · ɪ · 𝑖 · y). ⟨ɐ⟩ was used for the English reducedschwa, as the 'a' in 'real' or the 'o' in 'mention', ⟨ə⟩ for the vowel of 'but'. Long vowels were doubled, as ⟨aa⟩ for long (a). A comma was used for hiatus (diaeresis), as ⟨a...

    The letters ⟨h, j⟩ and italic ⟨𝑤⟩ were only used for digraphs, and had no sound value of their own. ⟨j⟩ and ⟨𝑤⟩ were equivalent to IPA ⟨ʲ, ʷ⟩, whereas the effect of ⟨h⟩ was unpredictable. The h could come after a j or 𝑤, as in s𝑤h (defined as sh*wh). ⟨ʜ, ᴊ, q⟩ were used for IPA [h, j, ŋ]. English ch and j sounds were written ⟨tsh⟩ and ⟨dzh⟩. Czech řis ⟨rzh, rsh⟩. (lh) is a voiceless (l), but apparently not a lateral fricative, as Ellis renders Welsh 'll' as (lhh). ⟨r⟩ was used for both the Spanish flap and English initial 'r'. ⟨ɹ⟩ and 'palatal' ⟨ɹ⟩ were used for English rhotic vowels, either as a coda if a distinct vowel could be heard, or alone for e.g. (sɹf) or (səɹf) 'surf' and (sɹf) or (səɹf) 'serf'. A combining ⟨ʜ⟩ made the aspirates ⟨pʜ, tʜ, kʜ⟩ etc. (‘b, ‘d, ‘g), defined as (b*p) etc., are unvoiced unaspirated (p, t, k) -- specifically the Germanic consonants frequently written [b̥, d̥, ɡ̊]in IPA. After a consonant, ⟨‘⟩ seemed to have meant an aspirated release, e.g. Engl...

    ⟨·⟩before a word indicated prosodic or contrastive stress. After a syllable it indicated lexical stress. ⟨:⟩ after a syllable indicated secondary stress. Tones were schematicized with periods and turned periods: (..) low tone, (··) high tone, (·.) falling tone, (.·) rising tone, (..·, ·..) -- the same, with longer time at low tone, (·.·) dipping tone, (.·.) peaking tone. (؛ ,·؛.) were high and low checked tones. Preceding a word, (·:·) and (.:.) meant to speak in high or low key. (‘’) meant to speak the following in a "subdued" tone. ⟨**⟩ modified an utterance. If the asterisks came between two symbols, they meant to replace the first with the second. For example, ⟨l**lj⟩ before a phrase meant that all (l)s in that phrase were palatalized. Otherwise, the phonetic detail was to be applied to the entirety of the utterance. For example, ⟨**.’⟩ indicated that all the following was pronounced with a strained voice. A hyphen indicated liaison, as in French (nuz- avoʌ) nous avons.

    • ph · bh
    • mh · m
    • .lh · .l
    • p · b
  5. The Association based their alphabet upon the Romic alphabet of Henry Sweet, which in turn was based on the Phonotypic Alphabet of Isaac Pitman and the Palæotype of Alexander John Ellis. [1] The alphabet has undergone a number of revisions during its history, the most significant being the one put forth at the Kiel Convention in 1989.

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