The Romic Alphabet, sometimes known as the Romic Reform, is a phonetic alphabet proposed by Henry Sweet. It descends from Ellis's Palaeotype alphabet and English Phonotypic Alphabet, and is the direct ancestor of the International Phonetic Alphabet. In Romic every sound had a dedicated symbol, and every symbol represented a single sound.
Apr 28, 2021 · The Romic Alphabet, sometimes known as the Romic Reform, is a phonetic alphabet proposed by Henry Sweet. It descends from Ellis's Palaeotype alphabet and English Phonotypic Alphabet, and is the direct ancestor of the International Phonetic Alphabet. In Romic every sound had a dedicated symbol, and every symbol represented a single sound. There were no capital letters; there were letters ...
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The International Phonetic Alphabet ( IPA) is an alphabetic system of phonetic notation based primarily on the Latin script. It was devised by the International Phonetic Association in the late 19th century as a standardized representation of speech sounds in written form. The IPA is used by lexicographers, foreign language students and ...
English Wikipedia has an article on: Romic alphabet. Wikipedia . A phonetic alphabet based on the Roman alphabet; a precursor of the International Phonetic Alphabet.
- Stress, Tone and Prosody
⟨i y e œ æ ə a 𝑎 ɔ o u⟩ had basically the same values as in the IPA. Not all of the vowels seem to make sense when plotted on a modern chart, as below, either through jumbled graphic correspondence or according to the languages they were identified with, suggesting that the phonetic analysis was not sophisticated. For example, (a) is defined as unrounded (o), but (a) is identified as the 'a' of Italian matto and French chatte (that is, IPA [a]), whereas (o) is identified as the Italian 'open o' ("o aperto") and the 'o' of French homme (that is, IPA [ɔ]), and [a] is not unrounded [ɔ]. Nevertheless, all vowels are identified in their placement in the table through sets of definitions that lock in place each of nine tetrads (such as the four close front vowels i · ɪ · 𝑖 · y). ⟨ɐ⟩ was used for the English reducedschwa, as the 'a' in 'real' or the 'o' in 'mention', ⟨ə⟩ for the vowel of 'but'. Long vowels were doubled, as ⟨aa⟩ for long (a). A comma was used for hiatus (diaeresis), as ⟨a...
The letters ⟨h, j⟩ and italic ⟨𝑤⟩ were only used for digraphs, and had no sound value of their own. ⟨j⟩ and ⟨𝑤⟩ were equivalent to IPA ⟨ʲ, ʷ⟩, whereas the effect of ⟨h⟩ was unpredictable. The h could come after a j or 𝑤, as in s𝑤h (defined as sh*wh). ⟨ʜ, ᴊ, q⟩ were used for IPA [h, j, ŋ]. English ch and j sounds were written ⟨tsh⟩ and ⟨dzh⟩. Czech řis ⟨rzh, rsh⟩. (lh) is a voiceless (l), but apparently not a lateral fricative, as Ellis renders Welsh 'll' as (lhh). ⟨r⟩ was used for both the Spanish flap and English initial 'r'. ⟨ɹ⟩ and 'palatal' ⟨ɹ⟩ were used for English rhotic vowels, either as a coda if a distinct vowel could be heard, or alone for e.g. (sɹf) or (səɹf) 'surf' and (sɹf) or (səɹf) 'serf'. A combining ⟨ʜ⟩ made the aspirates ⟨pʜ, tʜ, kʜ⟩ etc. (‘b, ‘d, ‘g), defined as (b*p) etc., are unvoiced unaspirated (p, t, k) -- specifically the Germanic consonants frequently written [b̥, d̥, ɡ̊]in IPA. After a consonant, ⟨‘⟩ seemed to have meant an aspirated release, e.g. Engl...
⟨·⟩before a word indicated prosodic or contrastive stress. After a syllable it indicated lexical stress. ⟨:⟩ after a syllable indicated secondary stress. Tones were schematicized with periods and turned periods: (..) low tone, (··) high tone, (·.) falling tone, (.·) rising tone, (..·, ·..) -- the same, with longer time at low tone, (·.·) dipping tone, (.·.) peaking tone. (؛ ,·؛.) were high and low checked tones. Preceding a word, (·:·) and (.:.) meant to speak in high or low key. (‘’) meant to speak the following in a "subdued" tone. ⟨**⟩ modified an utterance. If the asterisks came between two symbols, they meant to replace the first with the second. For example, ⟨l**lj⟩ before a phrase meant that all (l)s in that phrase were palatalized. Otherwise, the phonetic detail was to be applied to the entirety of the utterance. For example, ⟨**.’⟩ indicated that all the following was pronounced with a strained voice. A hyphen indicated liaison, as in French (nuz- avoʌ) nous avons.
For the usage of the IPA on Wikipedia, see Help:IPA/Introduction, Help:IPA/English and Wikipedia:Manual of Style/Pronunciation. The International Phonetic Alphabet ( IPA) is a system for writing down sounds. It was created by the International Phonetic Association in 1886, so that people could write down sounds of languages in a standard way.