Rudolf I was the first king of Germany from the House of Habsburg. The first of the count-kings of Germany, he reigned from 1273 until his death. Rudolf's election marked the end of the Great Interregnum which had begun after the death of the Hohenstaufen Emperor Frederick II in 1250. Originally a Swabian count, he was the first Habsburg to acquire the duchies of Austria and Styria in opposition to his mighty rival, the Přemyslid king Ottokar II of Bohemia, whom he defeated in the 1278 ...
Aug 22, 2020 · Rudolph I, also known as Rudolph of Habsburg (German: Rudolf von Habsburg, Latin Rudolfus) May 1, 1218 – July 15, 1291) was King of the Romans from 1273 until his death. He played a vital role in raising the Habsburg family to a leading position among the German feudal dynasties.
- Judith of Habsburg, Rudolf II, Duke of Austria, Albert I of Germany
- Albert IV, Count of Habsburg
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- Early Years
- Military Service and Crusader
- Government, Law and War
- Later Reign
Rudolf I was born on 1 May 1226 at Limburgh Castle near Sasbach am Kaiserstuhl in the Breisgau region of present-day southwestern Germany. He was the eldest son of Emperor Frederick II and Matilda of Swabia. By his father, Rudolf was the grandson of the Hohenstaufen emperor Henry VI and great-grandson of Emperor Frederick Barbarossa. He lived in Southern Italy until 1235, when he first visited the Kingdom of Germany. During this period his kingdom of Jerusalem, ruled by his father as regent through proxies, was racked by the civil War of the Lombardsuntil Rudolf declared his majority and his father's regency lost its validity.
Peace and Second Barons' War
1. Main article: Second Barons' War After Frederick II made peace with King Christopher I of Denmark in city of Luberk on 1258. Peace was restored and city of Lübeck was still part of the Empire, in fact that it was almost taken by Danish in the 1256 siege and were defeated. By the following year on 29 May 1259,King Christopher died after drinking poisoned communion wine from the hands of abbot Arnfast of Ryd Abbey in revenge for his mistreatment of Archbishop Erlendsen and the king's oppress...
Rudolf I was crowned on 1 October 1260 in Rome.
Becoming the King of Italy
1. Main article: Wars of the Lombardy Crown
War with Ottokar II of Bohemia
In November 1274, the Imperial Diet at Nuremberg decided that all Crown estates seized since the death of the Emperor Frederick II must be restored, and that King Ottokar II must answer to the Diet for not recognising the new king. Ottokar refused to appear or to restore the duchies of Austria, Styria and Carinthia together with the March of Carniola, which he had claimed through his first wife, a Babenberg heiress, and which he had seized while disputing them with another Babenberg heir, Mar...
Bolesław V's death and Henryk IV Cooperation
Upon Bolesław V the Chaste's death on 7 December 1279, without any issue. Bolesław V's successor was Henryk IV Probus, which both Conrad III and Henryk IV were personal relationships and alliance with each other on 3 January 1280. Upon Henry IV's succession was marked as the first King in Poland. Both the Holy Roman Empire and the Kingdom of Poland becomes alliance once again and resigned the an alliance treaty and remarked the 350-years. Conrad III, Henryk IV and Ladislaus IV of Hungary sign...
Imperial Civil War
1. Main article: War of the Imperial Crown After Conrad and his father Charles IV defeated Frederick in 1264 Civil war, which forced Frederick into exile. Frederick made a comeback in the Holy Roman Empire in 1279, five years after Conrad's father death in 1274. Frederick's legitimate claim to the Imperial throne since 1264. Both Conrad and his father are pro-peace monarchs, while Frederick was pro-war and wants to conqueror. Frederick was also made allies with Conrad's rival the Kingdom of P...
But Michael had not been working upon the military front alone. Many Ghibelline officials had fled the Kingdom of Sicily to the court of Peter III of Aragon, who had married Constance, the daughter and heir of Manfred. Manfred's former chancellor, John of Procida, had arranged contact between Michael, Peter and the refugees at his court, and conspirators on the island of Sicily itself. Peter began to assemble a fleet at Barcelona, ostensibly for another Crusade to Tunis. In fact, the master-p...
Sicilian Vespers and aftermath
1. Main articles: Sicilian Vespers and War of the Sicilian Vespers The rising had its origin in the struggle of investiture between the Pope and the Hohenstaufen Holy Roman Emperors for control over Italy, especially the Church's private demesne known as the Papal States. These lay between Hohenstaufen lands in northern Italy and the Hohenstaufen Kingdom of Sicilyin the south; the Hohenstaufen also at the time ruled Germany. In 1240 Pope Innocent IV excommunicated Frederick II and declared hi...
A generally acknowledged king had to remedy the lack of peace and justice perceived by contemporaries. The Reich administration was reorganized in Franconia. At the district Court Rothenburg, the records were recorded in the court books in 1274. They are among the oldest of their kind. Conrad began a royal Land Peace implementation, which was initially limited to regional and temporary agreements. In 1276, a country confined to Austria was issued peace. There followed in 1281 land peace for t...
Returned to Nuremberg and War with Aragon
Despite his retreat into Calabria, Charles remained in a strong position. His nephew, Philip III of France, was devoted to him and Pope Martin regarded the rebellion as an affront both to French interests and his own rights as suzerain of the kingdom. Both sides temporized; the expense of a long war might be disastrous for both, and Peter and Charles arranged for a judicial duel, with a hundred knights apiece, on 1 June 1283 at Bordeaux. Skirmishes and raids continued to occur: in January 128...
Rudolf I (1 May 1218 – 15 July 1291) was the first king of Germany from the House of Habsburg. The first of the count-kings of Germany, he reigned from 1273 until his death.
Rudolf I, also known as Rudolf of Habsburg (German: Rudolf von Habsburg, Czech: Rudolf Habsburský; 1 May 1218 – 15 July 1291), was Count of Habsburg from about 1240 and King of Germany from 1273 until his death. Rudolf's election marked the end of the Great Interregnum in the Holy Roman Empire after the death of the Hohenstaufen emperor Frederick II in 1250.
Rudolf I. Count Rudolf of Habsburg was the first Habsburg on the throne of the Holy Roman Empire. With him, the Habsburgs moved from their ancestral domains in Switzerland to the Danube regions which were to form the centre of their dominion for so many centuries. After Rudolf had defeated his greatest adversary, the Bohemian king Ottokar II Přemysl, he enfeoffed his sons with the duchies of Austria, Styria and Carniola together with the Wendish March in 1282.
The journey of Rudolf I of Germany to Speyer, Germany where he died on 15 July 1291. Rudolf I, aka Rudolf of Habsburg, 1218 – 1291. Count of Habsburg from about 1240 and the elected King of the Romans from 1273 - 1291. From Hutchinson's History of the Nations, published 1915.
Oct 20, 2020 · The same could be said of Rudolf Hess, the Nazi leader and Nuremberg war criminal who spent the last four decades of his life in Spandau Prison in Berlin. In the 15 years following World War I, he rose from being a shy and introverted but brilliant university student to the height of power in Nazi Germany as deputy Führer, second only to Adolf Hitler himself.
Rudolf Frank, German Luftwaffe military aviator and night fighter ace during World War II; Rudolf von Eschwege, German World War I flying ace who was the German Empire's only fighter pilot operating on the Macedonian Front; Rudolf Veiel, German Panzer general during World War II, one of the principal commanders of Battle of Greece
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