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Sardinia was subsequently included in the Exarchate of Africa until its end by the Arabs in 698 AD, when the island was likely aggregated to the Exarchate of Ravenna. In 599 and during the 7th century, the Longobard fleet tried to attack Caralis and Turris Libissonis ( Porto Torres ), but in vain.
- Early history
- Foundation of the Kingdom of Sardinia
- Early history of Savoy
- Exchange of Sardinia for Sicily
- Napoleonic Wars and the Congress of Vienna
The Kingdom of Sardinia, also referred to as Kingdom of Savoy-Sardinia, Piedmont-Sardinia, or Savoy-Piedmont-Sardinia during the Savoyard period, was a state in Southern Europe from the early 14th until the mid-19th century. The Kingdom was a member of the Council of Aragon and initially consisted of the islands of Corsica and Sardinia, sovereignty over both of which was claimed by the Papacy, which granted them as a fief, the regnum Sardiniae et Corsicae, to King James II of Aragon in 1297. Beg
In 238 BC Sardinia became, along with Corsica, a province of the Roman Empire. The Romans ruled the island until the middle of the 5th century when it was occupied by the Vandals, who had also settled in north Africa. In 534 AD it was reconquered by the Eastern Roman Empire. It remained a Byzantine province until the Arab conquest of Sicily in the 9th century. After that, communications with Constantinople became very difficult, and powerful families of the island assumed control of the land. Fa
In 1297, Pope Boniface VIII, intervening between the Houses of Anjou and Aragon, established on paper a Regnum Sardiniae et Corsicae that would be a fief of the Papacy. Then, ignoring the indigenous states which already existed, the Pope offered his newly invented fief to James II of Aragon, promising him papal support should he wish to conquer Pisan Sardinia in exchange for Sicily. In 1323 James II formed an alliance with Hugh II of Arborea and, following a military campaign which lasted a year
During the 3rd century BC, the Allobroges settled down in the region between the Rhône and the Alps. This region, named Allobrigia and later "Sapaudia" in Latin, was integrated to the Roman Empire. In the 4th century, the region of Savoy was ceded by the Western Roman Empire to the Burgundians and became part of the Kingdom of Burgundy. Piedmont was inhabited in early historic times by Celto-Ligurian tribes such as the Taurini and the Salassi. They later submitted to the Romans, who ...
The Spanish domination of Sardinia ended at the beginning of the 18th century, as a result of the War of the Spanish succession. By the Treaty of Utrecht of 1713, Spain's European empire was divided: Savoy received Sicily and parts of the Duchy of Milan, while Charles VI, received the Spanish Netherlands, the Kingdom of Naples, Sardinia, and the bulk of the Duchy of Milan. During the War of the Quadruple Alliance, Victor Amadeus II, Duke of Savoy and Prince of Piedmont, had to agree to yield Sic
In 1792, the Kingdom of Sardinia and the other states of the Savoy Crown joined the First Coalition against the French First Republic, but was beaten in 1796 by Napoleon and forced to conclude the disadvantageous Treaty of Paris, giving the French army free passage through Piedmont. On 6 December 1798 Joubert occupied Turin and forced Charles Emmanuel IV to abdicate and leave for the island of Sardinia. The provisionary government voted to unite Piedmont with France. In 1799 the Austro-Russians
The island of Sardinia has an area of 24,090 km 2 (9,300 sq mi) and, after Sicily, is the second largest island in the Mediterranean Sea. It is 270 km (170 mi) long from North to South, and 145 km (90 mi) wide from West to East. It lies between 38° 51' and 41° 15' latitude north and 8° 8' and 9° 50' longitude east.
Sardinia is a town in Erie County, New York, United States. The town lies in the southeast corner of Erie County and is considered one of the county's "Southtowns". The town is southeast of Buffalo. The population was 2,775 at the 2010 census. The town is reportedly named after an old Christian hymn, Sardinia, and the homonymous Mediterranean island.
The area known today as the town of Sardinia was first settled around 1809. George Richmond, from Vermont, and Ezra Nott are considered the first settlers. By 1810, there were about fifteen other families in the area, most of whom lived along Cattaraugus Creek, near Genesee and Savage roads. The town of Sardinia was founded in 1821 from the eastern part of the town of Concord. By 1823, there were farms, churches, a post office, taverns, a carding mill, a woolen factory, a gristmill and a tannery
Most of Sardinia attends the Pioneer Central School District. Those not served by the Pioneer Central School District attend either the Holland School District or the Springville GI district.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 50.4 square miles, of which 50.2 square miles is land and 0.2 square miles, or 0.46%, is water. The south town line is defined by Cattaraugus Creek and is the border of Cattaraugus County. The east town line is the border of Wyoming County. The East Branch of Cazenovia Creek flows northward from Sardinia. New York State Route 39 crosses the town from west to east, and New York State Route 16 passes through from north to s
Sa die de sa Sardigna ("Sardinia's Day" in English) is a holiday celebrated each 28 April to commemorate the revolt occurring from 1794 to 1796 against the feudal privileges, and the execution or expulsion of the Savoyard officials (including the then Piedmontese viceroy, Carlo Balbiano) from Sardinia on 28 April 1794. The revolt was spurred by ...
- Early history
- Early medieval rulers
- Nominal kings of Imperial appointment
- Kings of Sardinia and Corsica
The following is a list of rulers of Sardinia, in particular, of the monarchs of the Kingdom of Sardinia and Corsica from 1323 and then of the Kingdom of Sardinia from 1479 to 1861.
Owing to the absence of written sources, little is known of the history of the Nuraghic civilization which constructed impressive megalithic structures between the 18th and the 12th centuries BCE. The first accounts of Sardinia are from Greek sources, but relate more to myth than to historical reality; an African or Iberian hero, Norax, named the city of Nora; Sardo, a son of Hercules, gave the island its name; one of his nephews, Iolaus, founded the city of Olbia. Greek colonization of the city
According to Procopius, Godas was a Vandal governor of Sardinia who rebelled against his king, Gelimer, who ruled northern Africa and Sardinia. Procopius wrote that Godas behaved like a king, but it was a short-lived kingdom. Godas was defeated and killed after two years by an expedition from Carthage led by King Gelimer's brother, Tzazo. Shortly afterwards, Roman troops sent by Emperor Justinianus and led by General Belisarius, totally annihilated the Vandal kingdom and Sardinia returned to Rom
Before the Kingdom of Sardinia was founded, the rulers of the island were known as archons or judges. The island was organized into one "judicatus" from the 9th century. After the Muslim conquest of Sicily in the 9th century, the Byzantines could no longer defend their isolated far western province. In all likelihood a local noble family came to power, still identifying themselves as vassals of the Byzantines but in reality independent since communication with Constantinople was very difficult.
Some rulers obtained the title King of Sardinia by grant of the Holy Roman Emperor: 1. Barisone II of Arborea, 1164–1165; 2. Enzo of Logudoro Hohenstaufen, 1238–1245, was the illegitimate son of Emperor Frederick II and was appointed by his father. In 1249, he was captured by his enemies and imprisoned in Bologna, where he died 23 years later. None of these rulers had effective authority over the whole island. In 1269, an anti-imperial faction in Logudoro elected Philip of Sicily as ...
James II of Aragon received royal investiture from Pope Boniface VIII in 1297 as Rex Sardiniae et Corsicae. The Aragonese did not take possession of the island until 1323, after a victorious military campaign against the Pisans. However, the Sardinian royal title did not have a specific line of succession and all kings used their own primary title.
- Bays and beaches
Iglesias is a comune and city in the province of South Sardinia in Italy. It was co-capital of the province of Carbonia-Iglesias with Carbonia, and the province's second-largest community. Under Spanish control Iglesias was one of the most important royal cities on Sardinia, and it is the seat of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Iglesias. At an elevation of 190 metres in the hills of southwestern Sardinia, it was the centre of a mining district from which lead, zinc, and silver were extracted. Igle
The area around present-day Iglesias was inhabited in prehistory, with the oldest traces of human settlement dating to the Neolithic. The fourth-millennium-BC domus de Janas, attributed to the Ozieri culture, were discovered in the mountainous region of San Benedetto. Other pre-N
During the ninth century AD, after a period of human absence, a small town arose with a Byzantine church. When the Byzantine influence left Sardinia, the southern part of the island was controlled by the Judicate of Cagliari. After the fall of the Judicate in 1258, south-western
In 1720, after almost 400 years of Aragonese-Spanish rule, the city passed with the rest of Sardinia to the House of Savoy. Since the mid-19th century, thanks to the reopening of nearby mines, Iglesias has experienced a period of economic, social and cultural renewal. Many miners
On 31 December 2015, 418 foreigners lived in Iglesias. The largest immigrant groups came from Romania, Senegal and China. The town's population is overwhelmingly Roman Catholic.
Iglesias' economy has waxed and waned because it has been largely focused on mineral resources. During the 21st century, with little surviving mining activity, the town has tried to emphasise medieval tourism with a medieval parade, a tournament of archers and a living game of chess.
The Castle of Salvaterra was probably built as part of urbanization after 1258 under Ugolino della Gheradesca. It was designed as a bulwark from which to survey the town and its surroundings as far as the silver mines. In 1297 Sardinia and Corsica were made subject to the Crown o
Construction of the Santa Chiara Cathedral was an initiative for demographic and urban development undertaken by the Donoratico della Gherardesca family. The cathedral has a variety of architectural styles. Over the centuries it has been transformed several times by successive ru
The Church of San Francesco has a gabled façade with smooth stonework; the door in its centre is surmounted by a rose window and flanked by two side oculi. Its wood-ceilinged nave is divided into seven bays, flanked by seven side chapels; the chapels and the presbytery were ...
In Iglesias' littoral zone,, are the following bays and beaches: 1. Cala Domestica, with the Spanish tower 2. Su Forru cavern 3. Portu Sciusciau shore, with cliffs up to 100 metres high 4. Seabass Cavern 5. Punta Corr'e Corti shore, with cliffs up to 103 metres high 6. Porto di Canal Grande shore 7. Sardigna Cavern, a small cave in the shape of Sardinia 8. Punta Sedda 'e Luas shore, with cliffs up to 115 metres high 9. Schina 'e Monti Nai shore, with cliffs up to 162 metres high 10. Punta Buccio
- Legendary origin
- Modern use
The flag of Sardinia, called the flag of the Four Moors or simply the Four Moors, represents and symbolizes the island of Sardinia and its people. It was also the historical flag and coat of arms of the Aragonese, then Spanish, and later Savoyard Kingdom of Sardinia. It was first officially adopted by the autonomous region in 1950 with a revision in 1999, describing it as a "white field with a red cross and a bandaged Moor's head facing away from the left in each quarter". Flag of Sardinia The S
The oldest certified emblem of the four Moors dates back to 1281: it was the seal of the Royal Chancellery of Peter of Aragon, but the four heads had no bandages and were bearded; the coat of arms of Sardinia never appeared in such a way.
There are separate Spanish and Sardinian traditions to explain the origin of the flag and there is no consensus among scholars as to which is correct. According to the Spanish tradition, it was a creation of King Peter I of Aragon, celebrating his victory at the Battle of Alcoraz in 1096. It was said that St. George miraculously appeared on the field of battle and that there were four severed heads of Saracen kings at the end; thus the red cross and white background of the St George's Cross and
The Sardinian Action Party was founded in 1921 and adopted the four Moors as its symbol. It is conceivable that it had historically been interpreted as the icon of the four judges, as argued by Antonio Era, professor at the University of Sassari and the Regional Council, on 19 June 1950 in the discussion of the regional council before the vote that would declare the Four Moors to be the official flag of Sardinia. Era criticized the banner, stating
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