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    • Albert Einstein - Quotes, Death & Facts - Biography
      • Albert Einstein was a German mathematician and physicist who developed the special and general theories of relativity. In 1921, he won the Nobel Prize for physics for his explanation of the photoelectric effect. In the following decade, he immigrated to the U.S. after being targeted by the German Nazi Party.
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  2. Albert Einstein - Quotes, Death & Facts - Biography › scientist › albert-einstein
    • Early Life & Family
    • Education
    • Patent Clerk
    • Wife and Children
    • Nobel Prize For Physics
    • Inventions and Discoveries
    • Travel Diaries
    • Becoming A U.S. Citizen
    • Einstein and The Atomic Bomb
    • Member of The NAACP

    Einstein was born on March 14, 1879, in Ulm, Württemberg, Germany. Einstein grew up in a secular Jewish family. His father, Hermann Einstein, was a salesman and engineer who, with his brother, founded Elektrotechnische Fabrik J. Einstein & Cie, a Munich-based company that mass-produced electrical equipment. Einstein’s mother, the former Pauline Koch, ran the family household. Einstein had one sister, Maja, born two years after him. Einstein attended elementary school at the Luitpold Gymnasium in Munich. However, he felt alienated there and struggled with the institution's rigid pedagogical style. He also had what were considered speech challenges, though he developed a passion for classical music and playing the violin, which would stay with him into his later years. Most significantly, Einstein's youth was marked by deep inquisitiveness and inquiry. Towards the end of the 1880s, Max Talmud, a Polish medical student who sometimes dined with the Einstein family, became an informal tu...

    Einstein was eventually able to gain admission into the Swiss Federal Institute of Technologyin Zurich, specifically due to his superb mathematics and physics scores on the entrance exam. He was still required to complete his pre-university education first, and thus attended a high school in Aarau, Switzerland helmed by Jost Winteler. Einstein lived with the schoolmaster's family and fell in love with Winteler's daughter, Marie. Einstein later renounced his German citizenship and became a Swiss citizen at the dawn of the new century. READ MORE: What Was Albert Einstein's IQ?

    After graduating, Einstein faced major challenges in terms of finding academic positions, having alienated some professors over not attending class more regularly in lieu of studying independently. Einstein eventually found steady work in 1902 after receiving a referral for a clerk position in a Swiss patent office. While working at the patent office, Einstein had the time to further explore ideas that had taken hold during his studies at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology and thus cemented his theorems on what would be known as the principle of relativity. In 1905—seen by many as a "miracle year" for the theorist—Einstein had four papers published in the Annalen der Physik, one of the best-known physics journals of the era. Two focused on the photoelectric effect and Brownian motion. The two others, which outlined E=MC2 and the special theory of relativity, were defining for Einstein’s career and the course of the study of physics.

    Einstein married Mileva Maricon Jan. 6, 1903. While attending school in Zurich, Einstein met Maric, a Serbian physics student. Einstein continued to grow closer to Maric, but his parents were strongly against the relationship due to her ethnic background. Nonetheless, Einstein continued to see her, with the two developing a correspondence via letters in which he expressed many of his scientific ideas. Einstein’s father passed away in 1902, and the couple married shortly thereafter. That same year the couple had a daughter, Lieserl, who might have been later raised by Maric's relatives or given up for adoption. Her ultimate fate and whereabouts remain a mystery. The couple had two sons, Hans Albert Einstein (who became a well-known hydraulic engineer) and Eduard "Tete" Einstein (who was diagnosed with schizophrenia as a young man). The Einsteins' marriage would not be a happy one, with the two divorcing in 1919 and Maric having an emotional breakdown in connection to the split. Einst...

    In 1921, Einstein won the Nobel Prize for Physics for his explanation of the photoelectric effect, since his ideas on relativity were still considered questionable. He wasn't actually given the award until the following year due to a bureaucratic ruling, and during his acceptance speech, he still opted to speak about relativity. In the development of his general theory, Einstein had held onto the belief that the universe was a fixed, static entity, aka a "cosmological constant," though his later theories directly contradicted this idea and asserted that the universe could be in a state of flux. Astronomer Edwin Hubble deduced that we indeed inhabit an expanding universe, with the two scientists meeting at the Mount Wilson Observatorynear Los Angeles in 1931.

    As a physicist, Einstein had many discoveries, but he is perhaps best known for his theory of relativity and the equation E=MC2, which foreshadowed the development of atomic power and the atomic bomb.

    In 2018, readers were allowed a glimpse into some of the unfiltered private thoughts of Einstein as a young man with the publication of The Travel Diaries of Albert Einstein: The Far East, Palestine, and Spain, 1922-1923. The young scientist started a sea journey to Japan in Marseilles, France, in autumn of 1922, accompanied by his second wife Elsa. They journeyed through the Suez Canal, then to Ceylon, Singapore, Hong Kong, Shanghai and Japan. The couple returned to Germany via Palestineand Spain in March 1923. The Travel Diariescontained unflattering analyses of the people he came across, including the Chinese and Sri Lankans, a surprise coming from a man known for vehemently denouncing racism in his later years. In an entry for November 1922, Einstein refers to residents of Hong Kong as "industrious, filthy, lethargic people ... Even the children are spiritless and look lethargic. It would be a pity if these Chinese supplant all other races."

    In 1933, Einstein took on a position at the Institute for Advanced Study at Princeton, New Jersey. At the time the Nazis, led by Adolf Hitler, were gaining prominence with violent propaganda and vitriol in an impoverished post-World War IGermany. The Nazi Party influenced other scientists to label Einstein's work "Jewish physics." Jewish citizens were barred from university work and other official jobs, and Einstein himself was targeted to be killed. Meanwhile, other European scientists also left regions threatened by Germany and immigrated to the U.S., with concern over Nazi strategies to create an atomic weapon. After moving, Einstein never went back to his native land. It was at Princeton that Einstein would spend the rest of his life working on a unified field theory—an all-embracing paradigm meant to unify the varied laws of physics. Not long after he began his career at Princeton, Einstein expressed an appreciation for American "meritocracy" and the opportunities people had fo...

    In 1939, Einstein and fellow physicist Leo Szilard wrote to President Franklin D. Rooseveltto alert him of the possibility of a Nazi bomb and to galvanize the United States to create its own nuclear weapons. The U.S. would eventually initiate the Manhattan Project, though Einstein would not take a direct part in its implementation due to his pacifist and socialist affiliations. Einstein was also the recipient of much scrutiny and major distrust from FBI director J. Edgar Hoover. After learning of the 1945 bombing of Hiroshima, Japan, Einstein became a major player in efforts to curtail usage of the a-bomb. The following year he and Szilard founded the Emergency Committee of Atomic Scientists, and in 1947, via an essay for The Atlantic Monthly, Einstein espoused working with the United Nations to maintain nuclear weapons as a deterrent to conflict.

    In the late 1940s, Einstein became a member of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), seeing the parallels between the treatment of Jews in Germany and African Americans in the United States. He corresponded with scholar/activist W.E.B. Du Bois as well as performing artist Paul Robesonand campaigned for civil rights, calling racism a "disease" in a 1946 Lincoln University speech.

  3. Short Biography of Albert Einstein in english ... › 2020 › 06

    Short Biography of Albert Einstein in english Name: Albert Herman Einstein Born: 14 March 1879 Ulma (Germany) Father: Herman Einstein Mother: Pauline Coach. Wife: The first Mariak and the second Issa Loven Thal. Einstein made many contributions, including the special and general principle of relativity.

  4. Albert Einstein Biography - Short Biographies for Kids | Mocomi › albert-einstein-biography

    Albert Einstein was born in Germany in 1879, to a Jewish family. His father was an engineer and a salesman. Einstein wasn’t a very bright student. He even had problems with his speech. When he was five years old, Einstein saw a magnetic compass and marvelled at the needle that kept moving with an invisible force.

  5. Albert Einstein - Wikipedia › wiki › Albert_Einstein

    Albert Einstein was born in Ulm, in the Kingdom of Württemberg in the German Empire, on 14 March 1879 into a family of secular Ashkenazi Jews. His parents were Hermann Einstein, a salesman and engineer, and Pauline Koch.

  6. Albert Einstein | Short Biography (A Great Scientist And ... › albert-einstein-biography

    Albert Einstein: The Inventor and Scientist Albert Einstein was born on the 14th of March 1879 in the German city of Ulm but he was an American scientist (Because he was settled in America in 1940), Without an indication that he was destined for greatness. On the contrary, His mother thought Albert was a freak. To her, his head seemed too large.

  7. Albert Einstein: A Short History I Oxford Open Learning › blog › albert-einstein-born-march-14

    Mar 10, 2014 · Albert Einstein was born on March 14 th 1879 at Ulm, Wurttemberg, Germany. He attended elementary school at the Luitpold Gymnasium in Munich, but he was not happy and struggled with the regime. He enjoyed classical music and played the violin.

    • Andrew Bateson
  8. Albert Einstein - History and Biography › albert-einstein

    Albert Einstein was a physicist, born in Ulm, Germany, on March 14, 1879. Albert Einstein is the author of the theory of relativity, and he is known as a genius in history, also is the symbol of the scientific revolution of the twentieth century. What did Albert Einstein contribute to science? As stated by Russell:

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