The Siege of Odessa, known to the Soviets as the Defence of Odessa, lasted from 8 August until 16 October 1941, during the early phase of Operation Barbarossa, the Axis invasion of the Soviet Union during World War II. Odessa was a port on the Black Sea in the Ukrainian SSR. On 22 June 1941, the Axis powers invaded the Soviet Union.
Depending on the accepted terms of reference and scope, the Odessa massacre refers either to the events of October 22–24, 1941 in which some 25,000 to 34,000 Jews were shot or burned, or to the murder of well over 100,000 Ukrainian Jews in the town and the areas between the Dniester and Bug rivers, during the Romanian and German occupation.
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From Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia The Siege of Odessa was a siege battle during World War II. It was part of the Eastern Front area of operations in 1941. It was done by Romanian forces and the German Army's (Wehrmacht Heer) 11th Army (11.
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On 27 July 1941, Hitler sent a letter to General Antonescu in which he requested further cooperation of the Romanian troops beyond the Dniester River, and granted the Romanians administration of the territory between the Dniester and the Bug rivers. Antonescu accepted on 31 July. In fact the Romanian Third Armyhad already crossed the Dniester on 17 July. Lieutenant-general Nicolae Ciupercă's Fourth Army commenced the advance over the river on 3 August. The 5th Corps, comprising the 15th Infantry Division and 1st Cavalry Brigade, forced the crossing between Tighina and Dubăsari. During the night of 5 August, the 1st Armored Division also joined the 5th Corps. On 8 August, the Romanian General Staff issued the Operative Directive No. 31 stipulating that the 4th Army was to defeat the enemy between the Dniester River and the Tiligulskiy Bank and to occupy Odessa from the move. It was thought that the city garrison, which was heavily outnumbered, would surrender quickly. However, Odessa...
On 9 August, the 4th Dorobanti Regiment defeated the Soviet forces in the Bakalovy area, while the 30th Dorobanţi Regiment took hold of the village of Ponyatovka. The 7th Infantry Division occupied the Razdelnaya railroad station and a plateau south of the station, despite heavy Soviet resistance. The following day, in the sector of the 3rd Corps, the bulk of the 7th Infantry Division reached Elssas, while the 1st Guard Division arrived on the alignment Strassburg – Petra Evdokievka. In the sector of the 5th Corps, the 1st Armored Division advanced fast and defeated the Soviet forces at Bolschaya Buzhalyk, breaking through Odessa's first line of defense. Until the evening, the Romanian division reached the second line of defense, on the alignment Blagodatnaya – Mal. Adzhalyk. The 1st Cavalry Brigade took Severinovka and joined the 1st Armored Division. At the same time, the 10th Dorobanţi Regiment overran the Soviet forces at Lozovaya. The 4th Army gradually closed the circle around...
With the advance of Axis forces into the Soviet Union, STAVKA decided to evacuate the defenders of Odessa. On the night of 14–15 October 1941, the Black Sea Fleet evacuated the garrison to Sevastopolwhere most of the units were later destroyed in the bitter fighting that took place there. The Black Sea Fleet also managed to evacuate 350,000 soldiers and civilians. Casualties suffered during the Siege of Odessa were: 1. Romanian 1.1. 17,729 Dead, 63,345 wounded, and 11,471 missing 1. Soviet 1.1. 16,578 dead or missing, and 24,690 wounded (Glantz) 1.2. 60,000 dead, wounded or missing (Axworthy)↑ 2.0 2.1 Glantz (1995), p. 293↑ 3.0 3.1 http://www.worldwar2.ro/operatii/?article=7↑ 4.0 4.1 4.2 Axworthy,Mark. Third Axis Fourth Ally: Romanian Armed Forces in the European War, 1941–1945. p. 58.Axworthy, Mark; Scafes, Cornel; Craciunoiu, Cristian (1995). Third Axis Fourth Ally: Romanian Armed Forces in the European War, 1941–1945. London: Arms & Armour Press. ISBN 1-85409-267-7.Glantz, David M. & House, Jonathan (1995), When Titans Clashed: How the Red Army Stopped Hitler, Lawrence, Kansas: University Press of Kansas, ISBN 0-7006-0899-0Dallin, Alexander (1998). Odessa, 1941–1944: A Case Study of Soviet Territory Under Foreign Rule. Iasi-Oxford-Portland: Center for Romanian Studies. ISBN 973-98391-1-8, hardcover. http://odessitclu..."History of Odessa, 1941–1944". 2odessa.com. http://www.2odessa.com/wiki/index.php?title=History_of_Odessa#1941-1944. Retrieved 2006-07-30.
Odessa was attacked by Romanian and German troops in August 1941. The defense of Odessa lasted 73 days from 5 August to 16 October 1941. The defense was organized on three lines with emplacements consisting of trenches, anti-tank ditches and pillboxes.
1941 August 8-October 16: Siege of Odessa. October 17: Axis occupation begins. October 22–24: 1941 Odessa massacre. Odessa becomes capital of Romanian-administered Transnistria Governorate.  1944 April 10: Red Army takes city; Axis occupation ends. ODO Odessa football team active. Odessa State Maritime Academy founded.
- The Battle
The garrison that initially defended Odessa were made up of the 25th and 95th Rifle Divisions, the 9th Cavalry Division, the 421st Marine Division, the 54th Rifle Regiment and an NKVD Regiment. In total some 34,500 men and 240 artillery gunss. Air support was provided by the 69th IAP, two seaplane squadrons and one bomber squadron. Later, other fighters reinforced the defenders, as did an Il-2 squadron (42 OShAE). Bombers from Crimea and Nikolaev also participated in the defence.
On 10 August, the 7th Infantry Division reached Elssas, while the Guard Division reached Strassburg - Petra Evdokievka. The 1st Armored Division also took part in the renewed advance, overrunning the Russian defenders at at Bol.Buzhalyk. The 1st Cavalry Brigade took Severinovka and the 10th DorobantiRegiment cleared the Russian forces at Lozovaya. On 1 September, the 6th Infantry Division was pulled out of the Romanian frontlines for rest and refit, and replaced with the 3rd Infantry Division...
The Romanian Army High Command expected the recent gains to signal the collapse of the Russian defences. On 17 September, Marshal Antonescu with General Alexandru Ioanitiu (Chief-of-Staff) arrived at the Romanian frontlines to oversee the final drive. However, upon arrival at 4th Army Headquarters at Baden, General Ioanitiu was killed in an accident. That morning, Major-General Nicolae Dascaclescu's 21st Infantry Division attacked the defences outside Dalnik, with the German 38th Infantry Reg...
The Romanians suffered 17,729 killed, 63,345 wounded and 11,471 captured or missing.The Russians reported the loss of 16,578 killed and 24,690 wounded. They managed to evacuate about 350,000 soldiers and civilians from the city. On 1 May 1945, Odessa received the honorary title of "hero city".↑ http://www.worldwar2.ro/arr/?article=7
By the end of October 1941, Major-General Ivan Yefimovich Petrov's Independent Coastal Army, numbering 32,000 men, had arrived at Sevastopol by sea from Odessa further west, it having been evacuated after heavy fighting. Petrov set about fortifying the inland approaches to Sevastopol.
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