Yahoo Web Search

  1. Sighnaq - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Sighnaq

    July 2017) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) ( Learn how and when to remove this template message ) Sighnaq ( Kazakh : Сығанақ , romanized: Syğanaq ; Uzbek : Sigʻnoq ) was an ancient city in Central Asia (in modern Kazakhstan , Kyzylorda Region ), it was the capital of the Blue Horde (i.e., the White Horde of Persian ...

  2. Sighnaq - Wikiwand

    www.wikiwand.com › en › Sighnaq

    Sighnaq was an ancient city in Central Asia , it was the capital of the Blue Horde , although the city is almost unknown. The region in which Sighnaq was situated was called Farab, it was located between Isfijab and Jand. The name means 'place of refuge', a name that is found also in other regions, especially in Transcaucasia.

  3. Kazakstanin pääkaupunki – Wikipedia

    fi.wikipedia.org › wiki › Kazakstanin_pääkaupunki
    • Созақ (Sozak) (1465–1469
    • Sighnaq 1469-1511 Ja 1521-1598
    • Saray-Jük

    Sozak, myös Sozaq (kaz. Созақ, ven. Suzak), ent. nimeltään Sauran sijaitsee sen pohjoispuolella avartuvan Muyunkumin aavikon ja etelässä nousevan Karatau-vuoriharjanteiden välisellä tasangolla Türkistanin alueen keskiosassa, Etelä-Kazakstanissa. Sozak on yksi Kazakstanin vanhimmista asutuksista ja sillä on historiaa noin kahden vuosituhannen verran. Karataun pohjoisilla rinteillä sijaitseva Sozak oli päätukikohta ja strateginen piste Kazakkien kaanikunnan hallitsijoille sekä valtataisteluissa aroalueilla että Türkistanin kaupungeissa. Se ei ollut pelkästään hyvä linnoitus, vaan myös kauppa- ja käsityökeskus, jonka rajat ulottuivat steppiin saakka. Vaikka se sijaitsee kuivalla aavikolla, jossa juomavettä ei ole tarpeeksi, tutkijat havaitsivat, että Sozakin alueella on ollut siirtokunta ja siinä on asuttu 500 -luvulta lähtien. Silloinen Sozak kasvoi laajan karavaaniteiden verkoston, Silkkitien haaran kauppapaikaksi, jossa aikaa myöten syntyi keraamista käsityötä ja perinteistä kansanm...

    Sighnaq (kaz. Сығанақ), myös Syganak (t. Sygnak) ja Sığnaq, muinainen Kamyskala oli arkeologisten tutkimuksien mukaan hyvin rakennettu kaupunki keskellä aroja VI-luvulta XVIII-luvulle saakka. Tärkein kauppakeskus karavaanireiteillä ja Silkkitiellä, koko Turkestanin ja viereisten Kazakstanin arojen tärkein uskonnollinen keskus ja kukoistava kaupunki, jota ympäröivät laajat pellot ja jossa oli runsas tuotevalikoima jo ennen mongolien hyökkäystä. Se oli vuosisatoina XV–XVI yksi kuuluisimmista ja menestyneimmistä suurkaupungeista, alueen iso kauppa-, käsityö- ja kulttuurikeskus, jonka torilla myytiin 500 kamelia päivässä. Sen väitetään olleen Kiptšakin kaanikunnan, Ak-Ordan, Abulkhair ja sitten Kazakkien kaanikunnan pääkaupunki. Sen jäänteet sijaitsevat 1,5-2 kilometrin päässä Kyzylorda-Šymkent-moottoritien varrella sijaitsevasta Sunakata (tai Sunak-Ata)-kylästä kohti luoteista Kyzylordaa. Sighnaq mainittiin ensimmäistä kertaa vuonna 982 tuntemattoman persiankielisen kirjoittajan maanti...

    Saray-Jük ((kaz. Сарайшық), myös Saraitšik (pieni palatsi) tai Saraitšik-stanitsa on 1000-luvulla perustettu kylä ja entinen linnoitus Uralin alueella Kazakstanissa. Kaupungin ratkaiseva kehitys alkoi 1200-luvun Tšingis- ja Batu-kaanien hyökkäyksien ajanjaksolla, jolloin täällä, Uraljoen oikealla rannalla Atırawin alueella, 50 km päässä nykyaikaisesta Atırawin kaupungista muodostui rikas muinainen kaupunki. Saray-Jükin lähistöllä mm. vuosina 1861, 1937, 1950, 1980-luvulla ja 1996–2000 suoritetuissa kaivauksissa on löytynyt monien muinaisaikojen marmorifragmenttien, tyypillisten tiililaattojen, metallitöiden ja keramiikkatuotteiden, hautoihin mukaan laitettujen suuressa määrässä korujen, kulta-, hopea- ja kuparirahojen lisäksi ainutlaatuinen keraamisista putkista valmistettu vesi- ja viemärijärjestelmä. Suuren venäläisen ensyklopedian mukaan Hivan kaanin ja historioitsijan Abu al-Ghazi Bahadurin välittämien tietojen pohjalla se on Batu-kaanin veljen ja Kultaisen ordan perineen Berke-...

  4. Category:Former populated cities in Kazakhstan - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Category:Former_populated

    Pages in category "Former populated cities in Kazakhstan" The following 2 pages are in this category, out of 2 total. This list may not reflect recent changes ().

  5. Kipchaks - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Qipchaq

    For the village in Iran, see Qipchaq, Iran. The Kipchaks, also known as Qipchaq or Polovtsians, were a Turkic nomadic people and confederation that existed in the Middle Ages, inhabiting parts of the Eurasian Steppe. First mentioned in the 8th century as part of the Second Turkic Khaganate, they most likely inhabited the Altai region from where ...

  6. Golden Horde - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Golden_Orde

    The name Golden Horde, a partial calque of Russian Золотая Орда (Zolotája Ordá), itself supposedly a partial calque of Turkic Altan Orda, is said to have been inspired by the golden color of the tents the Mongols lived in during wartime, or an actual golden tent used by Batu Khan or by Uzbek Khan, or to have been bestowed by the Slavic tributaries to describe the great wealth of ...

  7. Kipchaks — Wikipedia Republished // WIKI 2

    wiki2.org › en › Kipchaks
    • Terminology
    • Anthropology
    • History
    • Language
    • Religion
    • Confederations
    • Genetics
    • Legacy
    • See Also
    • Sources

    The Kipchaks in­ter­preted their name as mean­ing "hol­low tree" (Mid­dle Tur­kic: kuv ağaç); ac­cord­ing to them, in­side a hol­low tree, their orig­i­nal human an­ces­tress gave birth to her son. Németh points to the Siber­ian qıpčaq "angry, quick-tem­pered" at­tested only in the Siber­ian Sağay di­alect (a di­alect of Khakas lan­guage) . Klyash­torny links Kipchak to qovı, qovuq "un­for­tu­nate, un­lucky"; yet Golden sees a bet­ter match in qıv "good for­tune" and ad­jec­ti­val suf­fix -čāq. Re­gard­less, Golden notes that the eth­nonym's orig­i­nal form and et­y­mol­ogy "re­main a mat­ter of con­tention and speculation". Their name ap­pears oc­ca­sion­ally translit­er­ated in other lan­guages, such as Ara­bic: قفجاق‎, ro­man­ized: Qifjāq; Per­sian: قبچاق‎, ro­man­ized: Qabčāq/Qabcâq; Geor­gian: ყივჩაღები, ro­man­ized: Qivçaghebi; Turk­ish: Kıp­çak; Crimean Tatar: Kıpçaq, Karachay-Balkar: Къыпчакъ, ro­man­ized: Qıpçaq; Uzbek: Qipchoq, Қипчоқ/قىپچاق; Uighur: قىپچاق, ro­man­ized: Q...

    In the Kipchak steppe, a com­plex eth­nic as­sim­i­la­tion and con­sol­i­da­tion process took place be­tween the 11th and 13th centuries. The west­ern Kipchak tribes ab­sorbed peo­ple of Oghuz, Pech­eneg, an­cient Bashkir, Bul­gar and other ori­gin; the east­ern Kipchak merged with the Kimek, Kar­luk, Kara-Khi­tai and oth­ers. They were all iden­ti­fied by the eth­nonym Kipchak. Early Chi­nese his­to­ries do not men­tion spe­cial in­for­ma­tion about the Kipchak tribes; how­ever, the Yuan­shi men­tioned that Yuan gen­eral Tu­tuha orig­i­nated from the Kipchak tribe Ölberli and, ac­cord­ing to Xu Qianxue's 17th-cen­tury later edi­tion of Sima Guang's Zizhi Tongjian, Kipchaks pos­s­esed "blue [or green] eyes and red hair" (ms. "青目赤髪"); The his­to­rian Bretschnei­der sug­gested that the Chi­nese here con­fused the Kipchaks with the newly ar­rived Rus­sians. Sim­i­larly, Russ­ian an­thro­pol­o­gist Os­hanin (1964: 24, 32) notes that "the ‘Mon­goloid’ phe­no­type, char­ac­ter­is­tic of m...

    The Kipchaks were first un­am­bigu­ously men­tioned in Per­sian ge­o­g­ra­pher ibn Khor­dad­beh's Book of Roads and King­doms as a north­ernly Tur­kic tribe, after Toquz Oghuz, Kar­luks, Kimeks, Oghuz, J.f.r (ei­ther cor­rupted from Jikil or rep­re­sent­ing Ma­j­far for Majğar), Pech­enegs, Türgesh, Aðkiš, and be­fore Yeni­sei Kirghiz. Kipchaks pos­si­bly ap­peared in the 8th-cen­tury Moyun Chur in­scrip­tion as Türk-Qïbchaq, men­tioned as hav­ing been part of the Tur­kic Kha­ganate for fifty years; even so, this at­tes­ta­tion is un­cer­tain as dam­ages on the in­scrip­tion leave only -čq (𐰲𐰴) (*-čaq or čiq) readable. It is un­clear if the Kipchaks could be iden­ti­fied with, ac­cord­ing to Klyash­torny, the [Al]tï Sir in the Ork­hon in­scrip­tions (薛延陀; pinyin: Xuè-Yántuó), or with the Juéyuèshī (厥越失) in Chi­nese sources; how­ever, Zuev (2002) iden­ti­fied 厥越失 Juéyuèshī (< MC *ki­wat-ji­wat-siet) with to­ponym Kürüshi in the Ezhim river val­ley (Ch. Ayan < MCh. 阿豔 *a-iam < OTrk....

    The Kipchak–Cuman con­fed­er­a­tion spoke a Tur­kic lan­guage.Mon­go­lian ethno-lin­guis­tic el­e­ments in the Kipchak–Kimek re­main unproven. Kipchaks and Cumans spoke a Tur­kic lan­guage (Kipchak lan­guage, Cuman lan­guage) whose most im­por­tant sur­viv­ing record is the Codex Cuman­i­cus, a late 13th-cen­tury dic­tio­nary of words in Kipchak, Cuman, and Latin. The pres­ence in Egypt of Tur­kic-speak­ing Mam­luksalso stim­u­lated the com­pi­la­tion of Kipchak/Cuman-Ara­bic dic­tio­nar­ies and gram­mars that are im­por­tant in the study of sev­eral old Tur­kic lan­guages. When mem­bers of the Ar­men­ian di­as­pora moved from the Crimean penin­sula to the Pol­ish-Ukrain­ian bor­der­land, at the end of the 13th cen­tury, they brought Kipchak, their adopted Tur­kic lan­guage, with them. Dur­ing the 16th and the 17th cen­turies, the Tur­kic lan­guage among the Ar­men­ian com­mu­ni­ties of the Kipchak peo­ple was Ar­meno-Kipchak. They were set­tled in the Lviv and Kami­anets-Podil­skyi...

    The Kipchaks prac­ticed Shaman­ism. Mus­lim con­ver­sion oc­curred near Is­lamic centres.Some Kipchaks and Cumans were known to have con­verted to Chris­tian­ity around the 11th cen­tury, at the sug­ges­tion of the Geor­gians, as they al­lied in their con­flicts against the Mus­lims. A great num­ber were bap­tized at the re­quest of Geor­gian King David IV, who also mar­ried a daugh­ter of Kipchak Khan Otrok. From 1120, there was a Kipchak na­tional Chris­t­ian church and an im­por­tant clergy. Fol­low­ing the Mon­gol con­quest, Islamrose in pop­u­lar­ity among the Kipchaks of the Golden Horde.

    Kimek

    The con­fed­er­a­tion or tribal union which Kipchaks en­tered in the 8th- or be­gin­ning of 9th cen­tury as one of seven orig­i­nal tribes is known in his­to­ri­og­ra­phy as that of the Kimek (or Kimäk). Tur­kic in­scrip­tions do not men­tion the state with that name. 10th-cen­tury Hudud al-'Alam men­tions the "coun­try of Kīmāk", ruled by a kha­gan (king) who has eleven lieu­tenants that hold hered­i­tary fiefs. Fur­ther­more, Andar Az Khifchāq is men­tioned as a coun­try (nāḥiyat) of the Kī...

    A ge­netic study pub­lished in Na­ture in May 2018 ex­am­ined the re­mains of two Kipchak males buried be­tween ca. 1000 AD and 1200 AD. One male was found to the a car­rier of the pa­ter­nal hap­logroup C and the ma­ter­nal hap­logroup F1b1b, and dis­played "in­creased East Asian ancestry". The other male was found to be a car­rier of the ma­ter­nal hap­logroup D4and dis­played "pro­nounced Eu­ro­pean ancestry".

    Kipchak peoples and languages

    The mod­ern North­west­ern branch of the Tur­kic lan­guages is often re­ferred to as the Kipchak branch. The lan­guages in this branch are mostly con­sid­ered to be de­scen­dants of the Kipchak lan­guage, and the peo­ple who speak them may like­wise be re­ferred to as Kipchak peo­ples. Some of the groups tra­di­tion­ally in­cluded are the Karachays, Siber­ian Tatars, No­gays, Bashkirs, Kaza­khs, Kyr­gyz, Volga Tatars, and Crimean Tatars. There is also a vil­lage named Kipchak in Crimea. Qyp­s...

    Agajanov, S. G. (1992). "The States of the Oghuz, the Kimek and the Kipchak". History of Civilizations of Central Asia, Volume IV: The Age of Achievement AD 750 to the End of the Fifteenth Century....
    Damgaard, P. B.; et al. (May 9, 2018). "137 ancient human genomes from across the Eurasian steppes". Nature. Nature Research. 557 (7705): 369–373. Bibcode:2018Natur.557..369D. doi:10.1038/s41586-01...
    Ergin, Muharrem (1980). Orhun Abideleri(in Turkish). İstanbul: Boğaziçi Yayınları.
    Golden, Peter B. (1990). "The peoples of the south Russian steppes". In Sinor, Denis (ed.). The Cambridge History of Early Inner Asia. Cambridge University Press. pp. 256–284. ISBN 978-0-521-24304-9.
  8. Turkistan Region and similar settlements | Frankensaurus.com

    frankensaurus.com › Turkistan_Region

    Region of Kazakhstan. Aktau , which has a population of 183,350 (2017); the entire Mangystau Province has a population of 674,963 (2018). Wikipedia

  9. Kipčaki - Wikipedia

    it.wikipedia.org › wiki › Kipcaki

    I kipčaki, noti anche come qipčaq o poloviziani, furono una confederazione e un popolo di nomadi turco-altaici che si stanziarono nel Medioevo in alcune regioni della steppa eurasiatica.

  10. where was the golden horde located

    ultraltd.net › erevan-ijevan-cvbaewm › where-was-the

    He was well loved by the people and called the

  11. People also search for