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  1. Sigismund I the Old - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sigmund_I_of_Poland

    Sigismund I the Old (Polish: Zygmunt I Stary, Lithuanian: Žygimantas II Senasis; 1 January 1467 – 1 April 1548) was King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania from 1506 until his death in 1548. Sigismund I was a member of the Jagiellonian dynasty, the son of Casimir IV and younger brother of kings John I Albert and Alexander I Jagiellon.

    • 8 December 1506 – 1 April 1548
    • Alexander I
  2. Battle of Grunwald - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/First_Battle_of_Tannenberg

    In August 1914, during World War I, Germany won a battle against Russia near the site. When the Germans realized its propaganda potential, they named the battle the Battle of Tannenberg, despite it having actually taken place much closer to Allenstein (Olsztyn), and framed it as revenge for the Polish–Lithuanian victory 504 years earlier.

    • Decisive Polish–Lithuanian victory
  3. Sigismund III Vasa | Historipedia Official Wiki | Fandom

    historipediaofficial.wikia.org/wiki/Sigismund...
    • Royal Titles
    • Biography
    • Sigismund's Politics
    • Early Conflicts with Hetman Jan Zamoyski
    • Gentry, Nobility and Privileges
    • Brief Conflict with England
    • War Against Sigismund in Sweden
    • Piotr Skarga and Sigismund, "King of The Jesuits"
    • Relationship with The Mennonites
    • Assassination Attempt in Warsaw

    Royal titles in Latin: Sigismundus Tertius Dei gratia rex Poloniæ, magnus dux Lithuaniæ, Russiæ, Prussiæ, Masoviæ, Samogitiæ, Livoniæque, necnon Suecorum, Gothorum Vandalorumque hæreditarius rex.

    Early life and coronation

    Sigismund was born on 20 June 1566 to Catherine Jagiellon of Poland and King John III of Sweden at Gripsholm. His parents, at the time, were being held prisoner by King Eric XIV, but despite the Protestant domination of Sweden young Sigismund was raised as a Roman Catholic. Regaining the throne of Sweden would be one of the primary driving forces in his life. His Polish connection came through his mother who was the daughter of Sigismund I the Old and the Jagiellonian family had been the roya...

    Opposition to the throne

    However, as was often the case with the Polish electoral monarchy, the outcome was strongly contested by the "losers" and the greedy and stubborn Polish nobility who backed the Archduke Maximilian III of Further Austria for King of Poland. Upon hearing of his election King Sigismund slipped through the clutches of the Protestants in Sweden and landed in Poland on 7 October and immediately agreed to give up several royal privileges to the parliament (Sejm) of the Commonwealth in the hope of wi...

    Internal and external affairs of the Commonwealth

    Combating heresy and giving Poland a strong and stable government were the primary goals of King Sigismund. Toward this end he moved the royal court from Kraków to Warsaw and oversaw the arrival of the Jesuits who established new schools throughout Poland and became chaplains and confessors to many families. The Catholic Church in Poland rebounded strongly during the early years of the reign of King Sigismund III. Their preaching was very well received by the public and along with their staun...

    Many historians believe that Sigismund viewed Poland only as a tool that would allow him to eventually regain the throne of Sweden. To this end he tried to strengthen his royal power and allied himself with Habsburgs and Counter-Reformation forces. His policies were opposed by many within the circles of the wealthy Polish nobility (the szlachta), most notably the chancellor Jan Zamoyski. This led to a semi-legal rebellion against the king (rokosz), known as Zebrzydowski Rebellion (1606–1608), which was a response to Sigismund's attempt to introduce majority voting in place of unanimity in the Sejm. Eventually Sigismund's forces were victorious, but the rebels went unpunished. Partially in order to pacify the restless szlachta, Sigismund supported war with Muscovy (the Dimitriads, 1608–1618). Although Commonwealth forces were almost constantly shuffled between wars in the East (with Muscovy), north (with Sweden) and South (with Ottomans – the Polish-Ottoman wars), Sigismund took adva...

    Zamoyski's bitterness and Sigismund's lust for power

    The contest between the King and the Chancellor began during Sigismund’s first Sejm sitting, the so-called "Pacification Sejm," which met at Warsaw in March 1589. Zamoyski presented the project of a political combination between Poland, Moscovy, and Bohemia, coupled with a suggestion that in case the present King should die without issue (a somewhat premature and gratuitous assumption in the circumstances) none but a Prince of some Slavonic stock should henceforth be eligible to the Polish th...

    Personal differences and attitudes

    On 1 June 1592, he formed a Confederation at Jędrzejów, which was more numerously attended than the wedding feast in honour of Sigismund’s young Austrian bride the Archduchess Anne, who made her state entry into Kraków, amidst great rejoicings, at the end of May. All the Polish nobility, nearly all the senators of Greater and Lesser Poland, and the majority of the orthodox Lithuanians acceded to the Chancellor, so that, at the meeting of the "Inquisition Sejm" at Warsaw (7 August) summoned by...

    The Szlachta (Polish nobility) of the Commonwealth had become dominant, and its one exclusive idea was to remain dominant. From the middle and lower classes, whom it had crushed beneath its feet, nothing was to be feared. But the King, as the nominal head of the State, as the controller of foreign affairs through his official counselors, the Senate and the Chancellors, and, as the head of the army, through the Hetmans, whom he appointed, was still a potential menace to individual liberty as the nobility understood it. Henceforth, therefore, an unreasonable, incur-able suspicion of the Crown, and all the executive instruments of the Crown, is the characteristic, or rather the mania, of every Polish Sejm. For its country, as a State, the nobles had no thought at all. As long as every nobleman, or squire, was lord paramount in his own parish he cared little for anything beyond it. And what, after all, was the Sejm, or Diet, but a collection of some 600 of such squires who met annually...

    The Muslim Ottoman Empire of the Turks and the Christian England were allies of convenience against Spain. Elizabeth's armies fighting Catholic forces in the Low Countries to prevent Spain from gaining secure harbors on the Channel coast to stage an invasion England also served the Turk's interest by diverting Spain from focusing on domination of the Mediterranean. In 1580, the Turks threatened to invade Poland from lands north of the Black Sea. The good will of Poland was crucial to England because trade with countries bordering the Baltic was the source of grain and the all important forest products needed to maintain the navy. English merchants enjoyed preferential trading privileges in Poland. Elizabeth's intercession with the Caliphate was credited with cancelling the invasion, and she received letters of praise from then reigning Polish king, Stephen Bathory. After Sigismund III was elected in 1587, Elizabeth's intelligence service gave notice that an ambassador is in transit...

    Historical background

    After Sigismund had been crowned King of Sweden 19 February 1594, he decided that no Parliaments (riksdagar) could be summoned without the King’s consent. Despite this, Charles summoned a Parliament at Söderköping in autumn 1595, at which he managed to get his will through. The Duke was appointed Regent with "the advice of the Council", meaning that he was to govern Sweden together with the Privy Council during the King’s absence from the Realm. Soon afterwards, the nobility of Finland, led b...

    Eruption of a civil war

    Thus, in 1597, civil war erupted, and Duke Charles was able to assume control over a large share of the powerful castles in the country, and in this manner achieved control over almost all the Realm. The problem was Finland, where Klaus Fleming’s widow guarded Åbo castle. But after psychological warfare, Charles and his followers managed to take the castle in Turku (Swedish: Åbo). It is said that when the Duke entered the castle chapel he saw Klaus Fleming’s body lying in a coffin. He is said...

    Military actions and campaign

    At the end of May 1598 Sigismund landed on Swedish soil at Avaskär. The King opened peacefully by sending the diplomat Samuel Łaski to Kalmar for negotiations. His task was to convince the city’s commanders to open the gates. However, the negotiations led nowhere. Instead, the King took his soldiers and marched on Kalmar. The army halted just outside of the city. The plan was to frighten the commanders into opening the gates. To make his message even more terrifying, Sigismund threatened the...

    The election of Sigismund III to the throne proved to be the greatest blow it was possible to inflict upon Protestanism in Poland. Brought up by his mother, Catherine Jagiellon, in the strictest Roman Catholic doctrines, he made the promotion of the interests of Rome the guiding motive of all his actions. This zeal for Rome outweighed all considerations of prudence or policy; through it he lost two hereditary thrones, and brought innumerable calamities on the country which election had handed over to him, "In order to make sure of heaven", said the Emperor Ferdinand, "he has renounced earth". The Protestants called him the "King of the Jesuits", and Sigismund gloried in the appellation. This feeble imitation of Philip II of Spain possessed all the bigotry and zeal of his model without his abilities or strength of character. In all that he did he was ruled by the Jesuits; he bestowed honours only on those whom they favoured, and preferred their advice to that of his wisest counselors...

    Sigismund confirmed the contracts of lease made with the Mennonites and on 20 October 1623, accorded special privileges to the lace-makers originating from Scotland, most of whom were Mennonites. But he refused to grant them any new rights or liberties. Upon the complaint of the city council of Elbing (Elbląg) that the Mennonites broke up marriages without having previously informed the authorities, married one another, and divided property at their pleasure, he forbade the Mennonites, upon penalty of a fine of 100 guilders, to marry without the foreknowledge of the authorities, and ordered that the Mennonites should be given no special rights. When the Mennonites nevertheless requested release from all civil handicaps, especially from military defense of the city and the court oath, he decreed on 26 April 1615, that they should do their duty like others. But the ruling was not enforced. On 26 April 1626, the king sent the following orders to the magistrate of Elbing, because he had...

    An unsuccessful attempt on the life of the king was made on 15 November 1620. It occurred on Sunday, at 9 am, when the monarch was to attend Mass in St. John's Archcathedral in Warsaw. Sigismund was to arrive by walking on a wooden bridge-looking construction that connected the Royal Castle with the temple. When the royal procession already reached the end of the bridge, hidden in a nearby window was nobleman Michał Piekarski. The assassin previously killed a Hungarian mercenary that was protecting the post. When the monarch reached the final steps, Piekarski instantly jumped out and threw himself on the king, stabbing him twice, firstly in the back and then in the cheek, another hit was in the arm, however, the assassin was not able to cause any deadly harm because of the royal guards that were initially standing to the right of the king and Piekarski attacked from the left. Shortly after this, Sigismund fell flat on the ground, pale and lifeless, and from the church Priest Kobierz...

    • 20 June 1566 Gripsholm Castle, Sweden
    • 30 April 1632 (aged 65) Warsaw, Poland
    • 4 February 1633 Wawel Cathedral, Kraków, Poland
    • House of Vasa
  4. 7 non-aggression pacts and treaties signed by European ...

    theduran.com/7-non-aggression-pacts-and-treaties...

    Aug 24, 2017 · In June 1426 Hussite forces, led by Prokop and Sigismund Korybut, signally defeated the invaders in the Battle of Aussig. Despite this result, the death of Jan Žižka caused many, including Pope Martin V, to believe that the Hussites were much weakened.

  5. Battle of Domažlice 14th August 1431 | Bellum.cz

    www.bellum.cz/en/battle-of-domazlice.html

    Sigismund of Luxemburg, the king of the Holy Roman Empire, the king of Hungary and formally also the Czech king, did support the campaign, but he managed to wriggle out and he once again appointed the Brandenburg margrave Frederick, the unsuccessful commander of the previous crusade, as the commander. The crusaders, however, experienced from ...

  6. Battle of Grunwald - cs.mcgill.ca

    www.cs.mcgill.ca/.../wp/b/Battle_of_Grunwald.htm
    • Names and Locations
    • Eve of The Battle
    • Opposing Forces
    • Course of The Battle
    • After The Battle
    • Influences of The Battle of Grunwald on Modern Culture
    • Banners
    • Related Reading

    The battle was fought in the plains between the villages of 1. Grunwald (Žalgiris in Lithuanian), 2. Stębark (Tannenberg in German) and 3. Łodwigowo (Ludwigsdorfin German) in what was then territory of the Order, and is now part of Poland. The nearest city of any size was Dąbrówno (Gilgenburg in German). The names Žalgiris (from the Lithuanian žalia giria) and Grunwald (from the German grüner Wald) both translate as "Green Forest." It was also called Zielone Pole ("Green Field") in Old Polish, and, in German, Grunenfelde or Grunefeld("Green field") in the oldest texts. The battle is called 1. Schlacht bei Tannenberg (Battle of Tannenberg) by Germans, 2. Žalgirio mūšis (Battle of Žalgiris) by Lithuanians, 3. Bitwa pod Grunwaldem (Battle of Grunwald) by Poles, 4. Гру́нвальдзкая бі́тва (Battle of Grunwald) by Belarusians, 5. Ґрю́нвальдська би́тва (Battle of Grunwald) by Ukrainians and 6. Grünwald suğışı by Tatars.

    In the 13th century, the Teutonic Knights had been invited to the lands surrounding Chełmno to assist in the expulsion of the ( pagan) Prussians. They stayed on, and, under a papal edict which gave them effective carte blanche to act as they wished, established a power base in the region, occupying the Baltic coastal regions of what are now Latvia, Lithuania and Estonia, and showed every sign of further expansion. Their incursions into Poland in the 14th century gave them control of major towns such as Chełmno (Kulm) and Pomorze (Pommern) region. In order to further their war efforts against the (pagan) Lithuanian state, the Teutonic Knights instituted a series of crusades, enlisting support from other European countries. In 1385 the Union of Kreva joined the crown of Poland and Lithuania, and the subsequent marriage of Grand Duke Jogaila of Lithuania and King Jadwiga of Poland (there was no title "Queen of Poland") was to shift the balance of power; both nations were more than awar...

    In the early morning of July 15, 1410, both armies met in the fields near the villages of Grunwald, Tannenberg and Łodwigowo (Ludwigsdorf). Both armies were dislocated in line formations. The Polish-Lithuanian army was set up in front of the villages of Łodwigowo/Ludwigsdorf and Stębark/Tannenberg. The left flank was guarded by the Polish forces of king Władysław Jagiełło and composed mostly of heavy cavalry. The right flank of the allied forces was guarded by the army of Grand Duke Vytautas, and composed mostly of light cavalry. Among the forces on the right flank were banners from all over the Grand Duchy, as well as Tatar skirmishers and (probably) Moldavian mercenaries. The opposing forces of the Teutonic Order were composed mostly of heavy cavalry and infantry. They were aided by mercenaries from Western Europe called "the guests of the Order," and some other Knights including those of the Knights Templar who had been summoned to participate by a Papal Bull. The exact number of...

    The opposing forces formed their lines at dawn. At noon the forces of Grand Duke of Lithuania Vytautas started an all-out assault on the left flank of the Teutonic forces, near the village of Tannenberg (Stębark). The Lithuanian cavalry was supported by a cavalry charge of several Polish banners on the right flank of the enemy forces. The enemy heavy cavalry counter-attacked on both flanks and fierce fighting occurred. After more than an hour, the Lithuanian light cavalry started a planned retreat maneuver towards marshes and woods. This maneuver was often used in the east of Grand Duchy of Lithuania by Mongols. Vytautas, who had experience in battles against Mongols, used it in this battle. Only three banners of Smolensk commanded by Lengvenis (Simon Lingwen), son of Algirdas, brother of Jagiełło and a cousin of Vytautas, remained on the right flank after the retreat of Vytautas and his troops. One of the banners was totally destroyed, while the remaining two were backed up by the...

    The defeat of the Teutonic Order was resounding. According to Andrzej Nadolski about 8,000 Teuton soldiers were killed in the battle, and an additional 14,000 taken captive. Most of the approximately 250 members of the Order were also killed, including much of the Teutonic leadership. Apart from Ulrich von Jungingen himself, the Polish and Lithuanian forces killed also the Grand Marshal Friedrich von Wallenrode, Grand Komtur Kuno von Lichtenstein and Albrecht von Schwartzburg, the Grand Treasurer Thomas von Merheim. Markward von Salzbach, the Komtur of Brandenburg, and mayor Schaumburg of Sambia were executed by order of Vytautas after the battle. The only higher officials to escape from the battle were Grand Hospital Master and Komtur of Elbing Werner von Tettinger. Such a slaughter of noble knights and personalities was quite unusual in Mediæval Europe. This was possible mostly due to the participation of the peasantry who joined latter stages of the battle, and took part in destr...

    Poland

    The battle of Grunwald is regarded as one of the most important battles in Polish history. It is often depicted by an ideogram of two swords, which were supposedly given to king Jagiello before the battle by the Teutonic envoys to "raise Polish desire for battle". In 1914, on the eve of World War I, during the celebrations marking the 500-year anniversary of the battle a monument was erected in Kraków. The ceremony spawned demonstrations of outrage within Polish society against the aggressive...

    Belarus

    The victory in the Battle of Grunwald is widely respected and commemorated in Belarus. In 15th century the lands of modern-day Belarus were a part of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. Many of cities from what is today Belarus sent their troops to the battle to fight on the Grand Duchy's side.

    Lithuania

    The victory at the Battle of Grunwald or Žalgirio mūšis in 1410 is synonymous to the peak of the political and military power of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. The demise of the Teutonic order ended the period of German expansion and created preconditions for the political stability, economic growth and relative cultural prosperity that lasted until the rise of Muscovy in the late 16th century. In the Lithuanian historical discourse regarding the battle there is a lasting debate and controvers...

    Poland

    The exact Order of Battle of the Polish forces is unknown. However, Ioannes Longinus in his Historiæ Polonicæ written after 1455 recorded 51 Polish banners, together with their descriptions, blazoning and commanders. It is not certain whether the list is complete.

    Lithuania

    Due to different system of feudal overlordship, as well as lack of heraldic traditions, the units of Grand Duchy of Lithuania were all grouped under banners of two types: the Vytis and the Columns of Gediminas. The only difference between various lands using the same emblem was the blazon. The hareness and the colour of the horse on the Pahonia differed. Note that the number of Lithuanian banners is uncertain. According to Ioannes Longinus there were 40 banners on the right flank of the Polis...

    Non-fiction

    1. Stefan Kuczyński, Szymon Kobyliński, Chorągwie grunwaldzkich zwycięzców (The Banners of the Victors of Grunwald); WAiF, Warsaw, 1989. ISBN 83-221-0467-7 2. Ioannes Longinus, Annales seu Cronicæ Incliti Regni Poloniæ; PWN, Warsaw, 2000. ISBN 83-01-13301-5 3. Ioannes Longinus, Bitwa grunwaldzka; Ossolineum, Wrocław, 2003. ISBN 83-04-04632-6 4. Mečislovas Jučas, Žalgirio mūšis (Battle of Grunwald); Mokslas, Vilnius, 1990. ISBN 5-420-00242-6 5. Sven Ekdahl, Die Schlacht bei Tannenberg 1410. Qu...

    Fiction

    1. Henryk Sienkiewicz, Krzyżacy (The Teutonic Knights); Tygodnik Ilustrowany, Kraków, 1900. ISBN 0-7818-0433-7 2. James A. Michener, Poland; Random House, 1984. ISBN 0-449-20587-8

  7. Made in the USA – How the Ukrainian Government is Giving Away ...

    libertyblitzkrieg.com/2014/12/03/made-in-the-usa...

    Dec 03, 2014 · The crown was then offered to Władysław’s cousin, Vytautas, the Grand Duke of Lithuania. Vytautas accepted it, with the condition that the Hussites reunite with the Catholic Church. In 1422, Žižka accepted Prince Sigismund Korybut of Lithuania (nephew of Władysław II) as regent of Bohemia for Vytautas.”

  8. Hussite army invades Silesia and Saxony - Indymedia Ireland

    indymedia.ie/article/22393?save_prefs=true

    Religious struggle between Hussites and the Roman Catholic Church They seem to have penetrated as far as Franconia Indymedia Ireland is a media collective. We are independent volunteer journalists producing and distributing the authentic voices of the people Indymedia Ireland is a media collective.

  9. Onslaught | Page 2 | alternatehistory.com

    www.alternatehistory.com/forum/threads/onslaught...

    Sigismund, King of the Romans, was distracted by the Bavarian Civil war [1420-1422]. More of a family quarrel than a civil war; it was nonetheless on the borders of Bohemia and draining men needed for that struggle. Sigismund eventually brokered a four year truce and then exiled the main protagonists.

  10. Mobs or Citizens: Who Chose the Leaders of the Polish ...

    polishhistory.pl/mobs-or-citizens-who-chose-the...

    “This world is arranged in such a dreadful way that not even the most tender sighs can replace statistics…” observed Bolesław Prus, one of Poland’s greatest writers. The author of the novel Lalka knew what he was writing about, as his income from literature was supplemented by working in a statistics office set up by...