Mogadishu along with Zeila and other Somali coastal cities was founded upon an indigenous network involving hinterland trade and that happened even before significant Arab migrations or trade with the Somali coast. That goes back approximately four thousand years and are supported by archaeological and textual evidences.
Somalia, officially the Federal Republic of Somalia (Somali: Jamhuuriyadda Federaalka Soomaaliya; Arabic: جمهورية الصومال الفيدرالية), is a country in the Horn of Africa. The country is bordered by Ethiopia to the west, Djibouti  to the northwest, the Gulf of Aden to the north, the Indian Ocean to the east, and Kenya ...
- Foundation and Origins
- Medieval Period
- Early modern period (1700s–1900s)
- Italian Somalia
Mogadishu is the largest city in Somalia and the nation's capital. Located in the coastal Benadir region on the Indian Ocean, the city has served as an important port for centuries.
Tradition and old records assert that southern Somalia, including the Mogadishu area, was inhabited very early by hunter-gatherers of Khoisan descent. Although most of these early inhabitants are believed to have been either overwhelmed, driven away or, in some cases, assimilated by later migrants to the area, physical traces of their occupation survive in certain ethnic minority groups inhabiting modern-day Jubaland and other parts of the south. The latter descendants include relict populations
The founding ethnicity of Mogadishu and its subsequent sultanate has been a topic of serious intrigue in Somali Studies. I.M Lewis believed that the city was founded and ruled by a council of Arab and Persian families. Yaqut al-Hamawi, a famous Muslim medieval geographer in the year 1220 describes Mogadishu as the most prominent town on the coast. Yaqut also mentioned Mogadishu as being a town inhabited by Berbers, described as ”dark-skinned” and considered ancestors of modern Somali ...
Mogadishu Sultanate was a medieval Somali sultanate centered in southern Somalia. It rose as one of the pre-eminent powers in the Horn of Africa under the rule of Fakhr ad-Din before becoming part of the expanding Ajuran Empire in the 13th century. The Mogadishu Sultanate maintai
In the early 13th century, Mogadishu along with other coastal and interior Somali cities in southern Somalia came under the Ajuran Sultanate control and experienced another Golden Age. By the 1500s, Mogadishu was no longer a vassal state and became a full fledged Ajuran city. An
By the 17th century, the Hiraab Imamate was a powerful kingdom that ruled large parts of southern and central Somalia. It successfully revolted against the Ajuran Sultanate and established an independent rule for at least two centuries from the seventeen hundreds and onwards. The
In 1892, Osman Ahmed leased the city to Italy. Italy purchased the city in 1905 and made Mogadishu the capital of the newly established Italian Somaliland. In the early 1930s, the new Italian governors, Guido Corni and Maurizio Rava, started a policy of non-coercive assimilation of locals. Many Mogadishu residents were subsequently enlisted into the Italian colonial troops and thousands of Italian settlers moved to live in the city. Mogadishu also re-assumed its historic position as an important
- Order of Battle
- Published Accounts
- See Also
- External Links
In January 1991, Somali President Mohamed Siad Barre was overthrown by a coalition of opposing clans, precipitating the Somali Civil War. The Somali National Army concurrently disbanded, and some former soldiers reconstituted as irregular regional forces or joined the clan militias. The main rebel group in the capital Mogadishu was the United Somali Congress (USC), which later divided into two armed factions: one led by Ali Mahdi Muhammad, who became president; and the other by Mohamed Farrah Aidid. In total, four opposition groups competed for political control: the USC; the Somali Salvation Democratic Front (SSDF); the Somali Patriotic Movement (SPM); and the Somali Democratic Movement (SDM). A ceasefire was agreed to in June 1991, but failed to hold. A fifth group, the Somali National Movement (SNM), declared independence in the northwest portion of Somalia later in June. The SNM renamed this unrecognized territory Somaliland, and selected its leader Abdirahman Ahmed Ali Tuuras p...
U.S. and UNOSOM
Units involved in the battle: 1. Task Force Ranger, including: 1.1. C Squadron, 1st Special Forces Operational Detachment-Delta (1st SFOD-D) – aka Delta Force 1.2. Bravo Company, 3rd Ranger Battalion, 75th Ranger Regiment 1.3. 1st Battalion, 160th Special Operations Aviation Regiment(Airborne) (The Night Stalkers) with MH-6J and AH-6 "Little Birds" and MH-60 A/L Black Hawks 1.4. Combat Controllers and Pararescuemen from the 24th Special Tactics Squadron 1.5. Navy SEALs from the Naval Special...
The size and organizational structure of the Somali militia forces involved in the battle are not known in detail. In all, between 2,000–4,000 regular faction members are believed to have participated, almost all of whom belonged to Aidid's Somali National Alliance. They drew largely from his Habar Gidir Hawiyeclan, who battled U.S. troops starting 12 July 1993. The Somali National Alliance (SNA) was formed 14 August 1992. It began as the United Somali Congress (USC) under Aidid's leadership....
On 3 October 1993, special operations forces consisting of Bravo Company 3rd Battalion, the 75th Ranger Regiment, the 1st Special Forces Operational Detachment-Delta, and the 160th Aviation Battalion, attempted to capture Aidid's foreign minister, Omar Salad Elmim and his top political advisor, Mohamed Hassan Awale. The plan was that Delta operators would assault the target building using MH-6 Little Bird helicopters, and secure the targets inside the building. Four Ranger chalks under Captain Michael D. Steele's command would fast-rope down from hovering MH-60L Black Hawks. Rangers would create a four-corner defensive perimeter around the target building to isolate it and ensure that no enemy could get in or out. A column of nine HMMWVs (High Mobility Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicle) and three M939 five-ton trucks under Lieutenant Colonel Danny McKnight'scommand would arrive at the building to take the entire assault team and their prisoners back to base. The entire operation was esti...
At 13:50, Task Force Ranger analysts received intelligence of Salad's location. The soldiers, vehicle convoys, and helicopters were on high alert stand by until the code word "Irene" was echoed across all the radio channels by command. The code word "Irene" was the word that began the mission and sent the helicopters into the air. At 15:42, the MH-6 assault Little Birds carrying the Delta operators hit the target, the wave of dust becoming so bad that one was forced to go around again and land out of position. Next, the two Black Hawks carrying the second Delta assault team led by DELTA officer Captain Austin S. Miller came into position and dropped their teams as the four Ranger chalks prepared to rope onto the four corners surrounding the target building. Chalk Four being carried by Black Hawk Super 67, piloted by CW3 Jeff Niklaus, was accidentally put a block north of their intended point. Declining the pilot's offer to move them back down due to the time it would take to do so,...
After the battle, the bodies of several of the conflict's U.S. casualties (Black Hawk Super 64's crewmembers and their defenders, Delta Force soldiers MSG Gordon and SFC Shughart) were dragged through Mogadishu's streets by crowds of local civilians and SNAforces. Through negotiation and threats to the Habar Gidir clan leaders by the U.S. Special Envoy for Somalia, Robert B. Oakley, all the bodies were eventually recovered. The bodies were returned in poor condition, one with a severed head. Michael Durantwas released after 11 days of captivity. On the beach near the base, a memorial was held for those who were killed in combat.
In 1999, writer Mark Bowden published the book Black Hawk Down: A Story of Modern War, which chronicles the events that surrounded the battle. The book was based on his series of columns for The Philadelphia Inquirerabout the battle and the men who fought. Falcon Brigade: Combat and Command in Somalia and Haiti,by Lawrence E. Casper (Col. USA Ret.), published in 2001 by Lynne Rienner Publishers, Inc. Boulder, Colorado and London, England. Casper was the 10th Mountain Division's Falcon Brigade and QRF Commander during the TF Ranger rescue effort. Eleven months later, Falcon Brigade, under Casper's leadership, launched Army forces from the Navy aircraft carrier Eisenhower onto the shores of Haiti in an operation to reinstate Haitian President Aristide. Black Hawk pilot Michael Durant told his story of being shot down and captured by a mob of Somalis in his 2003 book In the Company of Heroes. In 2011, Staff Sergeant Keni Thomas, a U.S. Army Ranger recounted the combat experience in a m...Bowden, Mark (1999). Black Hawk Down: A Story of Modern War. Berkeley, CA: Atlantic Monthly Press. ISBN 0-87113-738-0.Eversmann, Matthew (SSG) (2005). The Battle of Mogadishu: Firsthand Accounts from the Men of Task Force Ranger. Presidio Press. ISBN 0345466683.Wright, Lawrence (2006). The Looming Tower: Al-Qaeda and the Road to 9/11. New York: Knopf. ISBN 037541486X.Allard, Colonel Kenneth, Somalia Operations: Lessons Learned, National Defense University Press(1995).Boykin, William (Maj. Gen.), Never Surrender, Faith Words, New York, NY, (2008).Chun, Clayton K.S., Gothic Serpent: Black Hawk Down, Mogadishu 1993. Osprey Raid Series #31. Osprey Publishing (2012). ISBN 9781849085847Clarke, Walter, and Herbst, Jeffrey, editors, Learning from Somalia: The Lessons of Armed Humanitarian Intervention, Westview Press(1997).
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Trade between the people in the Mogadishu area with other areas along the Somali Sea coast of Africa started as early as the 1st century. Muslim traders from the Arabian Peninsula came to the area during the 10th century. Because of trade with them, Islam spread through Somalia. The Portuguese tried to take control of the city, but failed. In 1871 Barghash bin Said, the sultan of Zanzibar, controlled the city. In 1892, Ali bin Said let Italy use the city. Italy bought the city in 1905. They made Mogadiscio (Italian for Mogadishu) the capital of Italian Somaliland. The Italians took control of the area around the city in 1919 after minor resistance. Italian Mogadiscio from a small village of 1,000 inhabitants in the 1890s to a modern capital in 1940 of nearly 100,000 persons (of whom more than 1/3 were Italians), that was second only to Asmara in Eritrea for development inside the Italian Empire. British forces that were in Kenya during World War II captured Mogadishu on February 26,...
Mogadishu is a commercial and financial center for Somalia. The economy got better after the Somali Civil War but there are still problems. Because there is no government, there is free trade without taxes or regulatory costs. This makes businesses not cost as much as it does in other places. Businesses have hired armed militias to have security. This is causing less violencein the city. The main industries of the city include making food and beverages as well as textiles. The main textile is cotton. The main market many different types of goods from food to electronicitems. Mogadishu has the most port traffic of any port in Somalia. It is still a major seaport. However, there is much piracy around Somalia's coastal areas. This makes trade risky.Badbaado refugee camp (large refugee campoutside Mogadishu)
- Mohamed Omar Habeb Dhere
Mogadishu under Italian control was the capital of Italian Somalia during the nearly eighty years of Italy's colonial rule in Somalia.In those years the city grew from a medieval village of a few thousand inhabitants in the late 19th century to a modern capital with a population of nearly 150,000 "mogadiscians", nicknamed "the pearl of the Indian ocean" in 1960.