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  1. Coat of Arms of Russia - Simple English Wikipedia, the free ...

    simple.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coat_of_Arms_of_Russia

    The double eagle was added Ivan IIII after his marriage with the Byzantine princess Sophia Paleologue. She was the niece of Constantine XI, the last Byzantine Emperor. The double-headed eagle was the symbol of the Byzantine Empire. The orb and scepter held by the eagle are heraldic symbols of sovereign power and autocracy. Other part

  2. Coat of arms of Russia - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/State_seals_of_the_Russian...

    The coat of arms of the Russian Federation derives from the earlier coat of arms of the Russian Empire which was abolished with the Russian Revolution in 1917. Though modified more than once since the reign of Ivan III (1462–1505), the current coat of arms is directly derived from its medieval original, with the double-headed eagle having Byzantine and earlier antecedents from long before ...

    • Gules, a double-headed Imperial Eagle displayed, twice imperially crowned, grasping in the dexter claw an imperial sceptre, and in the sinister claw an imperial orb, all Or. In chief another larger imperial crown with issuant and pendent therefrom a ribbon of the Order of St. Andrew the First-Called, also Or., The Imperial Eagle is charged on the breast with an escutcheon: Gules, an image of St. George Martyr the Victorious in complete armour Argent, wearing a flying cloak Azure, riding a horse in full gallop Argent; the latter treading upon a dragon crawling in base Or, whose head the rider is piercing through with a spear Argent.
  3. Portal:Europe - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Europe_portal

    Europe is a continent that comprises the westernmost part of Eurasia. Europe is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the west, and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. To the east and southeast, Europe is generally considered as separated from Asia by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus Mountains , the Ural ...

  4. Lambang elang berkepala dua dijadikan oleh Ivan III sebagai lambangnya sejak pernikahannya dengan putri Byzantium Sophia Paleologue pada 2 November 1472, yang pamannya Constantine XI Palaeologus adalah kaisar terakhir Byzantium.

    • Kesatria berkuda putih yang membunuh naga
    • 30 November 1993
  5. Coat of Arms of Russia Objects | Navigation menu

    sztjytr.blogspot.com/2019/10/coat-of-arms-of...

    The double eagle was added Ivan IIII after his marriage with the Byzantine princess Sophia Paleologue. She was the niece of Constantine XI, the last Byzantine Emperor. The double-headed eagle was the symbol of the Byzantine Empire. The orb and scepter held by the eagle are heraldic symbols of sovereign power and autocracy. Other part |

  6. 1859 – Wikipedia

    fi.wikipedia.org/wiki/1859?oldformat=true

    19. heinäkuuta – Sophia Maria, hollantilainen purjealus upposi Hailuodon pohjoispuolella. 4. elokuuta – Höytiäisen kanava syntyi, kun järvenlasku epäonnistui ja Höytiäisen järven pinta laski 7,5 metriä.

  7. Coat of arms of Russia - The Reader Wiki, Reader View of ...

    thereaderwiki.com/en/Coat_of_arms_of_Russia

    The coat of arms of the Russian Federation derives from the earlier coat of arms of the Russian Empire which was abolished with the Russian Revolution in 1917. Though modified more than once since the reign of Ivan III (1462–1505), the current coat of arms is directly derived from its medieval origi

  8. Constantinople — Wikipédia

    fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Constantinopolitain

    Constantinople fut bâtie sur le site de l’antique ville de Byzance dont la plupart des sources antiques attribuent la fondation légendaire à deux héros mythiques, Byzas, fils d’une nymphe ou d’un roi thrace, ainsi qu’un certain Antes [N 1], [1], [2].

    • Nomenclature
    • History
    • Government and Bureaucracy
    • Science, Medicine and Law
    • Culture
    • Economy
    • Legacy
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    The first use of the term "Byzan­tine" to label the later years of the Roman Em­pire was in 1557, when the Ger­man his­to­rian Hi­erony­mus Wolf pub­lished his work Cor­pus His­toriæ Byzantinæ, a col­lec­tion of his­tor­i­cal sources. The term comes from "Byzan­tium", the name of the city of Con­stan­tino­ple be­fore it be­came Con­stan­tine's cap­i­tal. This older name of the city would rarely be used from this point on­ward ex­cept in his­tor­i­cal or po­etic con­texts. The pub­li­ca­tion in 1648 of the Byzan­tine du Louvre (Cor­pus Scrip­to­rum His­to­riae Byzan­ti­nae), and in 1680 of Du Cange's His­to­ria Byzantina fur­ther pop­u­larised the use of "Byzan­tine" among French au­thors, such as Mon­tesquieu.How­ever, it was not until the mid-19th cen­tury that the term came into gen­eral use in the West­ern world. The Byzan­tine Em­pire was known to its in­hab­i­tants as the "Roman Em­pire", the "Em­pire of the Ro­mans" (Latin: Im­perium Romanum, Im­perium Romanorum; Greek: Βα­σι­...

    Early history

    The Roman army suc­ceeded in con­quer­ing many ter­ri­to­ries cov­er­ing the en­tire Mediter­ranean re­gion and coastal re­gions in south­west­ern Eu­rope and north Africa. These ter­ri­to­ries were home to many dif­fer­ent cul­tural groups, both urban pop­u­la­tions and rural pop­u­la­tions. Gen­er­ally speak­ing, the east­ern Mediter­ranean provinces were more ur­banised than the west­ern, hav­ing pre­vi­ously been united under the Mace­don­ian Em­pire and Hel­lenisedby the in­flu­ence of G...

    Decentralization of power

    To main­tain con­trol and im­prove ad­min­is­tra­tion, var­i­ous schemes to di­vide the work of the Roman Em­peror by shar­ing it be­tween in­di­vid­u­als were tried be­tween 286 and 324, from 337 to 350, from 364 to 392, and again be­tween 395 and 480. Al­though the ad­min­is­tra­tive sub­di­vi­sions var­ied, they gen­er­ally in­volved a di­vi­sion of labour be­tween East and West. Each di­vi­sion was a form of power-shar­ing (or even job-shar­ing), for the ul­ti­mate im­periumwas not di­vis...

    Recentralisation

    In 330, Con­stan­tine moved the seat of the Em­pire to Con­stan­tino­ple, which he founded as a sec­ond Rome on the site of Byzan­tium, a city strate­gi­cally lo­cated on the trade routes be­tween Eu­rope and Asia and be­tween the Mediter­ranean and the Black Sea. Con­stan­tine in­tro­duced im­por­tant changes into the Em­pire's mil­i­tary, mon­e­tary, civil and re­li­gious in­sti­tu­tions. As re­gards his eco­nomic poli­cies in par­tic­u­lar, he has been ac­cused by cer­tain schol­ars of "re...

    In the Byzan­tine state, the em­peror was the sole and ab­solute ruler, and his power was re­garded as hav­ing di­vine origin. The Sen­ate had ceased to have real po­lit­i­cal and leg­isla­tive au­thor­ity but re­mained as an hon­orary coun­cil with tit­u­lar mem­bers. By the end of the 8th cen­tury, a civil ad­min­is­tra­tion fo­cused on the court was formed as part of a large-scale con­sol­i­da­tion of power in the cap­i­tal (the rise to pre-em­i­nence of the po­si­tion of sakel­lar­ios is re­lated to this change). The most im­por­tant ad­min­is­tra­tive re­form, which prob­a­bly started in the mid-7th cen­tury, was the cre­ation of themes, where civil and mil­i­tary ad­min­is­tra­tion was ex­er­cised by one per­son, the strat­e­gos. De­spite the oc­ca­sion­ally deroga­tory use of the terms "Byzan­tine" and "Byzan­ti­nism", the Byzan­tine bu­reau­cracyhad a dis­tinct abil­ity for re­con­sti­tut­ing it­self in ac­cor­dance with the Em­pire's sit­u­a­tion. The elab­o­rate sys­tem of...

    The writ­ings of Clas­si­cal an­tiq­uity were cul­ti­vated and ex­tended in Byzan­tium. There­fore, Byzan­tine sci­ence was in every pe­riod closely con­nected with an­cient phi­los­o­phy, and meta­physics. In the field of en­gi­neer­ing Isidore of Mile­tus, the Greek math­e­mati­cian and ar­chi­tect of the Hagia Sophia, pro­duced the first com­pi­la­tion of Archimedes' works c. 530, and it is through this man­u­script tra­di­tion, kept alive by the school of math­e­mat­ics and en­gi­neer­ing founded c. 850 dur­ing the "Byzan­tine Re­nais­sance" by Leo the Geome­ter, that such works are known today (see Archimedes Palimpsest). Byzan­tines stood be­hind sev­eral tech­no­log­i­cal ad­vance­ments. Pen­den­tivear­chi­tec­ture, a spe­cific spher­i­cal form in the upper cor­ners to sup­port a dome, is a Byzan­tine in­ven­tion. Al­though the first ex­per­i­men­ta­tion was made in the 200s, it was in the 6th-cen­tury in Byzan­tine Em­pire that its po­ten­tial was fully achieved. A me­chan­i...

    Religion

    The Byzan­tine Em­pire was a theoc­racy, said to be ruled by God work­ing through the Em­peror. Jen­nifer Fret­land Van­Voorst ar­gues, "The Byzan­tine Em­pire be­came a theoc­racy in the sense that Chris­t­ian val­ues and ideals were the foun­da­tion of the em­pire's po­lit­i­cal ideals and heav­ily en­twined with its po­lit­i­cal goals." Steven Runci­man says in his book on The Byzan­tine Theocracy(2004): 1. The constitution of the Byzantine Empire was based on the conviction that it was th...

    Cuisine

    The Byzan­tine cul­ture was, ini­tially, the same as Late Greco-Ro­man, but over the fol­low­ing mil­len­nium of the em­pire's ex­is­tence it slowly changed into some­thing more sim­i­lar to mod­ern Balkan and Ana­to­lian cul­ture. The cui­sine still re­lied heav­ily on the Greco-Ro­man fish-sauce condi­ment garos, but it also con­tained foods still fa­mil­iar today, such as the cured meat pa­stirma (known as "pas­ton" in Byzan­tine Greek), baklava (known as kop­to­plak­ous κοπτοπλακοῦς), tir...

    Flags and insignia

    For most of its his­tory, the Byzan­tine Em­pire did not know or use her­aldry in the West Eu­ro­pean sense. Var­i­ous em­blems (Greek: ση­μεία, sēmeia; sing. σημείον, sēmeion) were used in of­fi­cial oc­ca­sions and for mil­i­tary pur­poses, such as ban­ners or shields dis­play­ing var­i­ous mo­tifs such as the cross or the labarum. The use of the cross, and of im­ages of Christ, the Vir­gin Mary and var­i­ous saints is also at­tested on sealsof of­fi­cials, but these were per­sonal rather t...

    The Byzan­tine econ­omy was among the most ad­vanced in Eu­rope and the Mediter­ranean for many cen­turies. Eu­rope, in par­tic­u­lar, could not match Byzan­tine eco­nomic strength until late in the Mid­dle Ages. Con­stan­tino­ple op­er­ated as a prime hub in a trad­ing net­work that at var­i­ous times ex­tended across nearly all of Eura­sia and North Africa, in par­tic­u­lar as the pri­mary west­ern ter­mi­nus of the fa­mous Silk Road. Until the first half of the 6th cen­tury and in sharp con­trast with the de­cay­ing West, the Byzan­tine econ­omy was flour­ish­ing and resilient. The Plague of Jus­tin­ian and the Arab con­quests would rep­re­sent a sub­stan­tial re­ver­sal of for­tunes con­tribut­ing to a pe­riod of stag­na­tion and de­cline. Isaurian re­forms and, in par­tic­u­lar, Con­stan­tine V's re­pop­u­la­tion, pub­lic works and tax mea­sures, marked the be­gin­ning of a re­vival that con­tin­ued until 1204, de­spite ter­ri­to­r­ial contraction.From the 10th cen­tury until t...

    Byzan­tium has been often iden­ti­fied with ab­so­lutism, or­tho­dox spir­i­tu­al­ity, ori­en­tal­ism and ex­oti­cism, while the terms "Byzan­tine" and "Byzan­ti­nism" have been used as by­words for deca­dence, com­plex bu­reau­cracy, and re­pres­sion. In the coun­tries of Cen­tral and South­east Eu­rope that ex­ited the East­ern Bloc in the late 1980s and early 1990s, the as­sess­ment of Byzan­tine civil­i­sa­tion and its legacy was strongly neg­a­tive due to their con­nec­tion with an al­leged "East­ern au­thor­i­tar­i­an­ism and au­toc­racy." Both East­ern and West­ern Eu­ro­pean au­thors have often per­ceived Byzan­tium as a body of re­li­gious, po­lit­i­cal, and philo­soph­i­cal ideas con­trary to those of the West. Even in 19th-cen­tury Greece, the focus was mainly on the clas­si­cal past, while Byzan­tine tra­di­tion had been as­so­ci­ated with neg­a­tive connotations. This tra­di­tional ap­proach to­wards Byzan­tium has been par­tially or wholly dis­puted and re­vised by mod...

    Byzantine Empire on In Our Time at the BBC
    12 Byzantine Rulers by Lars Brownworth of The Stony Brook School; audio lectures. NYTimes review.
  9. Aleksander I av Russland – Wikipedia

    no.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alexander_I_av_Russland

    Storkors av Æreslegionen, ridder av den Hellige Ånds orden, ridder av Sankt Mikaels orden, ridder av ordenen Det gylne skinn, storkors av den militære Maria Teresia-ordenen, ridder av Sankt Aleksander Nevskij-ordenen, Den sorte ørns orden, Andreasordenen, 4. klasse av Sankt Georgsordenen, Sankt Stanislaus-ordenen, ridder storkors av den militære Wilhelmsordenen (1818), 1. klasse av Den ...