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      • Special relativity (or the special theory of relativity) is a theory in physics that was developed and explained by Albert Einstein in 1905. It applies to all physical phenomena, so long as gravitation is not significant. Special relativity applies to Minkowski space , or "flat spacetime" (phenomena which are not influenced by gravitation).
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  2. Einstein’s Relativity Explained in 4 Simple Steps › science › article

    May 16, 2017 · Albert Einstein’s theory of relativity is famous for predicting some really weird but true phenomena, like astronauts aging slower than people on Earth and solid objects changing their shapes at...

  3. Einstein's Theory of Special Relativity | Space › 36273-theory-special-relativity
    • History. Before Einstein, astronomers (for the most part) understood the universe in terms of three laws of motion...
    • Famous equation. Einstein's work led to some startling results, which today still seem counterintuitive at first glance...
    • Special relativity and quantum mechanics. As our knowledge of physics has advanced,...
  4. Special relativity - Wikipedia › wiki › Special_relativity

    Traditional "two postulates" approach to special relativity The Principle of Relativity – the laws by which the states of physical systems undergo change are not affected, whether... The Principle of Invariant Light Speed – "... light is always propagated in empty space with a definite velocity ...

  5. Einstein's Special Relativity - dummies › einsteins-special-relativity

    By Andrew Zimmerman Jones, Daniel Robbins. In 1905, Albert Einstein published the theory of special relativity, which explains how to interpret motion between different inertial frames of reference — that is, places that are moving at constant speeds relative to each other. Einstein explained that when two objects are moving at a constant speed as the relative motion between the two objects, instead of appealing to the ether as an absolute frame of reference that defined what was going on.

  6. special relativity | Definition & Equation | Britannica › science › special-relativity

    May 28, 2021 · special relativity, part of the wide-ranging physical theory of relativity formed by the German-born physicist Albert Einstein. It was conceived by Einstein in 1905. Along with quantum mechanics, relativity is central to modern physics.

  7. Einstein's Theory of Special Relativity Explained - Physics101 › glossary › special-relativity
    • Einstein’s Postulates
    • Effects of Special Relativity
    • Mass-Energy Relationship
    • Speed of Light
    • Adopting Special Relativity

    There were two key postulates: 1. Principle of Relativity (First Postulate): The laws of physics are the same for all inertial reference frames. 2. Principle of Constancy of the Speed of Light (Second Postulate): Light always propagates through a vacuum (i.e. empty space or “free space”) at a definite velocity, c, which is independent of the state of motion of the emitting body. See Albert Einstein and His introduction to the Concept of Relativity. The paper presents a more formal, mathematical formulation of the postulates. The phrasing of the postulates is slightly different from textbook to textbook because of translation issues, from mathematical German to comprehensible English. The second postulate is often mistakenly written to include that the speed of light in a vacuum is c in all frames of reference. This is a derived result of the two postulates, rather than part of the second postulate itself. The first postulate is pretty much common sense. The second postulate, however...

    Special relativity yields several consequences from applying Lorentz transformations at high velocities (near the speed of light). Among them are: 1. Time dilation (including the popular “twin paradox”) 2. Length contraction 3. Velocity transformation 4. Relativistic velocity addition 5. Relativistic doppler effect 6. Simultaneity & clock synchronization 7. Relativistic momentum 8. Relativistic kinetic energy 9. Relativistic mass 10. Relativistic total energy In addition, simple algebraic manipulations of the above concepts yield two significant results that deserve individual mention.

    Einstein was able to show that mass and energy were related, through the famous formulaE=mc2. This relationship was proven most dramatically to the world when nuclear bombs released the energy of mass in Hiroshima and Nagasaki at the end of World War II.

    No object with mass can accelerate to precisely the speed of light. A massless object, like a photon, can move at the speed of light. (A photon doesn’t actually accelerate, though, since it always moves exactly at the speed of light.) But for a physical object, the speed of light is a limit. The kinetic energy at the speed of light goes to infinity, so it can never be reached by acceleration. Some have pointed out that an object could in theory move at greater than the speed of light, so long as it did not accelerate to reach that speed. So far no physical entities have ever displayed that property, however.

    In 1908, Max Planck applied the term “theory of relativity” to describe these concepts, because of the key role relativity played in them. At the time, of course, the term applied only to special relativity, because there was not yet any general relativity. Einstein’s relativity was not immediately embraced by physicists as a whole, because it seemed so theoretical and counterintuitive. When he received his 1921 Nobel Prize, it was specifically for his solution to the photoelectric effect and for his “contributions to Theoretical Physics.” Relativity was still too controversial to be specifically referenced. Over time, however, the predictions of special relativity have been shown to be true. For example, clocks flown around the world have been shown to slow down by the duration predicted by the theory.

  8. Apr 13, 2018 · When the theory of relativity appeared in the early 1900s, it upended centuries of science and gave physicists a new understanding of space and time. Isaac Newton saw space and time as fixed, but...

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