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      • Stephen III of Moldavia, also called Stephen the Great (Romanian: Ştefan cel Mare) or Stephen Muşat III (Borzeşti, 1433 – Suceava, 1504-07-02) was a voivod (prince) of Moldova (1457 - 1504), who won renown in Europe for his long resistance against the Ottoman Empire.
      en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Talk:Stephen_III_of_Moldavia#:~:text=Stephen%20III%20of%20Moldavia%2C%20also%20called%20Stephen%20the,for%20his%20long%20resistance%20against%20the%20Ottoman%20Empire.
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  2. Stephen the Great - Figures in History - WorldAtlas

    www.worldatlas.com/articles/stephen-the-great...
    • Early Life
    • Return to Moldavia
    • Reign
    • Death and Legacy

    Stephen the Great was born in 1435 in the Musatin family which was the ruling family at the time. His father name was Bogdan II. Bogdan II ruled for only two years from 1449 to 1451 before he was killed in a raid by Petru Aron, his half-brother. Stephen sought refuge in Transylvania, acquiring protection from military commander John Hunyadi. Afterward, Stephen relocated to the court of Vlad III.

    In 1457, Stephen the Great negotiated for a military assistance of six thousand horsemen who he used to defeat Petru Aron at Doljesti. Stephen afterward defeated Aron in another combat at Orbic. The defeat prompted Aron to flee to Poland while Stephen the Great was crowned prince of Moldavia. He led an incursion into Poland two years later in search of Aron. However, the invasion was met with resistance forcing him to sign a treaty in which he would be acknowledged as king and in which Aron was barred from Moldavia.

    When Stephen became king of Moldavia in 1457, the state was menaced by powerful and dangerous enemies. As a man of faith and a defender of Christendom, he sought an appeal from Christian states to protect his reign. He met little success in his search for European assistance against the Turks. He managed to keep his reign for 47 years using his diplomacy skills and victories in wars. In 1467, Stephen victoriously led repulsion against king Matthias Corvinus of Hungary at the battle of Baia. In 1471, he defeated an invading Tartar force at Lipnic and at the same time invaded Wallachia. During the invasion, Wallachia had been a vassal of the Ottoman Empire. In 1475, Stephen crushed invaders from when the then king of Ottoman, sultan Mehmed attempted to retaliate on Moldavia.

    Despite Moldavia being surrounded by powerful enemies, Stephen the Great left a legacy having won 34 out of 36 battles which his state participated in during his rule. During his long reign, many churches and monasteries were built as well as and cultural developments, some of which were set up by Stephen himself. An example is the Voronet which is one of UNESCO's World Heritage Site. Stephen the great died on July 2, 1504.

    • Sundra Chelsea Atitwa
  3. Stephen III of Moldavia | Military Wiki | Fandom

    military.wikia.org/wiki/Stephen_III_of_Moldavia
    • Early Life and Rise to Power
    • Rule
    • Main Battles
    • Illness and Death
    • Canonization
    • Legacy
    • See Also
    • External Links

    Stephen was born in Borzești and was a member of the ruling House of Mușat. His father Bogdan II had ruled Moldavia for two years (1449 to 1451) before being killed in a stealthy raid led by Stephen's uncle, Petru Aron. Bogdan II was attending a wedding of one of his boyars – who apparently was in collusion with Petru Aron – and the surprise was complete. Stephen barely escaped with his life, but his father was captured and beheaded on the spot by his stepbrother Petru Aron. Between 1451 and 1457, Moldavia was in turmoil from the civil war between Petru Aron and Alexăndrel – a nephew of Alexander the Good. Following the outbreak of the conflict, Stephen took refuge in Transylvania, seeking the protection of military commander John Hunyadi. After that, he moved to the court of his first cousin Vlad III Dracula and, in 1457, managed to receive 6,000 horsemen as military assistance, putting them to use in a victorious battle against Petru Aron at Doljești, near Roman. Following another...

    Menaced by powerful neighbours, he successfully repelled an invasion by the Hungarian King Matthias Corvinus, defeating him in the Battle of Baia (in 1467), crushed an invading Tatar force at Lipnic and invaded Wallachia in 1471 (the latter had by then succumbed to Ottoman power and had become its vassal). When the Ottoman Sultan Mehmed II launched a retaliatory attack on Moldavia, Stephen defeated the invaders at the Battle of Vaslui in 1475, a victory which temporarily halted the Turkish advance. Stephen was defeated at Războieni (Battle of Valea Albă) the next year, but the Ottomans had to retreat after they failed to take any significant castle (see siege of Cetatea Neamțului) as a plague started to spread in the Ottoman army. Stephen's search for European assistance against the Turks met with little success, even though he had "cut off the pagan's right hand" – as he put it in a letter. Stefan helped to oust Vlad Țepeș's brother, Radu the Handsome who had converted to Islam and...

    Battle of Baia

    The Battle of Baia was fought on December 15, 1467 against the armies of Hungarian King, Matthias Corvinus. The battle was the last Hungarian attempt to subdue the independent Moldavia, as previous attempts had ended in failure. Corvinus invaded Moldavia due to Stephen's annexation of Chilia — a fortress and harbour at the coast of the Black Sea, which at the time was controlled by Hungarian and Wallachianforces, though it had belonged to Moldavia centuries earlier. The conflict ended with a...

    Battle of Vaslui

    The Battle of Vaslui (also referred as Battle of Podul Înalt or the Battle of Racova) was fought on January 10, 1475, against the Ottoman Beylerbeyi of Rumelia, Hadım Suleyman Pasha. The battle took place at Podul Înalt (the High Bridge), near the town of Vaslui, in Moldavia (now part of eastern Romania). The Ottomantroops numbered up to 120,000, facing about 40,000 Moldavian troops, plus smaller numbers of allied and mercenary troops. Stephen inflicted on the Ottomans a decisive defeat that...

    Battle of Valea Albă

    After the disaster of the Battle of Vaslui, the Sultan Mehmed II assembled a large army and entered Moldavia in June 1476. Meanwhile groups of Tartars from the Crimean Khanate (the Ottomans' recent ally) were sent to attack Moldavia. Romanian sources may state that they were repelled,. Other sources state that joint Ottoman and Crimean Tartar forces "occupied Bessarabia and took Akkerman, gaining control of southern mouth of Danube. Stephan tried to avoid open battle with the Ottomans by foll...

    In 1462, during the assault of Chilia Nouǎ, Stephen was shot in the leg. The wound never fully healed. In 1486, during the battle of Șcheia, his horse was injured. They both fell and Stephen was trapped under the horse. The incident aggravated his old leg injury. Over time, he summoned to his royal court many doctors, astrologists and other persons, who attempted to heal his wound. Among these were Hermann, "bacalaurio in medicina", astrologist Baptista de Vesentio, Maestro Zoano barbero from Genoa (in 1468), Isaac Beg (in 1473), Don Antonio Branca (skilled in fixing cut noses), Mateo Muriano from Venice (in 1502), and Hieronimo di Cesena from Venice (in 1503). Towards the end of his life, Stephen suffered from gout, which immobilized his hands and legs. On November 9, 1503, Vladislav, King of Hungary wrote to the Doge of Venice: "The voivode of Moldavia is tormented by an old illness." On June 30, 1504 Stephen's wound was cauterized by the doctors present in Suceava (one of whom wa...

    Stephen the Great is perceived by the Romanian Orthodox Church as a defender of the faith, of the Church, and the whole of Christianity. Stephen's opposition to the Ottoman Empire protected the entirety of Europe from an invasion. After the Battle of Vaslui, Pope Sixtus IV named Stephen "the Champion of Christ" (Athleta Christi). It is said that he built 44 churches and monasteries (see List of churches established by Stephen III of Moldavia), one for each battle that he won (44 out of a total of 48). At the end of the 20th century, the Romanian Orthodox Church decided to canonize Stephen. The canonization was enacted on June 20, 1992 by the Synodic Council of the Romanian Orthodox Church. Stephen is called "Saint Voivode Stephen the Great". His feast day in the Romanian Orthodox calendar is July 2, the day of his death.

    Though it was marked by continual strife, Stephen's long reign brought considerable cultural development; many churches and monasteries were erected by Stephen himself; some of which, including Voroneț, are now part of UNESCO's World Heritagesites. Stephen was seen as holy by many Christians, soon after his death.[citation needed] He has been canonized a saint by the Romanian Orthodox Church under the name "The Right-believing Voivode Stephen the Great and the Holy". In a 2006 Romanian national television campaign on TVR 1 (see Mari Români), Stephen III was voted by almost 40,000 viewers as the "Greatest Romanian" of all times.

    Putna Monastery
    Voronet Monastery
    Neamț Monastery
    • 1433 Borzești(?), Moldavia
  4. Stephen III of Moldavia (1433-1504) | Familypedia | Fandom

    familypedia.wikia.org/wiki/Stephen_III_of...
    • Rule
    • Main Battles
    • Illness and Death
    • Canonization
    • Legacy
    • See Also
    • External Links
    • Footnotes

    Menaced by powerful neighbours, he successfully repelled an invasion by the Hungarian King Matthias Corvinus, defeating him in the Battle of Baia (in 1467), crushed an invading Tatar force at Lipnic and invaded Wallachia in 1471 (the latter had by then succumbed to Ottoman power and had become its vassal). When the Ottoman Sultan Mehmed II launched a retaliatory attack on Moldavia, Stephen defeated the invaders at the Battle of Vaslui in 1475, a victory which temporarily halted the Turkish advance. Stephen was defeated at Războieni (Battle of Valea Albă) the next year, but the Ottomans had to retreat after they failed to take any significant castle (see siege of Cetatea Neamțului) as a plague started to spread in the Ottoman army. Stephen's search for European assistance against the Turks met with little success, even though he had "cut off the pagan's right hand" - as he put it in a letter. Stephen helped to oust Vlad Țepeș's brother, Radu the Handsome who had converted to Islam an...

    Battle of Baia

    The Battle of Baia (Hungarian: Moldvabányai csata) was fought on 15 December 1467 against the armies of Hungarian King, Matthias Corvinus. The battle was the last Hungarian attempt to subdue the independent Moldavia, as previous attempts had ended in failure. Corvinus invaded Moldavia due to Stephen's annexation of Chilia — a fortress and harbour at the coast of the Black Sea, which at the time was controlled by Hungarian and Wallachianforces, though it had belonged to Moldavia centuries earl...

    Battle of Vaslui

    The Battle of Vaslui (also referred to as the Battle of Vászló or the Battle of Podul Înalt or the Battle of Racova or Hungarian Vászlói csata) was fought on January 10, 1475, against the Ottoman Beylerbeyi of Rumelia, Hadım Suleyman Pasha. The battle took place at Podul Înalt (the High Bridge), near the town of Vaslui, in Moldavia (now part of eastern Romania). The Ottomantroops numbered up to 120,000, facing about 40,000 Moldavian troops, plus smaller numbers of allied and mercenary troops....

    Battle of Valea Albă

    After the disaster of the Battle of Vaslui, the Sultan Mehmed II assembled a large army and entered Moldavia in June 1476. Meanwhile groups of Tartars from the Crimean Khanate (the Ottomans' recent ally) were sent to attack Moldavia. Romanian sources may state that they were repelled,. Other sources state that joint Ottoman and Crimean Tartar forces "occupied Bessarabia and took Akkerman, gaining control of southern mouth of Danube. Stephan tried to avoid open battle with the Ottomans by foll...

    In 1462, during the assault of Chilia Nouǎ, Stephen was shot in the leg. The wound never fully healed. In 1486, during the battle of Șcheia, his horse was injured. They both fell and Stephen was trapped under the horse. The incident aggravated his old leg injury. Over time, he summoned to his royal court many doctors, astrologists and other persons, who attempted to heal his wound. Among these were Hermann, "bacalaurio in medicina", astrologist Baptista de Vesentio, Maestro Zoano barbero from Genoa (in 1468), Isaac Beg (in 1473), Don Antonio Branca (skilled in fixing cut noses), Mateo Muriano from Venice (in 1502), and Hieronimo di Cesena from Venice (in 1503). Towards the end of his life, Stephen suffered from gout, which immobilized his hands and legs. On November 9, 1503, Vladislav, King of Hungary wrote to the Doge of Venice: "The voivode of Moldavia is tormented by an old illness." On June 30, 1504 Stephen's wound was cauterized by the doctors present in Suceava (one of whom wa...

    Stephan the Great is perceived by the Romanian Orthodox Church as a defender of the faith, of the Church, and the whole of Christianity. Stephen's opposition to the Ottoman Empire protected the entirety of Europe from an invasion. After the Battle of Vaslui, Pope Sixtus IV named Stephen "the Champion of Christ" (Athleta Christi). It is said that he built 44 churches and monasteries, one for each battle that he won (44 out of a total of 48). At the end of the 20th century, the Romanian Orthodox Churchdecided to canonize Stephen. The canonization was enacted on June 20, 1992 by the Synodic Council of the Romanian Orthodox Church. Stephen is called "Saint Voivode Stephen the Great". His feast day in the Romanian Orthodox calendar is July 2, the day of his death.

    Though it was marked by continual strife, Stephen's long reign brought considerable cultural development; many churches and monasteries were erected by Stephen himself; some of which, including Voroneț, are now part of UNESCO's World Heritagesites. Stephen was seen as holy by many Christians, soon after his death. He has been canonized a saint by the Romanian Orthodox Church under the name "The Right-believing Voivode Stephen the Great and the Holy". In a 2006 Romanian national television campaign on TVR 1 (see Mari Români), Stephen III was voted by almost 40,000 viewers as the "Greatest Romanian" of all times.

    Putna Monastery
    Voronet Monastery
    Neamț Monastery
    Neamț Citadel
    Article in Romanian: Vlad Țepeș și Ștefan cel Mare - Prieteni sau dușmani?
    The Princely Court of Ştefan's son, Alexandru, in Bacău - images, layouts (at the Romanian Group for an Alternative History Website)

    Warning:Default sort key "Stephen 03 Of Moldavia" overrides earlier default sort key "of Moldavia, Stephen III".

    • 1433 Borzești, Bacău County, Moldavia, Romania
    • Evdokia Olelkovna (c1444-1467)
    • Bogdan II of Moldavia
    • Maria of Mangup (c1440-1477)
  5. Stephen III of Moldavia - Infogalactic: the planetary ...

    infogalactic.com/info/Stephen_III_of_Moldavia
    • Personal Life and Rise to Power
    • Rule
    • Main Battles
    • Illness and Death
    • Canonization
    • Legacy
    • See Also
    • External Links

    Stephen was born in Borzești and was a member of the ruling House of Mușat. His father Bogdan II had ruled Moldavia for two years (1449 to 1451) before being killed in a stealthy raid led by Stephen's uncle, Petru Aron. Bogdan II was attending a wedding of one of his boyars – who apparently was in collusion with Petru Aron – and the surprise was complete. Stephen barely escaped with his life, but his father was captured and beheaded on the spot by his stepbrother Petru Aron. Between 1451 and 1457, Moldavia was in turmoil from the civil war between Petru Aron and Alexăndrel – a nephew of Alexander the Good. Following the outbreak of the conflict, Stephen took refuge in Transylvania, seeking the protection of military commander John Hunyadi. After that, he moved to the court of his first cousin Vlad III Dracula. In 1457, with Vlad's help, he managed to receive 6,000 horsemen as military assistance, putting them to use in a victorious battle against Petru Aron at Doljești, near Roman....

    Menaced by powerful neighbours, he successfully repelled an invasion by the Hungarian King Matthias Corvinus, defeating him in the Battle of Baia (in 1467), crushed an invading Tatar force at Lipnic and invaded Wallachia in 1471 (the latter had by then succumbed to Ottoman power and had become its vassal). When the Ottoman Sultan Mehmed II launched a retaliatory attack on Moldavia, Stephen defeated the invaders at the Battle of Vaslui in 1475, a victory which temporarily halted the Turkish advance. Stephen was defeated at Războieni (Battle of Valea Albă) the next year, but the Ottomans had to retreat after they failed to take any significant castle (see siege of Cetatea Neamțului) as a plague started to spread in the Ottoman army. Stephen's search for European assistance against the Turks met with little success, even though he had "cut off the pagan's right hand" – as he put it in a letter. Stefan helped to oust Vlad Țepeș's brother, Radu the Handsome who had converted to Islam and...

    Battle of Baia

    The Battle of Baia was fought on December 15, 1467 against the armies of Hungarian King, Matthias Corvinus. The battle was the last Hungarian attempt to subdue the independent Moldavia, as previous attempts had ended in failure. Corvinus invaded Moldavia due to Stephen's annexation of Chilia — a fortress and harbour at the coast of the Black Sea, which at the time was controlled by Hungarian and Wallachianforces, though it had belonged to Moldavia centuries earlier. The conflict ended with a...

    Battle of Vaslui

    The Battle of Vaslui (also referred as Battle of Podul Înalt or the Battle of Racova) was fought on January 10, 1475, against the Ottoman Beylerbeyi of Rumelia, Hadım Suleiman Pasha. The battle took place at Podul Înalt (the High Bridge), near the town of Vaslui, in Moldavia (now part of eastern Romania). The Ottomantroops numbered up to 120,000, facing about 40,000 Moldavian troops, plus smaller numbers of allied and mercenary troops. Stephen inflicted on the Ottomans a decisive defeat that...

    Battle of Valea Albă

    After the disaster of the Battle of Vaslui, the Sultan Mehmed II assembled a large army and entered Moldavia in June 1476. Meanwhile, groups of Tartars from the Crimean Khanate (the Ottomans' recent ally) were sent to attack Moldavia. Romanian sources may state that they were repelled,. Other sources state that joint Ottoman and Crimean Tartar forces "occupied Bessarabia and took Akkerman, gaining control of southern mouth of Danube. Stephan tried to avoid open battle with the Ottomans by fol...

    In 1462, during the assault of Chilia Nouǎ, Stephen was shot in the leg. The wound never fully healed. In 1486, during the battle of Șcheia, his horse was injured. They both fell and Stephen was trapped under the horse. The incident aggravated his old leg injury. Over time, he summoned to his royal court many doctors, astrologists and other persons, who attempted to heal his wound. Among these were Hermann, "bacalaurio in medicina", astrologist Baptista de Vesentio, Maestro Zoano barbero from Genoa (in 1468), Isaac Beg (in 1473), Don Antonio Branca (skilled in fixing cut noses), Mateo Muriano from Venice (in 1502), and Hieronimo di Cesena from Venice (in 1503). Towards the end of his life, Stephen suffered from gout, which immobilized his hands and legs. On November 9, 1503, Vladislav, King of Hungary wrote to the Doge of Venice: "The voivode of Moldavia is tormented by an old illness." On June 30, 1504 Stephen's wound was cauterized by the doctors present in Suceava (one of whom wa...

    Stephen the Great is perceived by the Romanian Orthodox Church as a defender of the faith, of the Church, and the whole of Christianity. Stephen's opposition to the Ottoman Empire protected the entirety of Europe from an invasion. After the Battle of Vaslui, Pope Sixtus IV named Stephen "the Champion of Christ" (Athleta Christi). It is said that he built 44 churches and monasteries (see List of churches established by Stephen III of Moldavia), one for each battle that he won (44 out of a total of 48). At the end of the 20th century, the Romanian Orthodox Churchdecided to canonize Stephen. The canonization was enacted on June 20, 1992 by the Synodic Council of the Romanian Orthodox Church. Stephen is called "Saint Voivode Stephen the Great". His feast day in the Romanian Orthodox calendar is July 2, the day of his death.

    File:Stephen the Great monument in Nisporeni.JPG 14 Princes of Moldova (between 1504-1668) had Stephen the Great as a direct ancestor. Though it was marked by continual strife, Stephen's long reign brought considerable cultural development; many churches and monasteries were erected by Stephen himself; some of which, including Voroneț and Putna, are now part of UNESCO's World Heritagesites. Stephen was seen as holy by many Christians, soon after his death.[citation needed] He has been canonized a saint by the Romanian Orthodox Church under the name "The Right-believing Voivode Stephen the Great and the Holy". In a 2006 Romanian national television campaign on TVR 1 (see Mari Români), Stephen III was voted by almost 40,000 viewers as the "Greatest Romanian" of all times.

    • April 12, 1457 – July 2, 1504
    • July 2, 1504 (aged 70-71), Suceava, Moldavia
  6. Battle of Vaslui - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Vaslui

    The Battle of Vaslui was fought on 10 January 1475, between Stephen III of Moldavia and the Ottoman governor of Rumelia, Hadım Suleiman Pasha. The battle took place at Podul Înalt, near the town of Vaslui, in Moldavia. The Ottoman troops numbered up to 120,000, facing about 40,000 Moldavian troops, plus smaller numbers of allied and mercenary troops. Stephen inflicted a decisive defeat on the Ottomans, with casualties according to Venetian and Polish records reaching beyond 40,000 on the ...

    • Decisive Moldavian victory
  7. Who was Stefan cel Mare? - Quora

    www.quora.com/Who-was-Stefan-cel-Mare

    Aug 15, 2017 · Stefan Cel Mare (Stefan “the Great”) otherwise known as Stephen III of Moldavia was a Moldovan prince and war-lord who lived during the 15th century and reigned over his province for a record 47 years.

  8. History of Moldova - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Moldova

    Stephen III was succeeded by increasingly weaker princes, and in 1538 Moldavia became a vassal of the Ottoman Empire, to which it owed a percentage of the internal revenue, that in time rose to 10%. Moldavia was forbidden to have foreign relations to the detriment of the Ottoman Empire (although at times the country managed to circumvent this ...

  9. Moldovița Monastery - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moldovița_Monastery

    The Moldovița Monastery (Romanian: Mânăstirea Moldovița) is a Romanian Orthodox monastery situated in the commune of Vatra Moldoviței, Suceava County, Moldavia, Romania. The Monastery of Moldovița was built in 1532 by Petru Rareș, who was Stephen III of Moldavia's illegitimate son. It was founded as a protective barrier against the ...

  10. Romania - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Republic_of_Romania

    Princes Mircea I and Vlad III of Wallachia, and Stephen III of Moldavia defended their countries' independence against the Ottomans. Most Wallachian and Moldavian princes paid a regular tribute to the Ottoman sultans from 1417 and 1456, respectively.

  11. Moldavia - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moldavia

    Stephen blocked Hungarian interventions in the Battle of Baia, invaded Wallachia in 1471, and dealt with Ottoman reprisals in a major victory (the 1475 Battle of Vaslui); after feeling threatened by Polish ambitions, he also attacked Galicia and resisted Polish reprisals in the Battle of the Cosmin Forest (1497).

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