- Early Life and Rise to Power
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Stephen was a member of the ruling Muşatin family. His father Bogdan II had ruled Moldavia for two years (1449 to 1451) before being killed in a stealthy raid led by Stephen's uncle, Petru Aron. Bogdan II was attending a wedding of one of his boyars (nobles)—who apparently was in collusion with Petru Aron—and the surprise was complete. Stephen barely escaped with his life, but his father was captured and beheaded on the spot by his half-brother Petru Aron. Between 1451 and 1457, Moldavia was troubled by civil war between Petru Aron and Alexăndrel—a nephew of Alexandru cel Bun. Following the outbreak of the conflict, Stephen took refuge in Transylvania, seeking the protection of military commander John Hunyadi. After that, he moved to the court of Vlad III Dracula and, in 1457, managed to negotiate 6,000 horsemen as military assistance, putting them to use in a victorious battle against Petru Aron at Doljeşti, known to history as an "irresponsible and bloodthirsty tyrant."Following a...
at Războieni (Battle of Valea Albă) the next year, but the Ottomans had to retreat after they failed to take any significant castle (see siege of Cetatea Neamţului) as a plague started to spread in the Ottoman army. Stephen's search for European assistance against the Turks met with little success, even though he had "cut off the pagan's right hand"—as he put it in a letter. According to one source, he felt himself called to defend Christendom and sent out appeals for help from Christian states. According to another source, he also attempted an alliance with the Shah of Persia, suggesting that he saw the enemy more in national terms than religious; "in a vain hope of organizing a world wide coalition against the Turks," he "entered into negotiation with Veniceand the Shah of Persia." Menaced by powerful neighbors, he successfully repelled an invasion by the Hungarian King Matthias Corvinus, defeating him in the Battle of Baia (in 1467), crushed an invading Tartar force at Lipnic and...
Stephen said that he had waged 36 battles, of which he won 34. Though it was marked by continual strife, Stephen's long reign brought considerable cultural development; many churches and monasteries were erected by Stephen himself; some of which, including Voroneţ, are now part of UNESCO's World Heritage sites. Stephen was seen as holy by many Christians, soon after his death. He has been canonized a saintby the Romanian Orthodox Church under the name "The Right-believing Voivod Stephen the Great and the Holy." In a 2006 Televiziunea Română (Romanian national television) campaign on TVR 1, Stephen III was voted by almost 40,000 viewers as the "Greatest Romanian" of all time. The iconic status enjoyed by Stephen and by Michael the Braveis expressed thus by Boia, who describes the two heroes as "the embodiment of heroism, the wellspring of power, of belief and of pride for the Romanian people." Seton-Watson says that he was "equally great as a warrior and an administrator," was genero...
Stephen appears in the game Stronghold Legends, where he is called "Stefan Cel Mare." He is portrayed as a young and heroic character, who in many ways could be seen as the main protagonist. Early...Boia, Lucian. 2001. History and Myth in Romanian Consciousness. Budapest: Central European University Press. ISBN 9789639116962.Sadoveanu, Mihail, and Mihail Sadoveanu. 1991. The Hatchet; The Life of Stephen the Great. Classics of Romanian literature, v. 3. [S.l.]: East European Monographs. ISBN 9780880332378.Seton-Watson, R. W. 1934. A History of the Roumanians; From Roman Times to the Completion of Unity. Cambridge: University Press. OCLC 1485519.Shaw, Stanford J., and Ezel Kural Shaw. 1976. History of the Ottoman Empire and modern Turkey. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521212809.
The Battle of Vaslui (also referred to as the Battle of Podul Înalt or the Battle of Racova) was fought on 10 January 1475, between Stephen III of Moldavia and the Ottoman governor of Rumelia, Hadım Suleiman Pasha. The battle took place at Podul Înalt (the High Bridge), near the town of Vaslui, in Moldavia (now part of eastern Romania).
On 10 May 1466, Prince Stephen III “the Great” of Moldavia 1 (r. 1457–1504) issued a chrysobull 2 to Zographou Monastery on Mount Athos (see Appendix). 3 This princely charter documents the first of an annually recurring monetary donation from Stephen to a monastery on the peninsula in Greece home to the largest and oldest Eastern Orthodox monastic community of its kind ().
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The conflict between Stephen and Ottoman Sultan Mehmed II worsened when both laid their claims to the historical region of Bessarabia, now known under the name of Budjak. The region had belonged to Wallachia, but later succumbed to Moldavian influence under Petru I of Moldavia and was possibly annexed to Moldavia in the late 14th century by Roman I of Moldavia. Under Alexandru cel Bun, it had become an integral part of Moldavia and was successfully defended in 1420 against the first Ottoman attempt to capture castle Chilia. The ports of Chilia and Akkerman (Romanian: Cetatea Albā) were essential for Moldavian commerce. The old trade route from Caffa, Akkerman, and Chilia passed through Suceava in Moldavia and Lwowin Poland (now in Ukraine). In 1448, Petru II of Moldavia awarded Chilia to John Hunyadi, the governor of Transylvania; and in effect, it gave Hungary control of the strategic area on the Danube, with access to the Black Sea. With the assassination of Bogdan II of Moldavia...
Mehmed ordered his general, Suleiman Pasha, to end the siege of Venetian-controlled Shkodër (now in Albania), to assemble his troops in Sofia, and from there to advance with additional troops towards Moldavia. For these already exhausted Ottoman troops, who had besieged the city from May 17 to August 15, the transit from Shkodër to Moldavia was a month's journey through bad weather and difficult terrain. According to Długosz, Suleiman was also ordered that after inflicting defeat on Stephen,...
Stephen was hoping to gain support from the West, and more specifically from the Pope. However, the help that he received was modest in numbers. The Hungarian Kingdom sent 1,800 Hungarians, while Poland sent 2,000 horsemen. Stephen recruited 5,000 Székely soldiers. The Moldavian army consisted of twenty cannon; light cavalry (Călăraşi); elite, heavy cavalry – named Viteji, Curteni, and Boyars – and professional foot soldiers. The army reached a strength of up to 40,000, of whom 10,000 to 15,0...
The invading army entered Moldavia in December 1474. In order to fatigue the Ottomans, Stephen had instituted a policy of scorched earth and poisoned waters. Troops who specialised in setting ambushes harassed the advancing Ottomans. The population and livestock were evacuated to the north of the country into the mountains.Ottoman scouts reported to Suleiman that there were untouched villages near Vaslui, and the Ottomans headed for that region. The winter made it difficult to set camp, which forced the Ottomans to move quickly and head for the Moldavian capital, Suceava. In order to reach Vaslui, where the Moldavian army had its main camp, they needed to cross Podul Înalt over the Bârlad River. The bridge was made of wood and not suitable for heavy transportation of troops. Stephen chose that area for the battle – the same location where his father, Bogdan II, had defeated the Poles in 1450; and where he, at an age of 17, had fought side-by-side with Vlad 'the Impaler'. The area wa...
After the battle, Stephen sent "four of the captured Turkish commanders, together with thirty-six of their standards and much splendid booty, to King Casimir in Poland", and implored him to provide troops and money to support the Moldavians in the struggle against the Ottomans. He also sent letters and a few prisoners and Turkish standards to the Pope and Hungarian King Matthias Corvinus, asking for support. In response, "the arrogant Matthias writes to the Pope, the Emperor and other kings and princes, telling them that he has defeated a large Turkish army with his own forces under the Voivode of Wallachia." The Pope's reply to Stephen denied him help, but awarded him with the "Athleta Christi", while King Casimir pleaded "poverty both in money and men" and did nothing; his own men then accused him of sloth, and advised him to change his shameful behaviour or hand over his rule to someone else. Chronicler Jan Długoszhailed Stephen for his victory in the battle: Hassan tried to crea...
During his reign of Moldavia, Stephen III had a small wooden fort built in the town to defend the settlement from Tatar raids.  In 1538, the Ottoman sultan Suleiman the Magnificent conquered the town from Moldavia, and renamed it Bender .
- 97.29 km² (37.56 sq mi)
- 15 m (49 ft)
- Moldova (de jure)
1475 Stephen III of Moldavia defeats the Ottoman Empire at the Battle of Vaslui 1514 Complutensian New Testament in Hebrew, Aramaic, Greek & Latin finished 1550 1st sitting of "Vurige Chamber" in Paris
Albert was Stephen III of Moldavia’s only clear “no” during the royal elections. 23 Magyar Országos Levéltár Budapest (hereafter MOL), Diplomatikai Levéltár (hereafter DL), no. 27740 (18th of April 1492; edited in Actae et epistolae, vol. I, no. 39, 43–45). Stephen III’s
Jan 10, 1972 · 1475 – Stephen III of Moldavia defeats the Ottoman Empire at the Battle of Vaslui.. 1776 – Common Sense Pamphlet by Thomas Paine, published advocating American independence. Sports in 1972
Jan 10, 1970 · January 10, 1970 was the 2nd Saturday of that year. ... 1475 – Stephen III of Moldavia defeats the Ottoman Empire at the ... NBA – New York Knicks beat Los ...
-‘How to Finance a Greek Rite Athlete: Rome, Venice and Stephen III of Moldavia (1470s-1490s)’, at Partir en croi-sade à la fin du Moyen Âge. Financement et logistique (Institución Milá y Fontanals, CSIC, Barcelona – Casa de Velázquez, Madrid – Agence Nationale de la Recherche, UMR 5136, Toulouse), Barcelona (May 6-7, 2010: May 7 ...