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Your doctor will conduct a physical exam, look for signs and symptoms of strep throat, and probably order one or more of the following tests: 1. Rapid antigen test. Your doctor will likely first perform a rapid antigen test on a swab sample from your throat. This test can detect strep bacteria in minutes by looking for substances (antigens) in the throat. If the test is negative but your doctor still suspects strep, he or she might do a throat culture. 2. Throat culture. A sterile swab is rub...
Medications are available to cure strep throat, relieve its symptoms, and prevent its complications and spread.
In most cases, antibiotics will quickly wipe out the bacteria causing the infection. In the meantime, try these tips to relieve symptoms of strep throat: 1. Get plenty of rest. Sleep helps your body fight infection. If you have strep throat, stay home from work if you can. If your child is ill, keep him or her at home until there's no sign of fever, and he or she feels better and has taken an antibiotic for at least 24 hours. 2. Drink plenty of water. Keeping a sore throat lubricated and mois...
When you make the appointment, ask if there's anything you need to do in advance, such as fasting before having a specific test. Make a list of: 1. Symptoms you or your child has, including any that seem unrelated to the reason for your appointment 2. Key personal information, including major stresses, recent life changes, family medical history and possible sources of recent infection 3. All medications, vitamins or other supplements you or your child takes, including the doses 4. Questions...
Strep throat is caused by bacteria, which means you or your child have antibiotics you can take to treat it. And there are things you can do at home to feel better, too.
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Strep is an infection that attacks your throat and tonsils. Strep refers to "group A streptococcus." It's named after the type of bacteria that causes the disease.. This condition is most common ...
Strep throat is a common infection. Symptoms include severe sore throat, difficulty swallowing, fever, swollen lymph nodes in the neck, throat that is bright red in color, and white or yellow spots on the throat. Antibiotics are used to treat strep throat.
What is Strep Throat? Strep throats are a type of bacterial sore throat caused by Streptococcus pyrogene bacteria, a type of Group A streptococci. They are common in children aged five to fifteen years, but rare in children under the age of three.
- Clinical Features
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- Epidemiology and Surveillance
Group A strep pharyngitis is an infection of the oropharynx caused by S. pyogenes. S. pyogenes are gram-positive cocci that grow in chains (see figure 1). They exhibit β-hemolysis (complete hemolysis) when grown on blood agar plates. They belong to group A in the Lancefield classification system for β-hemolytic Streptococcus, and thus are called group A streptococci.
Group A strep pharyngitis is an acute pharyngitis that commonly presents with 1. Sudden-onset of sore throat 2. Odynophagia 3. FeverOther symptoms may include headache, abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting — especially among children. Patients with group A strep pharyngitis typically do not typically have cough, rhinorrhea, hoarseness, oral ulcers, or conjunctivitis. These symptoms strongly suggest a viral etiology.On clinical examination, patients with group A strep pharyngitis usually have...
Group A strep pharyngitis is most commonly spread through direct person-to-person transmission. Typically transmission occurs through saliva or nasal secretions from an infected person. People with group A strep pharyngitis are much more likely to transmit the bacteria to others than asymptomatic pharyngeal carriers. Crowded conditions — such as those in schools, daycare centers, or military training facilities — facilitate transmission. Although rare, spread of group A strep infections may a...
Group A strep pharyngitis can occur in people of all ages. It is most common among children 5 through 15 years of age. It is rare in children younger than 3 years of age.The most common risk factor is close contact with another person with group A strep pharyngitis. Adults at increased risk for group A strep pharyngitis include: 1. Parents of school-aged children 2. Adults who are often in contact with childrenCrowding, such as found in schools, military barracks, and daycare centers, increas...
The differential diagnosis of acute pharyngitis includes multiple viral and bacterial pathogens. Viruses are the most common cause of pharyngitis in all age groups. Experts estimate that group A strep, the most common bacterial cause, causes 20% to 30% of pharyngitis episodes in children. In comparison, experts estimate it causes approximately 5% to 15% of pharyngitis infections in adults.History and clinical examination can be used to diagnose viral pharyngitis when clear viral symptoms are...
Clinicians should confirm group A strep pharyngitis in children older than 3 years of age to appropriately guide treatment decisions. Giving antibiotics to children with confirmed group A strep pharyngitis can reduce their risk of developing sequela (acute rheumatic fever). Testing for group A strep pharyngitis is not routinely indicated for: 1. Children younger than 3 years of age 2. AdultsAcute rheumatic fever is very rare in those age groups.Clinicians can use a positive RADT as confirmati...
The use of a recommended antibiotic regimen to treat group A strep pharyngitis: 1. Shortens the duration of symptoms 2. Reduces the likelihood of transmission to family members, classmates, and other close contacts 3. Prevents the development of complications, including acute rheumatic feverWhen left untreated, the symptoms of group A strep pharyngitis are usually self-limited. However, acute rheumatic fever and suppurative complications (e.g., peritonsillar abscess, mastoiditis) are more lik...
Asymptomatic group A strep carriers usually do not require treatment. Carriers have positive throat cultures or are RADT positive, but do not have clinical symptoms or an immunologic response to group A strep antigens on laboratory testing. Compared to people with symptomatic pharyngitis, carriers are much less likely to transmit group A strep to others. Carriers are also very unlikely to develop suppurative or nonsuppurative complications.Some people with recurrent episodes of acute pharyngi...
Rarely, suppurative and nonsuppurative complications can occur after group A strep pharyngitis. Suppurative complications result from the spread of group A strep from the pharynx to adjacent structures. They can include: 1. Peritonsillar abscess 2. Retropharyngeal abscess 3. Cervical lymphadenitis 4. MastoiditisOther focal infections or sepsis are even less common.Acute rheumatic fever is a nonsuppurative sequelae of group A strep pharyngitis. Post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis is a nonsup...
Good hand hygiene and respiratory etiquette can reduce the spread of all types of group A strep infection. Hand hygiene is especially important after coughing and sneezing and before preparing foods or eating. Good respiratory etiquette involves covering your cough or sneeze. Treating an infected person with an antibiotic for 24 hours or longer generally eliminates their ability to transmit the bacteria. Thus, people with group A strep pharyngitis should stay home from work, school, or daycar...
Humans are the only reservoir for group A strep. It is most common among children 5 through 15 years of age. It is rare in children younger than 3 years of age. In the United States, group A strep pharyngitis is most common during the winter and spring.CDC does not track the incidence of group A strep pharyngitis or other non-invasive group A strep infections. CDC tracks invasive group A strep infections through the Active Bacterial Core surveillance (ABCs) program. For information on the inc...
1. Shulman ST, Bisno AL, Clegg HW, Gerber MA, Kaplan EL, Lee G, et al. Clinical practice guideline for the diagnosis and management of group A streptococcal pharyngitis: 2012 update by the Infectious Diseases Society of AmericaExternal. Clin Infect Dis. 2012;55(10):1279–82. 2. Shulman ST, Bisno AL, Clegg HW, Gerber MA, Kaplan EL, Lee G, et al. Erratum to clinical practice guideline for the diagnosis and management of group A streptococcal pharyngitis: 2012 update by the Infectious Diseases S...
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