Streptomycin is an antibiotic medication used to treat a number of bacterial infections, including tuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium complex, endocarditis, brucellosis, Burkholderia infection, plague, tularemia, and rat bite fever. For active tuberculosis it is often given together with isoniazid, rifampicin, and pyrazinamide. It is administered by injection into a vein or muscle. Common side effects include vertigo, vomiting, numbness of the face, fever, and rash. Use during pregnancy may resul
Streptomycin is an aminoglycoside antibiotic derived from Streptomyces griseus with antibacterial activity. Streptomycin irreversibly binds to the 16S rRNA and S12 protein within the bacterial 30S ribosomal subunit.
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1. Infective endocarditis: An infection of the endocardium caused by enterococcus; used when the organism is not sensitive to gentamicin[medical citation needed] 2. Tuberculosis: Used in combination with other antibiotics. For active tuberculosis it is often given together with isoniazid, rifampicin, and pyrazinamide. It is not the first-line treatment, except in medically under-served populations where the cost of more expensive treatments is prohibitive. It may be useful in cases where resi...
Streptomycin also is used as a pesticide, to combat the growth of bacteria beyond human applications. Streptomycin controls bacterial diseases of certain fruit, vegetables, seed, and ornamental crops. A major use is in the control of fireblight on apple and pear trees. As in medical applications, extensive use can be associated with the development of resistant strains. Streptomycin could potentially be used to control cyanobacterial blooms in...
Streptomycin, in combination with penicillin, is used in a standard antibiotic cocktail to prevent bacterial infection in cell culture.[medical citation needed]
The most concerning side effects, as with other aminoglycosides, are kidney toxicity and ear toxicity. Transient or permanent deafness may result. The vestibular portion of cranial nerve VIII (the vestibulocochlear nerve) can be affected, resulting in tinnitus, vertigo, ataxia, kidney toxicity, and can potentially interfere with diagnosis of kidney malfunction. Common side effects include vertigo, vomiting, numbness of the face, fever, and rash. Fever and rashes may result from persistent use. Use is not recommended during pregnancy. Congenital deafness has been reported in children whose mothers received streptomycin during pregnancy. Use appears to be okay while breastfeeding. It is not recommended in people with myasthenia gravis.
Streptomycin is a protein synthesis inhibitor. It binds to the small 16S rRNA of the 30S subunit of the bacterial ribosome irreversibly, interfering with the binding of formyl-methionyl-tRNA to the 30S subunit. This leads to codon misreading, eventual inhibition of protein synthesis and ultimately death of microbial cells through mechanisms that are still not understood. Speculation on this mechanism indicates that the binding of the molecule to the 30S subunit interferes with 50S subunit association with the mRNA strand. This results in an unstable ribosomal-mRNA complex, leading to a frameshift mutation and defective protein synthesis; leading to cell death. Humans have ribosomes which are structurally different from those in bacteria, so the drug does not have this effect in human cells. At low concentrations, however, streptomycin only inhibits growth of the bacteria by inducing prokaryoti...
Streptomycin was first isolated on October 19, 1943, by Albert Schatz, a PhD student in the laboratory of Selman Abraham Waksman at Rutgers University in a research project funded by Merck and Co. Waksman and his laboratory staff discovered several antibiotics, including actinomycin, clavacin, streptothricin, streptomycin, grisein, neomycin, fradicin, candicidin, and candidin. Of these, streptomycin and neomycin found extensive application in the treatment of numerous infectious diseases. Streptomycin was the first antibiotic cure for tuberculosis (TB). In 1952 Waksman was the recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in recognition "for his discovery of streptomycin, the first antibiotic active against tuberculosis". Waksman was later accused of playing down the role of Schatz who did the work under his supervision, claiming that Elizabeth Bugiehad a more important role in its devel...
Philip D'Arcy Hart– The British medical researcher and pioneer in tuberculosis treatment in the early twentieth century."Notebooks Shed Light on an Antibiotic's Contested Discovery," The New York Times, June 12, 2012, by Peter PringleKingston, William (2004). "Streptomycin, Schatz v. Waksman, and the Balance of Credit for Discovery". Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences. 59 (3): 441–462. doi:10.1093/jhmas/jrh0...Mistiaen, Veronique (November 2, 2002). "Time, and the great healer". The Guardian.. The history behind the discovery of streptomycin.
Streptomyces is the largest genus of Actinobacteria and the type genus of the family Streptomycetaceae. Over 500 species of Streptomyces bacteria have been described. As with the other Actinobacteria, streptomycetes are gram-positive, and have genomes with high GC content. Found predominantly in soil and decaying vegetation, most streptomycetes produce spores, and are noted for their distinct "earthy" odor that results from production of a volatile metabolite, geosmin. Streptomycetes are charact
May 16, 2017 · • Streptomycin is highly resistant to the action of enzymes and other biological agents. • Streptomycin is relatively nontoxic to man. But after the use of streptomycin, reactions such as presence of pain, irritation, headache, fever, blood pressure drop, disturbances in eighth cranial nerve, skin eruption, albumin in urine may take place. 10.
May 03, 2020 · Media in category "Streptomycin". The following 10 files are in this category, out of 10 total. Core structure of pen-strep.png 500 × 500; 9 KB. Strep1.png 460 × 290; 34 KB. Streptomycin structure.png 883 × 593; 15 KB. Streptomycin-1ntb-xtal-3D-balls.png 1,100 × 789; 234 KB.