The telecommunications industries within the sector of information and communication technology is made up of all telecommunications/telephone companies and internet service providers and plays the crucial role in the evolution of mobile communications and the information society. Traditional telephone calls continue to be the industry's biggest revenue generator, but thanks to advances in network technology, telecom today is less about voice and increasingly about text and images. High-speed in
Given this growth, telecommunications play an increasingly important role in the world economy and the global telecommunications industry was about a $4.7 trillion sector in 2012.   The service revenue of the global telecommunications industry was estimated to be $1.5 trillion in 2010, corresponding to 2.4% of the world's gross domestic ...
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- Ancient Systems and Optical Telegraphy
- Electrical Telegraph
- Radio and Television
- Semiconductor Era
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Early telecommunications included smoke signals and drums. Talking drums were used by natives in Africa, and smoke signals in North America and China. Contrary to what one might think, these systems were often used to do more than merely announce the presence of a military camp. In Rabbinical Judaisma signal was given by means of kerchiefs or flags at intervals along the way back to the high priest to indicate the goat "for Azazel" had been pushed from the cliff. Homing pigeons have occasionally been used throughout history by different cultures. Pigeon post had Persianroots, and was later used by the Romans to aid their military. Greek hydraulic semaphore systems were used as early as the 4th century BC. The hydraulic semaphores, which worked with water filled vessels and visual signals, functioned as optical telegraphs. However, they could only utilize a very limited range of pre-determined messages, and as with all such optical telegraphs could only be deployed during good visibi...
Experiments on communication with electricity, initially unsuccessful, started in about 1726. Scientists including Laplace, Ampère, and Gausswere involved. An early experiment in electrical telegraphy was an 'electrochemical' telegraph created by the German physician, anatomist and inventor Samuel Thomas von Sömmerring in 1809, based on an earlier, less robust design of 1804 by Spanish polymath and scientist Francisco Salva Campillo. Both their designs employed multiple wires (up to 35) in order to visually represent almost all Latin letters and numerals. Thus, messages could be conveyed electrically up to a few kilometers (in von Sömmerring's design), with each of the telegraph receiver's wires immersed in a separate glass tube of acid. An electric current was sequentially applied by the sender through the various wires representing each digit of a message; at the recipient's end the currents electrolysed the acid in the tubes in sequence, releasing streams of hydrogen bubbles next...
The electric telephone was invented in the 1870s, based on earlier work with harmonic (multi-signal) telegraphs. The first commercial telephone services were set up in 1878 and 1879 on both sides of the Atlantic in the cities of New Haven, Connecticut in the US and London, England in the UK. Alexander Graham Bell held the master patent for the telephone that was needed for such services in both countries. All other patents for electric telephone devices and features flowed from this master patent. Credit for the invention of the electric telephone has been frequently disputed, and new controversies over the issue have arisen from time-to-time. As with other great inventions such as radio, television, the light bulb, and the digital computer, there were several inventors who did pioneering experimental work on voice transmission over a wire, who then improved on each other's ideas. However, the key innovators were Alexander Graham Bell and Gardiner Greene Hubbard, who created the fir...
Over several years starting in 1894, the Italian inventor Guglielmo Marconi worked on adapting the newly discovered phenomenon of radio waves to telecommunication, building the first wireless telegraphy system using them. In December 1901, he established wireless communication between St. John's, Newfoundland and Poldhu, Cornwall (England), earning him a Nobel Prize in Physics (which he shared with Karl Braun) in 1909. In 1900, Reginald Fessendenwas able to wirelessly transmit a human voice. Millimetre wave communication was first investigated by Bengali physicist Jagadish Chandra Bose during 1894–1896, when he reached an extremely high frequency of up to 60GHz in his experiments. He also introduced the use of semiconductor junctions to detect radio waves, when he patented the radio crystal detectorin 1901. In 1924, Japanese engineer Kenjiro Takayanagi began a research program on electronic television. In 1925, he demonstrated a CRT television with thermal electron emission. In 1926...
The modern period of telecommunication history from 1950 onwards is referred to as the semiconductor era, due to the wide adoption of semiconductor devices in telecommunication technology. The development of transistor technology and the semiconductor industry enabled significant advances in telecommunication technology, led to the price of telecommunications services declining significantly, and led to a transition away from state-owned narrowband circuit-switched networks to private broadband packet-switched networks. In turn, this led to a significant increase in the total number of telephone subscribers, reaching nearly 1billion users worldwide by the end of the 20th century. The development of metal–oxide–semiconductor (MOS) large-scale integration (LSI) technology, information theory and cellular networking led to the development of affordable mobile communications. There was a rapid growth of the telecommunications industry towards the end of the 20th century, primarily due t...
Visual, auditory and ancillary methods
1. Prehistoric: Fires, Beacons, Smoke signals, Communication drums, Horns 2. 6th century BCE: Mail 3. 5th century BCE: Pigeon post 4. 4th century BCE: Hydraulic semaphores 5. 1500 Korean hwacha net uses hwachas arrows to send mails throughout a town. 6. 15th century CE: Maritime flag semaphores 7. 1672: First experimental acoustic (mechanical) telephone 8. 1790: Semaphore lines(optical telegraphs) 9. 1867: Signal lamps 10. 1877: Acoustic phonograph 11. 1900; optical picture
Basic electrical signals
1. 1838: Electrical telegraph. See: Telegraph history 2. 1830s: Beginning of attempts to develop "wireless telegraphy", systems using some form of ground, water, air or other media for conduction to eliminate the need for conducting wires. 3. 1858: First trans-Atlantic telegraph cable 4. 1876: Telephone. See: Invention of the telephone, History of the telephone, Timeline of the telephone 5. 1880: Telephony via lightbeam photophones
Advanced electrical and electronic signals
1. 1896: First practical wireless telegraphy systems based on Radio. See: History of radio. 2. 1900: first television displayed only black and white images. Over the next decades, colour television were invented, showing images that were clearer and in full colour. 3. 1914: First North American transcontinental telephone calling 4. 1927: Television. See: History of television 5. 1927: First commercial radio-telephone service, U.K.–U.S. 6. 1930: First experimental videophones 7. 1934: First co...
1. Wenzlhuemer, Roland. Connecting the Nineteenth-Century World: The Telegraph and Globalization. Cambridge University Press, 2013. ISBN 9781107025288Hilmes, Michele. Network Nations: A Transnational History of American and British Broadcasting(2011)John, Richard. Network Nation: Inventing American Telecommunications(Harvard U.P. 2010), emphasis on telephoneNoll, Michael. The Evolution of Media, 2007, Rowman & LittlefieldPoe, Marshall T. A History of Communications: Media and Society From the Evolution of Speech to the Internet(Cambridge University Press; 2011) 352 pages; Documents how successive forms of communica...Katz, Randy H., "History of Communications Infrastructures", Electrical Engineering and Computer Science Department (EECS) Department, University of California, Berkeley.
Pages in category "Telecommunication industry". The following 8 pages are in this category, out of 8 total. This list may not reflect recent changes ( learn more ). Telecommunications industry.
- Television Broadcasting
- Next-Generation Networks
- Regulatory Environment
- S-Band Spectrum Scam
- Revenue and Growth
Telecommunications in India began with the introduction of the telegraph. The Indian postal and telecom sectors are one of the world's oldest. In 1850, the first experimental electric telegraph line was started between Calcutta and Diamond Harbour. In 1851, it was opened for the use of the British East India Company. The Posts and Telegraphs department occupied a small corner of the Public Works Department at that time.[irrelevant citation] The construction of 4,000 miles (6,400 km) of telegr...
Further developments and milestones
1. Pre-1902 – Cable telegraph. 2. 1901 – First wireless telegraph station established between Sagar Island and Sandhead. 3. 1907 – First Central Battery of telephones introduced in Kanpur. 4. 1913–1914 – First Automatic Exchange installed in Shimla. 5. 1927 – Radio-telegraph system between the UK and India, with Imperial Wireless Chain beam stations at Khadki and Daund. Inaugurated by Lord Irwin on 23 July by exchanging greetings with King George V. 6. 1933 – Radiotelephonesystem inaugurated...
Liberalisation and privatisation
Liberalisation of Indian telecommunication in industry started in 1981 when Prime Minister Indira Gandhi signed contracts with Alcatel CIT of France to merge with the state owned Telecom Company (ITI), in an effort to set up 5,000,000 lines per year. But soon the policy was let down because of political opposition. Attempts to liberalise the telecommunication industry were continued by the following government under the prime-minister-ship of Rajiv Gandhi. He invited Sam Pitroda, a US-based N...
Private-sector and two state-run businesses dominate the telephony segment. Most companies were formed by a recent revolution and restructuring launched within a decade, directed by Ministry of Communications and IT, Department of Telecommunications and Minister of Finance. Since then, most companies gained 2G, 3G and 4G licences and engaged fixed-line, mobile and internet business in India. On landlines, intra-circle calls are considered local calls while inter-circle are considered long-distance calls. Foreign Direct Investment policy which increased the foreign ownership cap from 49% to 100%. The Government is working to integrate the whole country in one telecom circle. For long-distance calls, the area code prefixed with a zero is dialled first which is then followed by the number (i.e., to call Delhi, 011 would be dialled first followed by the phone number). For international calls, "00" must be dialled first followed by the country code, area code and local phone number. The...
The history of the Internet in India started with the launch of services by VSNL on 15 August 1995. They were able to add about 10,000 Internet users within 6 months. However, for the next 10 years the Internet experience in the country remained less attractive with narrow-band connections having speeds less than 56 kbit/s (dial-up). In 2004, the government formulated its broadband policy which defined broadband as "an always-on Internet connection with a download speed of 256 kbit/s or above." From 2005 onward the growth of the broadband sector in the country accelerated but remained below the growth estimates of the government and related agencies due to resource issues in last-mile access which were predominantly wired-line technologies. This bottleneck was removed in 2010 when the government auctioned 3G spectrum followed by an equally high-profile auction of 4Gspectrum that set the scene for a competitive and invigorated wireless broadband market. Now Internet access in India i...
Television broadcasting began in India in 1959 by Doordarshan, a state-run medium of communication, and had slow expansion for more than two decades. The policy reforms of the government in the 1990s attracted private initiatives in this sector, and since then, satellite television has increasingly shaped popular culture and Indian society. However, still, only the government-owned Doordarshanhas the licence for terrestrial television broadcast. Private companies reach the public using satellite channels; both cable television as well as DTH has obtained a wide subscriber base in India. In 2012, India had about 148 million TV homes of which 126 million has access to cable and satellite services. Following the economic reforms in the 1990s, satellite television channels from around the world—BBC, CNN, CNBC, and other private television channels gained a foothold in the country. There are no regulations to control the ownership of satellite dish antennas and also for operating cable t...
As of June 2018, there are 328 private FM radio stations in India. Apart from the private FM radio stations, All India Radio, the national public radio broadcaster of India, runs multiple radio channels. AIR's service comprises 420 stations located across the country, reaching nearly 92% of the country's area and 99.19% of the total population. AIR originates programming in 23 languages and 179 dialects.
Historically, the role of telecommunication has evolved from that of plain information exchange to a multi-service field, with Value Added Services (VAS) integrated with various discrete networks like PSTN, PLMN, Internet Backbone etc. However, with decreasing average revenue per user and increasing demand for VAS has become a compelling reason for the service providers to think of the convergence of these parallel networks into a single core network with service layers separated from network layer. Next-generation networking is such a convergence concept which according to ITU-Tis: Access network: The user can connect to the IP-core of NGN in various ways, most of which use the standard Internet Protocol (IP). User terminals such as mobile phones, personal digital assistants (PDAs) and computers can register directly on NGN-core, even when they are roaming in another network or country. The only requirement is that they can use IP and Session Initiation Protocol (SIP). Fixed access...
LIRNEasia's Telecommunications Regulatory Environment (TRE) index, which summarises stakeholders' perception on certain TRE dimensions, provides insight into how conducive the environment is for further development and progress. The most recent survey was conducted in July 2008 in eight Asian countries, including Bangladesh, India, Indonesia, Sri Lanka, Maldives, Pakistan, Thailand, and the Philippines. The tool measured seven dimensions: i) market entry; ii) access to scarce resources; iii) interconnection; iv) tariff regulation; v) anti-competitive practices; and vi) universal services; vii) quality of service, for the fixed, mobile and broadband sectors. The results for India, point out to the fact that the stakeholders perceive the TRE to be most conducive for the mobile sector followed by fixed and then broadband. Other than for Access to ScarceResources the fixed sector lags behind the mobile sector. The fixed and mobile sectors have the highest scores for Tariff Regulation. M...
In India, electromagnetic spectrum, being a scarce resource for wireless communication, is auctioned by the Government of India to telecom companies for use. As an example of its value, in 2010, 20 MHz of 3G spectrum was auctioned for ₹677 billion (US$9.5 billion). This part of the spectrum is allocated for terrestrial communication (cell phones). However, in January 2005, Antrix Corporation (commercial arm of ISRO) signed an agreement with Devas Multimedia (a private company formed by former ISRO employees and venture capitalists from USA) for lease of S band transponders (amounting to 70 MHz of spectrum) on two ISRO satellites (GSAT 6 and GSAT 6A) for a price of ₹14 billion (US$200 million), to be paid over a period of 12 years. The spectrum used in these satellites (2500 MHz and above) is allocated by the International Telecommunication Union specifically for satellite-based communication in India. Hypothetically, if the spectrum allocation is changed for utilisation for terrestr...
The adjusted gross revenue in the telecom service sector was ₹160,814 crore (equivalent to ₹1.8 trillion or US$25.5 billion in 2019) in 2017 as against ₹198,207 crore (equivalent to ₹2.3 trillion or US$32.1 billion in 2019) in 2016, registering a negative growth of 18.87%.The major contributions to this revenue are as follows (in INR crores):Nine satellite earth stations – 8 Intelsat (Indian Ocean) and 1 Inmarsat(Indian Ocean region).Nine gateway exchanges operating from Mumbai, New Delhi, Kolkata, Chennai, Jalandhar, Kanpur, Gandhinagar, Hyderabad and Thiruvananthapuram.
- 20.05 million (Dec 2020)
- 1173.83 million (Dec 2020)
- ₹160,814 crore (US$21 billion)
- 1153.77 million (Dec 2020)
LG Corp. is the second largest Korean multi-industry company that produces electronics, chemicals, and telecommunications products and operates subsidiaries like LG Electronics, LG Display, LG Telecom, LG Boring, and LG Chem in over 80 countries. LG Corp. established as Lak-Hui Chemical Industrial Corp. in 1947.