The Governor-General of the Philippines was the title of the government executive during the colonial period of the Philippines, governed mainly by Spain and the United States, and briefly by Great Britain and Japan. They were also the representative of the executive of the ruling power. On November 15, 1935, the Commonwealth of the Philippines was established as a transitional government to prepare the country for independence from American control. The governor-general was replaced by an elect
The Governor-General of the Philippines (Spanish: Gobernador-General de las Filipinas/Capitán General de las Filipinas; Filipino: Gobernador-Heneral ng Pilipinas/Kapitan Heneral ng Pilipinas; Japanese: フィリピン総督 Firipin sōtoku) was the title of the government executive during the colonial period of the Philippines, governed mainly by Spain (1565–1898) and the United States ...
The first civilian governor-general, future president William Howard Taft, began his term in 1901. The office would continue until the establishment of the Commonwealth of the Philippines in 1935. The title of the governor-general's report varied somewhat over the years.
- Under New Spain
- Direct Spanish Control
- United States Military Government
- Insular Government
- High Commissioner to The Philippines
- Japanese Military Governors
- See Also
From 1565 to 1898, the Philippines was under Spanish rule. From 1565–1821, The governor and captain-general was appointed by the Viceroy of New Spain upon recommendation of the Spanish Cortes and governed on behalf of the Monarch of Spain. When there was a vacancy (e.g. death, or during the transitional period between governors), the Royal Audienciain Manila appoints a temporary governor from among its members. After 1821, the country was no longer under the Viceroyalty of New Spain (present-day Mexico) and administrative affairs formerly handled by New Spain were transferred to Madrid and placed directly under the Spanish Crown. Ad interim Real Audiencia
After the 1821 Mexican War of Independence, Mexico became independent and was no longer part of the Spanish Empire. The Viceroyalty of New Spain ceased to exist. The Philippines, as a result, was directly governed from Madrid, under the Crown.
The American military government was established following the defeat of Spain in the Spanish–American War. During the transition period, executive authority in all civil affairs in the Philippine government was exercised by the military governor.
On July 4, 1901, executive authority over the islands was transferred to the president of the Second Philippine Commission who had the title of Civil Governor, a position appointed by the President of the United States and approved by the United States Senate. For the first year, a Military Governor, Adna Chaffee, ruled parts of the country still resisting the American rule, concurrent with civil governor, William Howard Taft. Disagreements between the two were not uncommon. The following year, on July 4, 1902, Taft became the sole executive authority.Chaffee remained as commander of Philippine Division until September 30, 1902. The title was changed to Governor General in 1905 by an act of Congress (Public 43 - February 6, 1905). The term "insular" (from insulam, the Latin word for island) refers to U.S. island territories that are not incorporated into either a state or a federal district. All insular areas was under the authority of the U.S. Bureau of Insular Affairs, a division...
On November 15, 1935, the Commonwealth of the Philippines was inaugurated as a transitional government to prepare the country for independence. The office of President of the Philippine Commonwealth replaced the Governor-General as the country's chief executive. The Governor-General became the High Commissioner of the Philippines with Frank Murphy, the last governor-general, as the first high commissioner. The High Commissioner exercised no executive power but rather represented the colonial power, the United States Government, in the Philippines. The high commissioner moved from Malacañang Palace to the newly built High Commissioner's Residence, now the Embassy of the United States in Manila. After the Philippine independence on July 4, 1946, the last High Commissioner, Paul McNutt, became the first United States Ambassador to the Philippines.
In December 1941, the Commonwealth of the Philippines was invaded by Japan as part of World War II. The next year, the Empire of Japan sent a military governor to control the country during wartime, followed by the formal establishment of the puppet second republic.Cahoon, Ben (2000). "Philippines". World's Statesmen.Don Peterson (2007-2nd Qtr), 1898: Five Philippine Governors-General Serve Rapid Fire Terms, Philippine Philatelic Journal.Tanner, Dr. J.M. (1901-11). Improvement Era Vol.5 No. 1. Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints.
The Philippine-American War eventually ended in 1901 with the capture of Aguinaldo. Soon after, he pledged allegiance to the United States and returned to private life on his family farm. He briefly hugged the limelight when he ran for the presidency of the Philippine Commonwealth but lost to Manuel L. Quezon.
1 photographic print ; 25.3 x 30.4 cm (mount) Photo, Print, Drawing [William H. Taft, Governor-General of the Philippines, seated at desk in office with map of Manila on the wall]
Aug 15, 2016 · Manuscript reports of the Philippine Commission, 1900-15; the Governors General of the Philippines, 1916-35; the U.S. High Commissioner to the Philippine Islands, 1936-40; and the Governors General of Puerto Rico, 1909-31. Card indexes, to library holdings, 1898-1935. 350.6 CARTOGRAPHIC RECORDS (GENERAL) SEE UNDER 350.2 and 350.3.