History of Quebec (New France)
- At the time of first European contact and later colonization, Algonquian, Iroquois and Inuit nations controlled what is now Quebec.
- In 1534, Breton explorer Jacques Cartier planted a cross in the Gaspé Peninsula and claimed the land in the name of France. ...
- Initial French attempts at settling the region met with failure. ...
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- New France and English Domination
- Political Recognition in The 20th Century
- en Garde! Linguistic Debate and Evolution
- What Are Some Examples of Québécois?
- What About Québécois Expressions?
- The Thorny Question of Anglicisms
After the first European exploration of the Gulf of Saint Lawrence in 1534, France laid claim to the territory we now call Canada. Colonizers quickly established steadfast settlements, and French was imposed as the lingua francato the detriment of indigenous dialects. After Britain captured Québec and Montreal, the British Crown took official control of New France in 1763. The French elite left the province, overseas trade ceased and the teaching of French declined, while an English-speaking minority came to rule over politics and the economy. After the Canadian Confederation was established in 1867, Canadian French, which until then was a pretty standard mix of Parisian French and other France-based dialects, started to evolve more independently. At the end of the 1800s, industrialization prompted much of the rural population to move to (predominantly English-speaking) cities. Common French speech began to mingle with English. In time, this gave rise to joual — a derogatory term an...
In the 1960s, an uprising known as the Quiet Revolution led to great social and political change. Language was at the heart of many debates. In 1974, French became the official language of Québec and was adopted in labor, commerce, administration and education. The Charter of the French Language, also known as Bill 101, was passed in 1977. Various institutions emerged, like the Office of the French Language, which worked with university researchers to create standards for québécois. It also produced numerous lexicographical works, such as a database of grammar and language tips called the Banque de dépannage linguistique, and a terminology hotline service.
Dissent over the varying forms of Canadian French in Quebec began after the British conquest and intensified from the mid-19th century onwards. Some felt that québécoisshould align itself with the French spoken in France, arguing that the archaisms and anglicisms of the popular tongue were simply wrong. Up to the end of the 1970s, the public broadcaster of Quebec, Radio-Canada, was still trying to establish a “correct” standard of French — indeed, a non-joual dialect is still spoken in more formal contexts today. But the clock was ticking for elitist attitudes towards québécois: Important figures in theater, such as Michel Tremblay, started writing plays in Canadian French. Gradually, the conventions of spoken québécoisbecame accepted in literature, cinema and the media.
When speaking québécois, personal and demonstrative pronouns often merge with verbs. Je suis becomes chu (I am), il becomesy, elle is a, je vais slips into j’va or m’a and cette contracts neatly into c’te. These spoken pronunciations common to 18th century France are still used in vernacular French dialects today. Pronouns are also generally doubled in speech. Quand est-ce que vous venez, vous autres? sounds a bit like “When are you coming, you guys?” — except for that word endings are clipped, as in vous aut’ or c’est correc’. Just for fun, many speakers occasionally insert a “you” into a question, like c’est tu fini?(literally: “Is it you finished?”). If you want to get a taste of Canadian French pronunciations, treat yourself to the creations of independent québécois filmmakers, like Denis Côté or Xavier Dolan. Or enjoy these short comedic sketches: Têtes à claques, Appendices or Solange te parle.
Like all languages, québécois reflects the passage of time and various historical contexts. Some expressions mirror the concerns of colonists from Northwest France, such as the use of maritime vocabulary. For example, you can embarquer dans une voiture (embark in a car) or couler un examen(literally, to “sink,” or fail, an exam). The local climate has also inspired some fitting figures of speech, such as Accroche ta tuque avec une broche! (Fix your beanie with a buckle!). This is a warning to be alert, buckle up or get ready to run. Another delightful québécois speciality is using sacre to curse: A sacre crisse (sacred Christ), câlisse (chalice), hostie (host) or tabarnak (tabernacle) will land you in a bunch of merdeif you use them in the wrong situation. These words are reflections of the repressive role the Church played in Québec society from the 17th century until the Quiet Revolution.
For obvious historical and geographical reasons, Canadian French is filled with anglicisms, and they’re often quite old. Since the 1970s, English terms have been translated in a quasi-systematized fashion. Courriel is “email,” pourriel is “spam,” baladodiffusion is “podcasting,” a skateboard is a rouli-roulant and clavarder means “to chat.” Paradoxically, québécois is also filled with more current anglicisms. For example, “welcome” is used in response to “thank you,” as in C’est une bonne place, être dans le trouble, bienvenue! You’ll also hear watcher, truster and oh boy!, cute, y est fucké!(a very useful first phrase to learn).
- History: from New France to Confederation
- Government and Politics
- Cultural Life
The province of Quebec is composed of three of Canada’s seven physiographic regions. These regions are the St. Lawrence Lowlands, the Canadian Shield and the Appalachian region. The St. Lawrence Lowlands is the most fertile and developed region. The majority of the population of Quebec lives here, mainly between Montreal and Quebec City. The Canadian Shield covers most of Quebec from approximately 80 km north of the St. Lawrence River valley up to the Ungava region. It is a vast region composed of thousands of lakes and thousands of square kilometres of forested area. On the south bank of the St. Lawrence River, between the Richelieu River and the Gaspé Peninsula, is the Quebec part of the Appalachian mountain chain which extends from Gaspésouth to Alabama. Within the province’s three physiographic regions are four distinct zones with different landscapes. These are the arctic tundra, the taiga, the boreal forest and the temperate forest (see Vegetation Regions; Forest Regions). All...
Urban Centres Montréal is the economic and cultural centre of the province. In 2016, it was Quebec’s largest urban centre with a population of 1,704,694, or 21 per cent of the Quebec population. Factoring in the Montréal metropolitan area, this number rises to 4,098,927, or 50 per cent of the Quebec population. After Toronto, Montréal is the second largest agglomeration in Canada. It is the largest francophone city in North America. The province’s capital is Quebec City. In 2016, the city’s population was 531,902. The Historic District of Old Québec was declared a UNESCO World Heritage site in 1985. The next largest cities, in descending order of population, are Laval, Gatineau,Longueuil, Sherbrooke, Saguenay, Lévis, Trois-Rivières and Terrebonne. Labour Force In 2016, the sectors employing the most people in Quebec were health care and social assistance, retail and manufacturing. The unemployment rate was 7.2 per cent, or just below the national average. Approximately 36 per cent o...
French colonization started when Jacques Cartier landed in Gaspé in 1534. One year later the French came into contact with Iroquoian villages on both shores of the St. Lawrence River, for example at Stadacona near the location of the future Quebec City and Hochelaga (the future Montréal). But the real beginning of French colonization in the St. Lawrence Valley was in 1608, when Samuel de Champlain established a fort at Cap Diamant, the site of Quebec City today. By the beginning of the 17th century, the Iroquois (Haudenosaunee) had mysteriously disappeared from the north shore of the St. Lawrence River. The population of the Innunation (Montagnais-Naspaki) nation on the north shore was then around 4,000 people. In 1666 the first census revealed a colonial, non-native population of only 3,215 people. The French North American empire expanded considerably during the 17th century. In 1672 and 1673, Louis Jolliet and Jacques Marquette explored the Mississippi River and, in 1682, Robert...
The economic history of Quebec can be divided into five major periods. The first period started with the arrival of the French and lasted until the Treaty of Utrecht in 1713. The main economic activity was the fur trade. Under the mercantilist system imposed by France, colonies ‒ including New France ‒ exported their natural resources and in return received manufactured goods from the metropolis. The fur tradewas the heart of New France's economy. Other economic activities in the colony that might compete with the home country were discouraged. During the second period (1713-1812), the economy of New France remained dominated by the fur trade although an attempt was made to diversify the economy by improving farming and by encouraging projects like the Forges Saint-Maurice. The Conquest of 1760 did not fundamentally change the mercantilist system, at least for a while, as Britain was also a protectionist country. During the third period (1812-67), wheat and timber (see Timber Trade...
The principal industries in Quebec are manufacturing, generation of electric power, mining, pulp and paper. The Quebec manufacturing sector represents 25 per cent of the Canadian total. Five groups of industries account for 65 per cent of the factories and over 50 per cent of the manufacturing jobs: clothing and textiles, food and beverages, paper and related products, metal products and wood products. Forestry Quebec has the second-largest area of forest land in Canada after the Northwest Territories. Most of this land, 825 000 km2 of forests, is provincially owned, although many land claims by Aboriginal peoples are currently being contested in the courts. Accessible productive forests total 540 000 km2, three-quarters of which is located in the Saguenay‒Lac-Saint-Jean, Abitibi and North Shore regions. Around 33 million m3 of wood is cut each year, 80 per cent of which is conifer. Most of the cut wood is used for lumber and pulp manufacturing. For the last 20 years, a vast refores...
The political institutions of the province of Quebec have not fundamentally changed since 1867. Initially a French colony, Quebec was later administered directly by British authorities. In 1841 it became part of a legislative union, and in 1867 a member of the Canadian federation. In 1982 Quebec did not sign Canada's repatriated Constitution, although it did sign an accord in 1987 to enter into Canada's constitutional agreement (see Meech Lake Accord; Meech Lake Accord: Document) and another, the so-called Charlottetown Accord (see Charlottetown Accord: Document), in 1992. However, neither of these was ratified and the latter was overwhelmingly rejected in a national referendum. The evolution of Quebec's institutions has thus not been marked by any legal discontinuity. The most important institutions are the central political institutions. Provincial Government Quebec, like all constitutional regimes with a British tradition, has no rigid division of legislative and executive functi...
Technically, Quebec is a province. Others claim that Quebec is a nation in the sense that it is the home of the French-speaking nation in North America and other Québécois of non-French origins. Others, although they are more and more a rarity, believe that Quebec is the territory in which the most important component of the French-Canadian nation resides. Arts French-Canadian cultural roots can be traced to the beginning of the 19th century in literature, painting and sculpture. Debate about the significance of the arts in the francophone community has been passionate since the 19th century. In literature, Father Henri-Raymond Casgrain in the second half of the 19th century and Bishop Camille Roy in the first half of the 20th century both sought to create literature that would reflect what they defined as the essence of French-Canadian society. They were challenged by the universalists who wanted a universal literature. After the Quiet Revolution, many writers, despite their claims...
History of Quebec & Canada Resources - LEARN Document collections, suggested activities, evaluations, etc. LEARN and its partners have created and curated many web-based resources and activities in line with the new Quebec & Canada History program. As well, English versions of some original RECITUS tasks and evaluations are also available below.
history of Québec and Canada with a view to period or society will be evaluated. helping the students understand the cont-emporary period. The program requires that the students The questions used for evaluation will seek approach the study of history from a global to present an overall view of the history of perspective. Québec and Canada.
Quebec city, formerly the capital of the colony, remained the capital of Lower Canada. It was incorporated in 1832 and was given its actual charter in 1840, the year that Parliament voted to rejoin Upper and Lower Canada as the Province of Canada.
Jan 17, 2014 · Quebec’s identity has also changed enormously from how it was in the founding days of Canada. In the past, Quebec was largely characterized by the quaint parish church, the iconic farms, and the...
Its capital, Quebec city, is the oldest city in Canada. The name Quebec, first bestowed on the city in 1608 and derived from an Algonquian word meaning “where the river narrows,” beckons visitors to the city’s splendid view of the majestic St. Lawrence River and the pastoral Orleans Island.
Beginning in the 1960s Quebec was the center of militant agitation to separate it from Canada and establish a French-speaking nation. In 1969 French and English were both declared the official languages of Canada. In 1970 terrorist acts by alleged separatists were climaxed by the kidnapping and murder of Quebec's minister of labor and immigration,
Quebec City was founded in 1608 by French explorer Samuel de Champlain. In early December 1775, Montgomery, Arnold and their men met on the outskirts of Quebec and demanded the surrender of the...