Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
- Origins. The Republic of Mexico gained independence from Spain in 1821. ...
- Effects in Colorado and Beyond. To many Americans at the time, the addition of so much land opened new opportunities, but it also renewed the competition between those who sought ...
- Legacy. ...
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Jun 02, 2021 · The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, that brought an official end to the Mexican-American War (1846-1848), was signed on February 2, 1848, at Guadalupe Hidalgo, a city north of the capital where the Mexican government had fled with the advance of U.S. forces.
The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo In November 1835, the northern part of the Mexican state of Coahuila-Tejas declared itself in revolt against Mexico's new centralist government headed by President Antonio López de Santa Anna.
The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, signed on February 2, 1848, ended the Mexican-American War in favor of the United States. The war had begun almost two years earlier, in May 1846, over a...
The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, which brought an official end to the Mexican-American War (1846–48), was signed on February 2, 1848, at Guadalupe Hidalgo, a city to which the Mexican government had fled with the advance of U.S. forces.
The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo (Spanish: Tratado de Guadalupe Hidalgo), officially titled the Treaty of Peace, Friendship, Limits and Settlement between the United States of America and the Mexican Republic, is the peace treaty that was signed on 2 February 1848, in the Villa de Guadalupe Hidalgo (now a neighborhood of Mexico City) between the United States and Mexico that ended the Mexican ...
- Lesson Hook/Preview
- Assessment Materials
- Supports For Struggling Learners
- Enrichment Activities
Students will learn about the Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo, read the articles of the treaty, and rewrite them in their own words. Students then write about how the Treaty affects them today. By the end of the lesson, students will be able to answer the question: What is the significance of the Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo and how does it affect us today?
On February 2, 1848, the United States and Mexico signed the treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo. In the Treaty, Mexico agreed to surrender all claims to Texas and accept the Rio Grande as the boundary of that state. Mexico also agreed to sell its New Mexico and Upper California territories to the United States at a price of $15 million. The treaty effectively halved the size of Mexico and doubled the territory of the United States. This territorial exchange had long-term effects on both nations. The war and treaty extended the United States to the Pacific Ocean, and provided a bounty of ports, minerals, and natural resources for a growing country. The abundance of lands also produced debates about extending slavery into the West, a dispute that would help spark a nation-defining civil war. In Mexico, the loss of battles and territories was a national trauma. As political and military leaders challenged each other on the best way to revive their troubled country, Mexico also descended into...
*Make one copy per student of each of the following: Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo, "The Treaty Today" worksheet, and the "Monument Design" assessment. *Decide whether students will analyze sections of the treaty independently or in pairs. *Print one copy of the "The Treaty Today - Teacher Answer Sheet" for teacher use.
Print one copy for teacher use. Download Treaty Today - Teacher Answer Sheet Make one copy per student. Download Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo Transcript Make one copy per student. Download Treaty Today - Student Worksheet
*Ask students about a school policy they would like to change. (Option: Make up an issue about a new school policy that would be controversial like longer days, stricter dress code, etc.) *Divide students into two groups. One group will be for the issue and the other against. *Tell students they must negotiate and write down their negotiations. Give them five to ten minutes to complete this exercise. *Tell students they just negotiated a treaty. Ask them what a treaty is or have them look it up.
Discovery 1. Tell students: After the War, the United States and Mexico signed a treaty called the Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo. We will read this treaty and put it in our own words. 2. Inform students whether they will be analyzing the treaty independently or in pairs. Assign out articles for each indivdiual or pair to analyze. (Note that although there are 23 articles, Article #10 was deleted.) 3. Give each individual/pair a copy of the Treaty, the student worksheet "The Treaty Today", and a dictionary. 4. Tell students to read the Articles and put them in their own words.Tell students to look up any words they don’t know and to use context to assist. They will complete the "Treaty Today" worksheet to show their progress and thoughts on the modern affects of the Treaty. Wrap-Up 5. Have each group share their Article(s) with the class. As a group presents, the other students should write next to that section the historical significance and modern effects. 6. Have a class discussion...Negotiate - Try to reach an agreement or compromise by discussion with others.Treaty - a formally concluded and ratified agreement between countries.
Students have been hired by the National Park Service to design a monument or write a plaque to educate Palo Alto Battlefield visitors about the historical significance of the Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo and its lasting effects today. After finishing their design, students will explain their choices. To close the lesson, students will walk around the room and vote on their favorite monument or plaque design. Monument Design - Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo Download Assessment
*Print off and cut into strips the teacher answer sheet synopsis of each article, but without the article number. Provide these strips to struggling learners or readers to assist them in analyzing the article. *Highlight and annotate the article assigned for struggling readers. *Use teacher-chosen heterogenous pairs to support student analysis of Treaty.
*Imagine that the U.S. and Mexico were to update the Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo. Rewrite your Article(s) as you think it should be written today. *Find a modern newspaper article that relates to your Article(s). Create a display.
treaty of peace, friendship, limits, and settlement between the united states of america and the united mexican states concluded at guadalupe hidalgo, february 2, 1848; ratification advised by senate, with amendments, march 10, 1848; ratified by president, march 16, 1848; ratifications exchanged at queretaro, may 30, 1848; proclaimed, july 4, 1848.
Summary In settlement of the Mexican-American War, this treaty formalized the United States’ annexation of a major portion of northern Mexico, including of California, Nevada, Utah, Colorado, and most of present-day New Mexico and Arizona.
- The Mexican-American War
- The Fall of Mexico City
- Nicholas Trist, Diplomat
- Trist Stays in Mexico
- The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
- Approval of The Treaty
- Implications of The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
War broke out in 1846 between Mexico and the USA. There were many reasons why, but the most important were lingering Mexican resentment over the 1836 loss of Texas and the Americans' desire for Mexico's northwestern lands, including California and New Mexico. This desire to expand the nation to the Pacific was referred to as "Manifest Destiny." The USA invaded Mexico on two fronts: from the north through Texas and from the east via the Gulf of Mexico. The Americans also sent a smaller army of conquest and occupation into the western territories they wished to acquire. The Americans won every major engagementand by September of 1847 had pushed to the gates of Mexico City itself.
On September 13, 1847, the Americans, under the command of General Winfield Scott, took the fortress at Chapultepec and the gates to Mexico City: they were close enough to fire mortar rounds into the heart of the city. The Mexican army under General Antonio Lopez de Santa Annaabandoned the city: he would later try (unsuccessfully) to cut the American supply lines to the east near Puebla. The Americans took control of the city. Mexican politicians, who had previously stalled or rebuffed all American attempts at diplomacy, were ready to talk.
Some months before, American President James K. Polkhad sent diplomat Nicholas Trist to join General Scott's force, giving him authority to conclude a peace agreement when the time was right and informing him of the American demands: a huge chunk of Mexico's northwestern territory. Trist repeatedly tried to engage the Mexicans during 1847, but it was difficult: the Mexicans did not want to give away any land and in the chaos of Mexican politics, governments seemed to come and go weekly. During the Mexican-American War, six men would be President of Mexico: the presidency would change hands between them nine times.
Polk, disappointed in Trist, recalled him in late 1847. Trist got his orders to return to the USA in November, just as Mexican diplomats began seriously negotiating with the Americans. He was ready to go home when some fellow diplomats, including Mexican and British ones, convinced him that to leave would be a mistake: the fragile peace might not last the several weeks it would take a replacement to arrive. Trist decided to stay and met with Mexican diplomats to hammer out a treaty. They signed the pact in the Guadalupe Basilica in the town of Hidalgo, named for Mexico's founder Father Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla, and which would give the treaty its name.
The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo (the full text of which can be found in the links below) was nearly exactly what President Polkhad asked for. Mexico ceded all of California, Nevada, and Utah and parts of Arizona, New Mexico, Wyoming and Colorado to the USA in exchange for $15 million dollars and forgiveness of about $3 million more in previous debt. The treaty established the Rio Grande as the border of Texas: this had been a sticky subject in previous negotiations. Mexicans and Indigenous communities living in those lands were guaranteed to keep their rights, properties, and possessions and could become US citizens after one year if they desired. Also, future conflicts between the two nations would be settled by arbitration, not war. It was approved by Trist and his Mexican counterparts on February 2, 1848.
President Polk was enraged by the refusal of Trist to abandon his duty: Nevertheless, he was pleased with the treaty, which gave him all that he had asked for. He passed it along to Congress, where it was held up by two things. Some northern Congressmen tried to add the "Wilmot Proviso" which would assure that the new territories did not allow enslavement: this demand was later taken out. Other Congressmen wanted even more territory ceded in the agreement (some demanded all of Mexico!). Eventually, these Congressmen were outvoted and Congress approved the treaty (with a couple of minor changes) on March 10, 1848. The Mexican government followed suit on May 30 and the war was officially over.
The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo was a bonanza for the United States. Not since the Louisiana Purchase had so much new territory been added to the USA. It would not be long before thousands of settlers began making their way to the new lands. To make things even sweeter, gold was discovered in Californiashortly thereafter: the new land would pay for itself almost immediately. Sadly, those articles of the treaty which guaranteed the rights of Mexicans and Indigenous communities living in the ceded lands were often ignored by Americans moving west: many of them lost their lands and rights and some weren't officially given citizenship until decades later. For Mexico, it was a different matter. The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo is a national embarrassment: the lowlight of a chaotic time when generals, politicians and other leaders put their own self-interests above those of the nation. Most Mexicans know all about the treaty and some are still angry about it. As far as they're concerned, t...
Eisenhower, John S. D. "So Far From God: The U. S. War With Mexico, 1846–1848." Paperback, University of Oklahoma Press, September 15, 2000. Henderson, Timothy J. "A Glorious Defeat: Mexico and Its War with the United States." 1st edition, Hill and Wang, May 13, 2008. Wheelan, Joseph. "Invading Mexico: America's Continental Dream and the Mexican War, 1846-1848." Hardcover, 1st Carroll & Graf Ed edition, Carroll & Graf, February 15, 2007.