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      • Theory-theory (or 'theory theory') is a scientific theory relating to the human development of understanding about the outside world. This theory asserts that individuals hold a basic or 'naïve' theory of psychology ("folk psychology") to infer the mental states of others, such as their beliefs, desires or emotions.
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  2. Theory - Wikipedia › wiki › Theory

    A theory is a rational type of abstract thinking about a phenomenon, or the results of such thinking. The process of contemplative and rational thinking is often associated with such processes as observational study or research. Theories may either be scientific or other than scientific (or scientific to less extent).

  3. Theory (clothing retailer) - Wikipedia › wiki › Theory_(clothing_retailer)

    Theory (clothing retailer) From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Theory (stylized as theory) is a New York -based men's and women's contemporary fashion label which sells clothes and accessories. The brand currently has 221 retail locations and global sales approaching $1 billion in 2014.

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  4. Theory - Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia › wiki › Theory

    A theory in science (in contrast to a theory in layman's terms) is "a logical, systematic set of principles or explanation that has been verified—has stood up against attempts to prove it false". For example, Darwin 's theory of Evolution is a system of ideas that points to humans and apes having evolved from a common ancestor.

  5. Theory-theory - Wikipedia › wiki › Theory-theory
    • Overview
    • Child development
    • Comparison with other theories

    The theory-theory is a scientific theory relating to the human development of understanding about the outside world. This theory asserts that individuals hold a basic or 'naïve' theory of psychology to infer the mental states of others, such as their beliefs, desires or emotions. This information is used to understand the intentions behind that person's actions or predict future behavior. The term 'perspective taking' is sometimes used to describe how one makes inferences about another person's

    Theory-theory states that children naturally attempt to construct theories to explain their observations. As all humans do, children seek to find explanations that help them understand their surroundings. They learn through their own experiences as well as through their observations of others' actions and behaviors. Through their growth and development, children will continue to form intuitive theories; revising and altering them as they come across new results and observations. Several developm

    Theory-theory is closely related to theory of mind, which concerns mental states of people, but differs from ToM in that the full scope of theory-theory also concerns mechanical devices or other objects, beyond just thinking about people and their viewpoints.

    In the scientific debate in mind reading, theory-theory is often contrasted with simulation theory, an alternative theory which suggests simulation or cognitive empathy is integral to our understanding of others.

  6. Game theory - Wikipedia › wiki › Game_theory

    Game theory is the study of mathematical models of strategic interaction among rational decision-makers. It has applications in all fields of social science, as well as in logic, systems science and computer science. Originally, it addressed zero-sum games, in which each participant's gains or losses are exactly balanced by those of the other ...

  7. String theory - Wikipedia › wiki › String_Theory

    String theory is a theoretical framework that attempts to address these questions and many others. The starting point for string theory is the idea that the point-like particles of particle physics can also be modeled as one-dimensional objects called strings. String theory describes how strings propagate through space and interact with each other.

  8. Chaos theory - Wikipedia › wiki › Chaos_theory

    Chaos theory is a branch of mathematics focusing on the study of chaos — dynamical systems whose apparently random states of disorder and irregularities are actually governed by underlying patterns and deterministic laws that are highly sensitive to initial conditions. Chaos theory is an interdisciplinary theory stating that, within the ...

  9. Critical race theory - Wikipedia › wiki › Critical_race_theory
    • Definitions
    • History
    • Views
    • Applications
    • Criticism
    • Subfields

    Roy L. Brooks defined critical race theory in 1994 as "a collection of critical stances against the existing legal order from a race-based point of view". Richard Delgado, a co-founder of the theory, defined it in 2017 as "a collection of activists and scholars interested in studying and transforming the relationship among race, racism, and power".

    Early analyses that later consolidated into critical race theory developed in the 1970s as legal scholars, activists, and lawyers tried to understand why civil-rights-era victories had stalled and were being eroded. In the early 1980s, students of color at Harvard Law School organized protests regarding Harvard's lack of racial diversity in the curriculum, among students, and in the faculty. These students supported Professor Derrick Bell, who left Harvard Law in 1980 and then became the dean at University of Oregon School of Law. During his time at Harvard, Bell had developed new courses that studied American law through a racial lens. Harvard students of color wanted faculty of color to teach the new courses in his absence.Bell resigned his position at Harvard because of what he viewed as the university's discriminatory practices. The university rejected student requests, responding that no sufficiently qualified black instructor existed. Legal scholar Randall Kennedy writes that...

    Internet news writer Will Oremus argues the theory's most visible advocates are activist and nonviolent; while radical, the theory is considered less so within academia. In 2012, Oremus wrote: Developments in the early 2000s in critical race theory included work relying on updated social psychological research on unconscious bias in order to justify affirmative action; and work relying on law and economic methodology to examine structural inequality and discrimination in the workplace.

    Scholars of critical race theory have focused, with some particularity, on the issues of hate crime and hate speech. In response to the opinion of the U.S. Supreme Court in the hate speech case of R.A.V. v. City of St. Paul (1992), in which the Court struck down an anti-biasordinance as applied to a teenager who had burned a cross, Mari Matsuda and Charles Lawrence argued that the Court had paid insufficient attention to the history of racist speech and the actual injury produced by such speech. Critical race theorists have also paid particular attention to the issue of affirmative action, whereby scholars have argued in favor of such on the argument that so-called merit standards for hiring and educational admissions are not race-neutral for a variety of reasons, and that such standards are part of the rhetoric of neutralitythrough which whites justify their disproportionate share of resources and social benefits.


    Law professors Daniel A. Farber and Suzanna Sherry argue that critical race theory lacks supporting evidence, relies on an implausible belief that reality is socially constructed, rejects evidence in favor of storytelling, rejects truth and merit as expressions of political dominance, and rejects the rule of law. Farber and Sherry additionally posit that the anti-meritocratic tenets in critical race theory, critical feminism, and critical legal studies may unintentionally lead to antisemitic...

    Political controversies

    Critical race theory has stirred controversy in the United States since the 1980s for its critique of color blindness, promoting the use of narrative in legal studies, advocating for the use of "legal instrumentalism" as opposed to ideal-driven uses of the law, analyzing the U.S. Constitution and existing law as constructed according to and perpetuating racial power, and encouraging legal scholars to promote racial equity. An example of an instrumentalist approach is attorney Johnnie Cochran'...

    Within critical race theory, various sub-groupings have emerged that focus on issues and nuances that are unique to a particular ethno-racial and/or marginalized community. This can include issues that relate to the intersection of race with disability, ethnicity, gender, sexuality, class, religion and other social structures. For example, disability critical race studies (DisCrit), critical race feminism (CRF), Hebrew Crit (HebCrit), Black Critical Race Theory (Black Crit), Latino critical race studies (LatCrit), Asian American critical race studies (AsianCrit), South Asian American critical race studies (DesiCrit), and American Indian critical race studies (sometimes called TribalCrit). CRT methodologies have also been applied to the study of white immigrant groups. CRT has spurred some scholars to call for a second wave of whiteness studies, which is now a small offshoot known as Second Wave Whiteness (SWW).Critical race theory has also begun to spawn research that looks at under...

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