Tokyo ( / ˈtoʊkioʊ /; Japanese: 東京, Tōkyō [toːkʲoː] ( listen) ), formerly Edo, historically Tokio, and officially the Tokyo Metropolis ( 東京都, Tōkyō-to ), is the capital and largest city of Japan. Its metropolitan area is the most populous in the world, with an estimated 37.468 million residents in 2018. Its metropolitan area ...
Tokyo City (東京市, Tōkyō-shi) was a municipality in Japan and part of Tokyo-fu which existed from 1 May 1889 until its merger with its prefecture on 1 July 1943. The historical boundaries of Tokyo City are now occupied by the Special Wards of Tokyo.
- Sengoku Period
- Edo Or Tokugawa Period, 1603–1868
- Meiji Restoration
- Shōwa Period 1926–1989
- Since 1990
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The construction of Edo Castle by Ōta Dōkan, a vassal of Uesugi Mochitomo, began in 1457 during the Muromachi period in what is now the East Garden of the Imperial Palace. Shrines and temples grew up nearby, and merchants developed businesses and opened ferry and shipping routes. Hōjō Ujitsunaentered Edo Castle in 1524.
By 1590, when the military leader Tokugawa Ieyasu selected Edo as his military headquarters, the settlement surrounding Edojuku boasted a mere hundred thatch-roofed cottages. Ieyasu assembled warriors and craftsmen, fortified the Edojuku castle with moats and bridges, and built up the town.The Edo period (Edo jidai) began when Tokugawa Ieyasu becam...
The Imperial Army seized Edo and ended the Tokugawa regime in 1868. After defeating the Tokugawa forces at Toba-Fushimi in January, Imperial forces captured Edo and exiled the Tokugawa leadership. Edo was renamed Tokyo ["the eastern capital"] and the Emperor Meiji, aged 16, was brought from Kyoto and enthroned in the palace. The urban poor played l...
World War II
Tokyo was the center of Japan's government and its industrial and commercial infrastructure. The experience of everyday life in Tokyo dramatically changed with munitions-based heavy industrialization and the loss of liberties and urban culture as the state mobilized for total war. Tokyo became the first Japanese city to be bombed in World War II on April 18, 1942, in the Doolittle Raid. The sensitive issue of how to defend the capital from air attack became a pressing concern for urban planne...
Dissolution of Tokyo City
Both Tokyo City and Tokyo Prefecture were replaced in 1943 by a single Tokyo Metropolis (都). In Tokyo's case, the 35 urban wards were merged into 23, which were transferred to the current Tokyo Metropolis along with the outlying cities of Tokyo Prefecture, such as Machida, Tokyoas well as towns and village units.
Postwar recovery, 1945–1970
The destroyed metropolis became the base from which the United States under Douglas MacArthuradministered Japan for six years.
The boom years ended in the 1990s, and the entire nation entered two decades of economic stagnation. Tokyo's real estate bubble burst. The pessimistic mood was further deepened by the 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami. Tokyo was not directly damaged, but it suffered from severe shortages of electricity and the economic impact of the earthquake, as...Cullen, Louis M. (2003). A History of Japan, 1582-1941: Internal and External Worlds. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521821551; ISBN 9780521529181; OCLC 50694793Iwao, Seiichi, Teizō Iyanaga, Susumu Ishii, Shōichirō Yoshida et al. (2002). Dictionnaire historique du Japon. Paris: Maisonneuve & Larose. ISBN 978-2-7068-1632-1; OCLC 51096469Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric and Käthe Roth. (2005). Japan encyclopedia. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-01753-5; OCLC 58053128Ponsonby-Fane, Richard Arthur Brabazon. (1956). Kyoto: The Old Capital of Japan, 794-1869. Kyoto: Ponsonby Memorial Society. OCLC 182637732Borland, Janet. "Small parks, big designs: Reconstructed Tokyo's new green spaces, 1923–1931." Urban History47.1 (2020): 106–125.Chong, Doryun, et al. Tokyo, 1955-1970: A New Avant-garde(The Museum of Modern Art, 2012), art history.Cybriwsky, Roman. Historical Dictionary of Tokyo (2011) excerpt and text searchCybriwsky, Roman. Tokyo: The Shogun's City at the Twenty-first Century'.' (1998). 260 pp.
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Tokyo began as a small fishing village named Edo. Edo was in the old Musashi Province. The Edo clan built walls to protect the town in the late 12th century. In 1457, Ōta Dōkan built Edo Castle. In 1590, Tokugawa Ieyasu made Edo his base. He became shogun in 1603, and the town became the center of his military government. This marked the beginning of the Edo period. During this time, Edo grew into one of the largest cities in the world. More than one million people lived there by the 18th cen...
The Tokyo Prefectureand the city of Tokyo were established. This was the capital city until 1943.
In 1943, Tokyo City and the "associated municipalities of what was formerly Tokyo Prefecture(東京府, Tōkyō-fu)(1869-1943)" combined into one. Central Tokyo is built around major railway stations. Suburban railways were built relatively cheaply at street level. There are some expressways. Tokyo suffered two major catastrophes in the 20th century. The 1923 Great Kantō earthquake left 140,000 dead or missing. World War II was the other disaster for the city. The Bombing of Tokyo from 1944 through 1...
Tokyo has a four-season humid subtropical climate (Köppen climate classification: Cfa) with hot rainy summers and cool dry winters.
As of October 2007 about 8.7 million were living in Tokyo's 23 special wards. The number of people in Tokyo increases to over 15 million during the day. About 2.5 million workers and students enter the city everyday. The three central wards of Chiyoda, Chūō, and Minatoincrease the most. As of 2005, the regular population in those three areas was on...
The 23 special wards of Tokyo are the same area that had been called Tokyo City. On July 1, 1943, Tokyo City was merged with Tokyo Prefecture(東京府, Tōkyō-fu) to become a special government area. This made the wards different from other wards in Japan. Other city wards are part of a larger city government, but these are not.Each ward is a municipalit...
Tokyo has many sight-seeing spots, but very few of them are old. There are very few buildings in Tokyo that are more than 50 years old. Popular places for visitors range from Tokyo Tower in the center of the city to Mount Takao out in the western countryside. Tokyo Skytree is a new tower and is the tallest in Japan. Traditional religious sights suc...
Tokyo is the cultural, business, and political center of the country. It is also the center of many transport systems. There are many air, rail, sea, and road links in and out of the city. Local subway and bus systems serve every part of the city. Two commercial airports serve Tokyo. Haneda Airport is in the city limits next to Tokyo Bay. This airp...
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« Capitale de l'est »), anciennement Edo (江戸?), officiellement Métropole de Tokyo (東京都, Tōkyō-to?), est de facto la capitale actuelle du Japon. Elle est la plus peuplée des préfectures du Japon, avec plus de 13 831 421 habitants intra-muros en 2018 et 42 794 714 dans l'agglomération, et forme l'aire urbaine la plus peuplée au monde.
Tokyo si trova alle coordinate geografiche 35°41′N 139°36′E , circa alla stessa latitudine di Los Angeles e Teheran, ed è la capitale più orientale dell' Asia. Confina con la baia di Tokyo e la prefettura di Chiba a est, di Yamanashi a ovest, di Kanagawa a sud e di Saitama a nord. La capitale è situata nella regione del Kantō, sull'isola di Honshū.