Chain mail (often just mail or sometimes chainmail) is a type of armour consisting of small metal rings linked together in a pattern to form a mesh. It was generally in common military use between the 3rd century BC and the 16th century AD in Europe, and longer in Asia and North Africa.
Laminar armour (from Latin: lamina – layer) is an armour made from horizontal overlapping rows or bands of solid armour plates called lames, as opposed to lamellar armour, which is made from individual armor scales laced together to form a solid-looking strip of armor.
or it will become impossible to use ot to locate actual medieval armour. Consider using Category:Renaissance armour for post-1500 armour. For nondescript plate armour, use Category:Plate armour. For fantasy armour, use Category:Fantasy armour. For the specific "fluted" style transitional between the 15th and 16th century, use Category ...
- Mail Armour in Europe
- Mail Armour in Asia
- Modern Uses
- in Film
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The earliest example of chain mail was found in a Celtic chieftain's burial located in Ciumeşti, Romania. Its invention is commonly credited to the Celts, but there are examples of Etruscan pattern mail predating from at least the 4th century BC. Mail may have been inspired by the much earlier scale armour. Mail spread to North Africa, the Middle East, Central Asia, India, Tibet, Korea and Japan.Mail continues to be used in the 21st century as a component of stab-resistant body armour, cut-resistant gloves for butchers and woodworkers, shark-resistant wetsuitsfor defense against shark bites, and a number of other applications.
The origins of the word “mail” are not fully known. One theory is that it originally derives from the Latin word macula, meaning "spot" or “opacity” (as in macula of retina). Another theory relates the word to the old French “maillier”, meaning “to hammer” (a cognate of the modern English word “malleable”).The first attestations of the word “mail” are in Old French and Anglo-Norman: “maille” “maile”, or “male” or other variants, which became “mailye” “maille” “maile”, “male”, or “meile” in Middle English. Civilizations that used mail used different terms for each garment made from it. The standard terms for European mail armour derive from French: leggings are called chausses, a hood is a coif and mittens, mitons. A mail collar hanging from a helmet is a camail or aventail. A shirt made from mail is a hauberk if knee-length and a haubergeon if mid-thigh length. A layer (or layers) of mail sandwiched between layers of fabric is called a jazerant. A waist-length coat in medieval Europ...
The use of mail as battlefield armour was common during the Iron Age and the Middle Ages, becoming less common over the course of the 16th and 17th centuries. It is believed that the Roman Republic first came into contact with mail fighting the Gauls in Cisalpine Gaul, now Northern Italy, but even earlier in time, different pattern of chain mail was already in use among the Etruscans. The Roman army adopted the technology for their troops in the form of the lorica hamatawhich was used as a primary form of armour through the Imperial period. After the fall of the Western Empire much of the infrastructure needed to create plate armour diminished. Eventually the word "mail" came to be synonymous with armour. It was typically an extremely prized commodity as it was expensive and time consuming to produce and could mean the difference between life and death in a battle. Mail from dead combatants was frequently looted and was used by the new owner or sold for a lucrative price. As time we...
Mail Armour was introduced to the Middle East and Asia through the Romans and was adopted by the Sassanid Persians starting in the 3rd century AD, where it was supplemental to the scale and lamellar armours already used. Mail was commonly also used as horse armour for cataphracts and heavy cavalry as well as armour for the soldiers themselves. Asian mail was typically lighter than the European variety and sometimes had prayer symbols stamped on the rings as a sign of their craftsmanship as well as for divine protection.Indeed, mail armour is mentioned in the Koran as being a gift revealed by Allah to David: From the Middle East mail was quickly adopted in Central Asia by the Sogdians and by India in the South. It was not commonly used in Mongol armies due to its weight and the difficulty of its maintenance, but it eventually became the armour of choice in India. Indian mail was often used with plate protection. Plated mail was in common use in India until the Battle of Plasseyand th...
Mail armour provided an effective defence against slashing blows by an edged weapon and penetration by thrusting and piercing weapons; in fact, a study conducted at the Royal Armouries at Leeds concluded that "it is almost impossible to penetrate using any conventional medieval weapon" Generally speaking, mail's resistance to weapons is determined by four factors: linkage type (riveted, butted, or welded), material used (iron versus bronze or steel), weave density (a tighter weave needs a thinner weapon to surpass), and ring thickness (generally ranging from 18 to 14 gauge in most examples). Mail, if a warrior could afford it, provided a significant advantage to a warrior when combined with competent fighting techniques. When the mail was not riveted, a well placed thrust from a spear or thin sword could penetrate, and a pollaxe or halberd blow could break through the armour. In India, punching daggers known as katarswere developed that could pierce the light butted mail used in the...
Several patterns of linking the rings together have been known since ancient times, with the most common being the 4-to-1 pattern (where each ring is linked with four others). In Europe, the 4-to-1 pattern was completely dominant. Mail was also common in East Asia, primarily Japan, with several more patterns being utilised and an entire nomenclature developing around them. Historically, in Europe, from the pre-Roman period on, the rings composing a piece of mail would be riveted closed to reduce the chance of the rings splitting open when subjected to a thrusting attack or a hit by an arrow. Up until the 14th century European mail was made of alternating rows of riveted rings and solid rings. After that point mail was almost all made from riveted rings only. Both were commonly made of wrought iron, but some later pieces were made of heat-treated steel. Wire for the riveted rings was formed by either of two methods. One was to hammer out wrought iron into plates and cut or slit the p...
Mail is used as protective clothing for butchers against meat-packing equipment. Workers may wear up to 8 pounds (3.6 kg) of mail under their white coats.Butchers also commonly wear a single mail glove to protect themselves from self-inflicted injury while cutting meat.Woodcarvers sometimes use similar mail gloves to protect their hands from cuts and punctures. The British policeuse mail gloves for dealing with knife-armed aggressors. Scuba divers use mail to protect them from sharkbite, as d...
Many historical reenactment groups, especially those whose focus is Antiquity or the Middle Ages, commonly use mail both as practical armour and for costuming. Mail is especially popular amongst those groups which use steel weapons. Depending on his or her fitness, a fighter wearing hauberk and chausses can run, lie, stand up, jump, do somersaults (or even cartwheels), and even swim wearing full armour. A modern hauberk made from 1.5 mm diameter wire with 10 mm inner diameter rings weighs rou...
Mail remained in use as a decorative and possibly high-status symbol with military overtones long after its practical usefulness had passed. It was frequently used for the epaulettes of military uniforms. It is still used in this form by the British Territorial Army, and the Royal Canadian Armoured Corps of the Canadian Army. Mail has applications in sculpture and jewellery, especially when made out of precious metals or colourful anodized metals. Mail artwork includes headdresses, Christmas...
In some films, knitted string spray-painted with a metallic paint is used instead of actual mail in order to cut down on cost (an example being Monty Python and the Holy Grail, which was filmed on a very small budget). Films more dedicated to costume accuracy often use ABS plastic rings, for the lower cost and weight. Such ABS mail coats were made for The Lord of the Rings film trilogy, in addition to many metal coats. The metal coats are used rarely because of their weight, except in close-up filming where the appearance of ABS rings is distinguishable. For the movie Mad Max Beyond Thunderdome, Tina Turner is said to have been wearing an actual mail and she complained how heavy this was.
1. (made from mail)
Jun 21, 2019 · Instead, the ‘bodkin’ point – a narrow, square-sectioned (think ‘railroad spike’ shaped) sharp point was designed to defeat mail. As armor got stronger (see the section below), another arrow-tip type, a shorter, less sharp version of the bodkin was developed – we’ll talk about that below. Via wikipedia, a sample of arrow tips.
Ballistics is the field of mechanics concerned with the launching, flight behavior and impact effects of projectiles, especially ranged weapon munitions such as bullets, unguided bombs, rockets or the like; the science or art of designing and accelerating projectiles so as to achieve a desired performance.
Zoomorphic armour components are perhaps the most striking feature of Chinese-style "Ornate" armour. "Spaudlers" and belly guard appear to be the most common, and can be found on most armours of this type, although some armours have additional zoomorphic decorations on bevor, throat, vambraces, tassets and greaves.
Jan 02, 2021 · Arour men would have worn what was known as Transitional armourwith iron or steel plates over vital areas and joints over a full suit of chain mail. BSSA UNDERSTANDING STAINLESS STEEL PDF In King Albert was defeated in a civil war, in which Queen Margaret supported the “rebels”, and he was forced to abdicate.
Rolled homogeneous armour imposed itself (Rolled homogeneous armor, or RHA, is a type of armor made of a single steel composition, as opposed to layered or cemented armor) but armour thickness was between 13 and 120-150 mm depending on the model, which could be an armored car, a light tank, a medium or a heavy tank.
The period in the history of armour development, in which surcoats became increasingly rare, is referred to as the "surcoatless period" (1420-1485)." Or this one; link ( heading number 113) "about the year 1410 the jupon was almost entirely discarded, and the knight appeared in all the glory of complete plate or white armour. The period is ...