Characteristics of the Tropical Savanna Climate
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- Temperature. Tropical savanna climates are relatively hot since they lie within the tropical latitudes. Throughout the year, mean monthly temperatures soar above 64 °F (18 °C).
- Precipitation. Precipitation in the tropical savanna climate is mainly in the form of rainfall. ...
- Winds. The prevailing winds in tropical grasslands are the Trade Winds. ...
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Tropical savanna climate or tropical wet and dry climate is a type of climate that corresponds to the Köppen climate classification categories Aw (for a dry winter) and As (for a dry summer). The driest month has less than 60 mm (2.4 in) of precipitation and also less than 100 − ( T o t a l A n n u a l P r e c i p i t a t i o n ( m m ) 25 ...
- Characteristics of The Tropical Savanna Climate
- Variations of The Tropical Savanna Climate
- Flora and Fauna in Tropical Savanna Climate
- Distribution of The Tropical Savanna Climate
Tropical savanna climates are relatively hot since they lie within the tropical latitudes. Throughout the year, mean monthly temperatures soar above 64 °F (18 °C). The dry season in savanna grasslands is cooler than the wet season by a few degrees. During the wet season, temperatures are between 78 to 86 °F (25 - 30 °C). In the dry period of the year, the temperature ranges between 68 to 78 °F (20 - 25° C). Temperatures are higher during the day as compared to nights. The highest temperatures...
There are four varieties of this climate. The first type has two distinct seasons which last for relatively equal durations. Regions that experience this climate receive the most annual rainfall during the wet season with very little rain falling during the dry period of the year. In the second variation, the dry season is more pronounced and it lasts for seven months or more. The wet season is shorter, lasting for five months or less. This type of savanna climate has two extremes, one that r...
The natural vegetation of savanna regions mainly consists of tall grass and short deciduous trees. Trees such as acacias shed their leaves during the dry period of the year to avoid excessive loss of water to the environment through transpiration. They also tend to have broad trunks which store water to help them survive periods of prolonged drought. On average, the grass grows to a length of between 3 and 6 feet. In true savanna areas, however, it attains a height of 6 to 12 feet, and it is...
The African savanna is a belt covering the Sudan Region, East Africa, and the region of southern Africa lying north of the Southern Tropic. In Australia, the climate is prevalent in the northern part of the country stretching from Broome to Townsville. The South American savanna covers two distinct regions. They include the llanos or savannas, which lie north of the equator in the Orinoco valley, and the south central parts of Brazil. Some portions of Central America and parts of the southern...
Tropical savanna climates are most commonly found in Africa, Asia and northern South America. The climate is also prevalent in sections of Central America, northern Australia and southern North America, specifically in sections of Mexico and the state of Florida in the United States.
Introduction: Tropical savannas or grasslands are associated with the tropical wet and dry climate type (Koeppen’s Aw), but they are not generally considered to be a climatic climax.
The word savanna has been used for different meanings by various scientists e.g., the word savanna region has been used by the climatologists to indicate a particular type of climate i.e., tropical wet-dry climate (Aw climate of Koeppen) as savanna climate, while the botanists have used the word savanna for a typical type of vegetation community of tropical regions characterized by the dominance of grasses.
Distribution of Savanna Climate It is confined within the tropics and is best developed in Sudan, hence its name the Sudan Climate. It is a transitional type of climate found between the equatorial rainforests and hot deserts.
Tropical savanna climates are most commonly found in Africa, Asia and South America. The climate is also prevalent in sections of Central America, northern Australia, the Pacific Islands, in sections of North America and some islands in the Caribbean.
- Flora and fauna
A tropical savanna is an environment characterized by rolling hills, tall grasslands, and sparse trees. Large parts of Africa and Australia are tropical savannas, as well as Florida. It can be either wet or dry and is in between a desert and tropical rainforest.
Tropical savannas, also sometimes called tropical grasslands, are found in large bands on both sides of the equator. Large tropical savannas are found in South America, Africa, India, and Australia.
Tropical savannas are typically found in between sections of tropical rainforest and deserts. They occupy a middle ground between the between tropical rainforests, which require a large amount of rain, and deserts which need hardly any rain at all. There are effectively two different seasons in tropical savannas, a wet season and a dry season. The dry season is characterized by long periods of dry spells and drought and can be quite prone to fire, while the wet season is characterized by constant humidity. Tropical savannas have warm temperatures all year round, average monthly temperatures throughout the year stay at 64° F or above. Meanwhile, the average rainfall for tropical savannas stays between 30 to 50 inches. The dry season sees only an average of 4 inches a month. Flooding can occur in savannas, particularly during the transition between the dry season to the wet season. Flash floods can occur during severe thunderstorms, and short-lived floods which last a few days can happen near coastal streams and floodplains.
As far as vegetation, Savannas are described with large tracts of enduring grasses, usually between 3 to 6 feet tall. The grasses might also have a canopy consisting of both fire-resistant and drought-resistant trees. There may also be a layer of shrubs.
Distinctions are usually made between shrub savannas, grass savannas, and woodland savannas. Savannas can also be recognized by the types of trees located there, as there can be palm, pine, and acacia savannas.
Grasses found in savannas also have adaptations that help them survive. Many kinds of grass are bitter tasting for some animals or are sharp which also discourages animals from eating them. Nonetheless, different species have evolved to be able to eat different types of grasses. Many of the grasses in the savanna grow bottom up, meaning that the tissue responsible for growth doesnt get eaten by grazing animals. Quite a few savanna plants have organs like corms or bulbs, which similar to cactus arms, store water. This helps the plants survive throughout the dry season. There are also large carnivores that eat the herbivores found in the biomes. Lions, jackals, hyenas, cheetahs and leopards all live in the savannas of Africa. There are also birds of prey like hawks and eagles that subsist on small animals like rodents.
Soil types in savannas include both edaphic and bedrock types. Soil in savannas is usually formed by laterization (a type of chemical weathering that produces a large variety of soil makeup), and low fertility oxisols (an order of soil) are prominent in the region.
Tropical savannas are home to a large and diverse population of animals. Tropical savanna animals include the herbivorous animals that feed on the grasses and trees of the region. Africas tropical savannas are home to gazelles, buffalo, zebras, rhinos, elephants, warthogs, giraffes, wildebeest, impalas and more. Many herbivorous animals share grazing regions, coexisting together. Grazing animals can divide resources both spatially and temporally. Each animal has its own food preferences and may prefer to eat at a certain area during a certain time of the season. Up to sixteen different species have been known to share one grazing area. A majority of animals who live in tropical savanna biomes have wings or long legs, which allow them to migrate during the change of seasons. A large number of animals burrow underground to survive the summer heat, or to rear young. The wide open plains of the savanna grasslands are excellent habitats for birds of prey. Buzzards, hawks, and eagles are able to fly over the plains and get excellent views of prey, using hot updrafts of air to keep them aloft. There are also occasional trees to build nests in. Most animals do not sweat as a cooling mechanism, so many savanna animals shed body heat through large amounts of exposed skin, like elephants, or through panting like predatory cats and dogs. The various savannas around the world are home to different types of animals. South American savannas are home to deer, rhea, and capybaras, while Australias savannas are home to kangaroos, wallabies, and wombats.
South America has savannas as well, but these are much less diverse in terms of species than the East Africa savannas. The savannas in South America consist of around 2.5 million square kilometers, running through parts of Colombia, Brazil, and Venezuela. Short twisted trees dot the landscapes of the Brazilian savannas.
Australia is home to savannas in the northern part of the continent. The region is full of eucalyptus trees and kangaroos, as well as saltwater crocodiles, frill-necked-lizards, and venomous snakes.
Tropical savannas or grasslands are biomes which support a diverse array of animals, and protecting them is important. Savannas can degrade due to overgrazing from livestock, and invasive species brought to savanna biomes by humans can alter the makeup of native animal and grass populations.
Furthermore, large swaths of savannas around the world have been cleared out to make room for the development of agriculture or housing. Savannas and grasslands should be carefully managed and protected so that the biome can continue to support the animals that play a critical part of our planets complex ecosystem.
- Daniel Nelson