Medium duty: 16,001–19,500 pounds (7,258–8,845 kg) Chevrolet Silverado 5500HD/International CV, Ford F-550, Ram 5500. Isuzu NRR, Freightliner Business Class M2 106, Kenworth T170, Peterbilt 325 Class 6: Medium duty: 19,501–26,000 pounds (8,846–11,793 kg)
The medium-duty version of the Ford F-Series is a range of commercial trucks manufactured by Ford since 1948. Derived from the smaller F-Series pickup trucks, the medium-duty range is currently in its eighth generation. Initially slotted between the F-Series pickup trucks and the "Big Job" conventionals, later generations were slotted below the L-Series "Louisville" trucks; the last two generations are the largest vehicles produced by Ford since its exit from the heavy-truck segment. Throughout
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Trucks and cars have a common ancestor: the steam-powered fardier Nicolas-Joseph Cugnot built in 1769. However, steam wagons were not common until the mid-19th century. The roads of the time, built for horse and carriages, limited these vehicles to very short hauls, usually from a factory to the nearest railway station. The first semi-trailer appeared in 1881, towed by a steam tractor manufactured by De Dion-Bouton. Steam-powered wagons were sold in France an...
In 1895 Karl Benz designed and built the first internal combustion truck. Later that year some of Benz's trucks were modified to become busses by Netphener. A year later, in 1896, another internal combustion engine truck was built by Gottlieb Daimler, the Daimler Motor Lastwagen. Other companies, such as Peugeot, Renault and Büssing, also built their own versions. The first truck in the United States was built by Autocar in 1899 and was available with 5 or 8 horsepower (4 or 6 kW) engines. Tr...
Although it had been invented in 1897, the diesel engine did not appear in production trucks until Benz introduced it in 1923.The diesel engine was not common in trucks in Europe until the 1930s. In the United States, Autocar introduced diesel engines for heavy applications in the mid-1930s. Demand was high enough that Autocar launched the "DC" model (diesel conventional) in 1939. However, it took much longer for diesel engines to be broadly accepted in the US: gasoline engines were still in...
Often produced as variations of golf cars, with internal combustion or battery electric drive, these are used typically for off-highway use on estates, golf courses, and parks. While not suitable for highway use some variations may be licensed as slow speed vehicles for operation on streets, generally as a body variation of a neighborhood electric vehicle. A few manufactures produce specialized chassis for this type of vehicle, while Zap Motorsmarkets a version of their Xebra electric tricycl...
Popular in Europe and Asia, many mini-trucks are factory redesigns of light automobiles, usually with monocoque bodies. Specialized designs with substantial frames such as the Italian Piaggio shown here are based upon Japanese designs (in this case by Daihatsu) and are popular for use in "old town" sections of European cities that often have very narrow alleyways. Regardless of name, these small trucks serve a wide range of uses. In Japan, they are regulated under the Kei car laws, which allo...
Light trucks are car-sized (in the US, no more than 13,900 lb (6.3 t)) and are used by individuals and businesses alike. In the EU they may not weigh more than 3.5 t (7,700 lb) and are allowed to be driven with a driving licence for cars. Pickup trucks, called utes in Australia and New Zealand, are common in North America and some regions of Latin America, Asia, and Africa, but not so in Europe, where this size of commercial vehicle is most often made as vans.
Almost all trucks share a common construction: they are made of a chassis, a cab, an area for placing cargo or equipment, axles, suspension and roadwheels, an engine and a drivetrain. Pneumatic, hydraulic, water, and electrical systems may also be present. Many also tow one or more trailersor semi-trailers.
In many countries, driving a truck requires a special driving license. The requirements and limitations vary with each different jurisdiction.
Trucks contribute to air, noise, and water pollution similarly to automobiles. Trucks may[vague] emit lower air pollution emissions than cars per equivalent vehicle mass, although the absolute level per vehicle distance traveled is higher, and diesel exhaust is especially dangerous for health. EPA measures pollution from trucks. With respect to noise pollution, trucks emit considerably higher sound levels at all speeds compared to typical cars; this contrast is particularly strong with heavy-duty trucks. There are several aspects of truck operations that contribute to the overall sound that is emitted. Continuous sounds are those from tires rolling on the roadway and the constant hum of their diesel engines at highway speeds. Less frequent noises, but perhaps more noticeable, are things like the repeated sharp-pitched whistle of a turbocharger on acceleration, or the abrupt blare of an exhaust brake retarder when traversing a downgrade. There has been noise regulation put in place t...
A truck cab is a hazard control that protects the truck operator from hazardous airborne pollutants. As an enclosure, it is an example of an engineering control. Enclosed operator cabs have been used on agriculture, mining, and construction vehicles for several decades. Most modern-day enclosed cabs have heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems for primarily maintaining a comfortable temperature and providing breathable air for their occupants. Various levels of filtration can be incorporated into the HVAC system to remove airborne pollutants such as dusts, diesel particulate matter (DPM), and other aerosols. Two key elements of an effective environmental enclosure are a good filtration system and an enclosure with good integrity (sealed isolation from the outside environment). It is recommended that a filtration system filter out at least 95% or greater of airborne respirable aerosols from the intake airflow, with an additional recirculation filtering component for...
Commercial trucks in the US pay higher road use taxes on a state level than other road vehicles and are subject to extensive regulation.A few reasons commercial trucks pay higher road use taxes: they are bigger and heavier than most other vehicles, and cause more wear and tear per hour on roadways; and trucks and their drivers are on the road for more hours per day. Rules on use taxes differ among jurisdictions.
Damage to pavement
The life of a pavement is measured by the number of passes of a vehicle axle. It may be evaluated using the Load Equivalency Factor,which states that the damage by the pass of a vehicle axle is proportional to the 4th power of the weight, so a ten-ton axle consumes 10,000 times the life of the pavement as a one-ton axle. For that reason, loaded trucks cost the same as thousands of cars in pavement costs, and are subject to higher taxes and highway tolls.
Primary liability insurance coverage protects the truck from damage or injuries to other people as a result of a truck accident. This truck insurance coverage is mandated by U.S. state and federal agencies, and proof of coverage is required to be sent to them. Interstate trucks in the U.S. are required to have a minimum of $75,000 in liability insurance. This includes motor carriers operating vehicles with a gross weight rating in excess of 10,000 lb (4.5 t) (which transport non-hazardous mat...
In 2002 and 2004, there were over 5,000 fatalities related to trucking accidents in the United States. The trucking industry has since made significant efforts in increasing safety regulations. In 2008, the industry had successfully lowered the fatality rate to just over 4,000 deaths, but trucking accidents are still an issue that causes thousands of deaths and injuries each year. Approximately 6,000 trucking accident fatalities occur annually in the United States. Fatalities are not the only...
HGV safety in the EU
In-vehicle speed limitation is required applying a 90 km/h limit to commercial vehicles over 3.5 tonnes. Front, side, and rear underrun protection is required on commercial vehicles over 3.5 tonnes. Trucks must be fitted with blind-spot mirrors that give drivers a wider field of vision than conventional mirrors.Truck at CurlieHutchinson, Rollin W., Jr. (January 1912). "Motor Trucks – The New Freighters: Quicker and More Reliable Service, Cleaner and Less Congested Cities, Concrete Examples of Saving". The World's Work:...
Bering Truck: Bering MD23: Medium: COE: Bering MD26: United States: Daimler-Chrysler forced Bering to cease operations Bering Truck: Bering HDMX: Heavy: COE-United States: Daimler-Chrysler forced Bering to cease operations BMC: BMC Megastar: Light: Conventional-Turkey: Unknown Büssing: Büssing Commodore: Medium: COE-Germany: Unknown Büssing: Büssing BS 16 L: Medium: COE-Germany: Unknown
Medium duty Class 4 The Class 4 truck gross vehicle weight rating (GVWR) ranges from 14001–16000 lb (6351–7257 kg). Examples of vehicles in this class include select Ford F-450 trucks, Dodge Ram 4500, and the GMC 4500. Class 5 The Class 5 truck gross vehicle weight rating (GVWR) ranges from 16001–19500 lb (7258–8845 kg).
Medium duty Ford F-350. The Class 3 truck gross vehicle weight rating (GVWR) ranges from 10,001 to 14,000 pounds (4,536 to 6,350 kg). Examples of vehicles in this class include the dual-rear wheel models of the Ford F-350 and the GMC Sierra 3500.