Turkmenistan (/ t ɜːr k ˈ m ɛ n ɪ s t æ n / or / t ɜːr k m ɛ n ɪ ˈ s t ɑː n / (); Turkmen: Türkmenistan, pronounced [tʏɾkmɛnɪˈθtɑn]), also known as Turkmenia, is a sovereign country in Central Asia, bordered by Kazakhstan to the northwest, Uzbekistan to the north and east, Afghanistan to the southeast, Iran to the south and southwest and the Caspian Sea to the west.
Turkmenistan is a landlocked country in Central Asia, bordering the Caspian Sea to the west, Iran and Afghanistan to the south, Uzbekistan to the north-east, and Kazakhstan to the north-west. It is the southernmost republic of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the loose federation created at the end of 1991 by most of the Post ...
According to CIA World Factbook 2006 figures, Turkmenistan ranks 5th in the world for GDP growth rate. Although it is wealthy in natural resources in certain areas, most of the country is covered by the Karakum (Black Sands) Desert. It has a one-party system, and was ruled by President for Life Saparmurat Niyazov until his death on 21 December ...
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- 24 October 2008
- own work, using, United States National Imagery and Mapping Agency data, World Data Base II data
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Turkmenistan was not among the most economically developed Soviet republics, with largely agrarian economy, despite exploration and exploitation of enormous oil and gas resources – discovery of 62 trillion cubic feet Dawletabad gas field in the 1960s became the largest gas field find in the world outside Russia and Middle East.
Nisa (Ancient Greek: Νῖσος and Νίσα and Νίσαιον) (also Parthaunisa, Turkmen: Nusaý) was an ancient settlement of the Parthians, located near the Bagyr neighborhood of Ashgabat, Turkmenistan, 18 km southwest of the city center.
The Turkmen of Turkmenistan, like their kin in Uzbekistan, Afghanistan, and Iran, are predominantly Muslims. According to the CIA World Factbook, Turkmenistan is 89% Muslim and 10% Eastern Orthodox. Most ethnic Russians and Armenians are Orthodox Christians. The remaining 1% is unknown.
The Ashgabat Fountain has the world's greatest number of fountain pools in a public place. Ashgabat also features Turkmenistan Tower which is the tallest tower in Turkmenistan, the decorative octagonal Star of Oguzkhan is recognized as the world's largest architectural image of the star and entered in the Guinness World Records.
The city of Marv, Turkmenistan in the 4th century as shown on the Peutinger Map Sassanian rule came to an end when the last Sassanian ruler, Yazdegerd III (632–651) was killed not far from the city and the Sassanian military governor surrendered to the approaching Arab army.