What are the different types of Orthodox churches? Armenian Apostolic Church. Armenian Patriarch of Constantinople. ... Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria. French Coptic Orthodox Church. Syriac Orthodox Church of Antioch. ... Malankara Orthodox Syrian Church. ... Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo ...
Orthodox is not a religion, the word orthodox itself is more of a description, used to name a denomination within a faith. The main types of orthodox would be orthodox Jews or orthodox Christians....
Sep 27, 2008 · Answer: There is exactly ONE Eastern Orthodox Church. No matter what language is used in the particular local branch the Liturgy and teachings are the SAME. You may have heard of Ukranian Orthodox,...
Types of Religious Organizations. Polytheism; Monotheism; Atheism; Animism; Totemism; Remark that some religions may be practiced in different categories. For example, the Christian concept of the Holy Trinity (God, Jesus, Holy Spirit) defies the definition of monotheism, which is a religion based on faith in a single deity; to some scholars.
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Mar 11, 2019 · While Christianity is strongly orthodox, its predecessor, Judaism, is strongly orthopraxic. Religious Jews obviously do have some common beliefs, but their primary concern is correct behavior: eating kosher, avoiding various purity taboos, honoring the Sabbath and so on.
- Bahá’í Faith
(approx. 2.1 billion followers) Christianity, the monotheistic (belief in one God) and Abrahamic (tracing its origins to Abraham, a biblical patriarch found in Christianity, Judaism as well as Islam) religion, is one of the largest of the world religions, with followers spread across all the continents. When it originated in the middle of the first century, it was but a marginal sect of Judaism, limited to a small province called Levant, on the eastern boundary of the Roman Empire. However, by the fourth century, Christianity became the official religion of Roman Empire, replacing all the other faiths practiced before. Christianity is based on the life, experiences, and teachings of Jesus Christ. It considers Jesus to be the Son of God. He is thus, a divine being born into the mortal world, and has both, divine as well as mortal affiliations. Owing to Jesus’ hypostatic character, he is both, the ‘prophet’ of the Almighty, and the ‘messiah’, who will save humanity. Added to this, the...
(approx. 1.6 billion followers) Islam is also a monotheistic Abrahamic religion, like Christianity. The followers of Islam are known as Muslims, and its teachings are lucidly expressed in the Qur’an, its sacred text. The words written in the Qur’an are considered to be the verbatim words of God himself, brought and taught to the mortals by His prophets. According to a Hadith(a statement of the Islamic prophet Muhammad), there were as many as 124,000 prophets send by God to spread his message, but only 25 of them have been mentioned in the Qur’an. However, Muhammad, the last Islamic prophet is important, in that he was attested the responsibility to convey the final word of God to the world. Rigorous monotheism is the fundamental concept in Islam. Muslims believe that God, Allah, is the singular, eternal, and an absolute entity, who is formless, all-pervasive, and asexual. Because He is formless, the Muslims are not supposed to visualize God, or worship Him in any anthropomorphic/zoo...
(approx. 1 billion followers) Hinduism is a predominant henotheistic (belief in one God but not refusing the existence of the others, who may also be worshiped) religion of the Indian sub-continent, and is considered to be the oldest surviving religious tradition in the world. The religion developed step by step throughout the ages, and has no designated founder. Adherents of Hinduism are known as Hindus. The faith developed, initially as Sanātana Dharma(the eternal law), and later on as Brahmanism, before it could consolidate at a later date as Hinduism. Because the religion does not bear one particular founder, it also does not have one particular/standardized philosophy. On the contrary, diverse ethnic and cultural traditions went on assimilating into each other, as they spread through various religious movements in the entire Indian sub-continent. The end result was an independent religious tradition devoid of heresy, blasphemy, and apostasy. Hinduism is based on a number of scr...
(approx. 376 million followers) Buddhism originated as a heterodox religious ideology, sometime between 600 B.C. and 400 B.C., in the Indian subcontinent. When the orthodox Brahmanismbecame very stringent and exploitative, especially towards the lower classes, Siddhartha Gautama, commonly called the Buddha(the enlightened one), came up with new philosophical doctrines, and established a sect of yellow-robed followers belonging to all strata of the society. The entire Buddhist faith rests on the Four Noble Truths (cattāri ariyasaccāni), which are the core of all Buddhist teachings. They are as under: 1. Life is full of suffering. 2. Desire is the root of all suffering. 3. Suffering can be overcome by eliminating all desires. 4. Elimination of desires can be attained by following the noble Eightfold Path (aṣṭāṅgika mārga). The Eightfold Path has been prescribed by the Buddha as a right way to live life, and as a path that ultimately leads to salvation. Following are the factors of the...
(approx. 24 million followers) Sikhism, a monotheistic religion founded by Gurū Nānak in the 15th century, is one of the world’s youngest religions. This religious faith, established in the Punjab region of northwestern India with a limited number of followers in the beginning, is today, the fifth-largest organized religion in the world. Even today, though Sikh diaspora is quite visibly present in numerous parts of the world, Punjab remains the only region, where majority of the population is Sikh. A devoted Sikh is expected to be an amalgam of a saint and a soldier. That is to say, he must be both compassionate as well as aggressive, and should be able to distinguish between good and evil, and apply his traits accordingly. The God of the Sikhs is called Wāhegurū. He is omnipresent and possesses infinite power to create, sustain, and destroy. But, at the same time, he is niraṅkār(shapeless), akāl(timeless), and alakh(sightless). The expression ēk ōaṅkār(the supreme reality) represen...
(approx. 14 million followers) Judaism is the oldest of the Abrahamic faiths, which also include Christianity and Islam. It is also one of the oldest monotheistic religions of the world. It was founded in the Middle East, around 3,500 years ago, by a prophet called Moses, to whom, it is believed that God revealed his laws and commandments. The Tanakhor the Hebrew Bibleis the Jewish canonical text through which most of the religion has been studied and understood. In Judaism, the concept of God, and His relationship with humankind has been brought out in a very interesting manner. The Jews believe that there is only one God, and that they have a set agreement, a covenant with Him. In return for all the good things which the God endows people with, they have to abide by His laws, and live a sacred life spreading peace and harmony in the world. It is this ‘give and take relationship’ with God that gives Him human characteristics, and thus makes Him all the more approachable. But, on th...
(approx. 7 million followers) The Bahá’í Faith, one of the youngest monotheistic religious traditions in the world, was founded in Iran in 1863 by a man called Bahá’u’lláh. The very crux of this faith lies in the spiritual unity of mankind, which can be achieved if all individuals function in harmony for the common benefit of human race. The divine messengers/prophets of God, form the base of this faith. It is believed that the history of humankind can be unraveled through the teachings of a series of divine messengers, who established their own religious faiths according to the need of the period during which they lived. And so, all these messengers, including Moses, Jesus, and Muhammad, have a prominent place in the faith. According to the Bahá’í beliefs, Bahá’u’lláh is the most recent ‘manifestation of God’ (divine messenger). The Bahá’ís believe that there is only one God and the entire universe and its creations belong to Him. He is omnipotent and imperishable. He possesses a p...
(approx. 4.2 million followers) Like Buddhism, Jainism also emerged as a heterodox sect of Brahmanism, which later on transformed as a full-fledged religious ideology. In 600 B.C., Vardhamāna Mahāvira rose to prominence as an important proponent of Jainism, who managed to build up a large group of followers for the faith. The Jain philosophy promotes a non-violent and harmless existence for the welfare of the universe. Traditionally, there have been 24 Tirthankāras(ford-makers), who preached the faith, and aided people to achieve salvation. The first and the foremost principle on with the Jain faith rests is that of non-violence (Ahimsā). The Jains believe that all living things, plants and animals alike, have living souls, and are thus equivalent to each other. Harming any of the living things is hence, a great sin. In lieu of this, the Jains strictly adhere to vegetarianism, as killing of animals is prohibited in the religion. Added to this, there are five great vows (Mahāvrata) t...
(approx. 2.6 million followers) Founded by prophet Zoroāster in ancient Persia (present day Iran) about 3,500 years ago, Zoroāstrianism is one of the world’s oldest monotheistic religions. For about 1,000 years after its foundation, the religion remained one of the most influential faiths in the world, and it was also the official religion of Persia from 600 B.C. to 650 A.D. The adherents of Zoroastrianism are known as the Zoroastrians. The Zoroāstrians regard Ahurā Mazdāto be the creator of all the good things in the universe, aša, which the evil, drujtries to destroy. This represents the ongoing conflict between good and evil forces existing simultaneously in the universe. However, Ahurā Mazdā does not pervade the material world as he is assumed to be the ‘uncreated creator’, but can be worshiped through a host of other lesser divinities called the Amesha Spentasand the Yazatas. The place of worship of the Zoroāstrians is the Fire Temple, known as the Agiāry. However, contrary to...
ROMANIAN ORTHODOX CHURCH - Emerged 1885 As Distinct from the Eastern Orthodox Denomination. Although some claim that the Romanian Orthodox church traces back to Apostolic times i.e. the work of the Apostle Andrew in Scythia Minor (Romania) and other very early missionaries, the history of this branch of the Orthodox faith is a bit obscure for nearly 1200 years following the Roman departure in ...
- Freedom of Religion in Romania
- Eastern Orthodox Christianity
- Other Religions in Romania
- Religious Persecution in The Country
The 1991 Constitution of Romania as well as other laws of the country, allow for freedom of religion within the country. These laws protect the right of religious followers to organize and prohibit forced religious practice. Asking an individual to identify their religion is illegal in both the public and the private sector. To receive certain tax exemptions, a religious entity must be legally registered with the government. Eighteen religions and denominations are recognized by the state.
The most widely practiced religion in Romania is Eastern Orthodox Christianity. Approximately 81% of the population identifies as Orthodox Christian. The Romanian Orthodox Church was established in 1859 under the Kingdom of Romania and in 1872, it was declared autocephalous. When the country came under Communist rule in 1947, the Church underwent a reformation of its hierarchy. The government eventually came to control the church elections, pay the salaries of clergy, and remove anti-communist members to concentration camps. The country moved toward democracy beginning in 1989, and the Church became free of state control at that time. Among the individuals who identify as Orthodox Christians, church attendance is low. Only about 25.4% attend church weekly, 37.8% on major holidays, 18.9% attend once a month, 10.2% once a year and 3.4% do not attend church at all.
Catholicism falls under two denominations in Romania: Roman Catholic and Greek Catholic. Together, they make up approximately 5.1% of the total population. This percentage has gradually declined since 1948. Of the two, the Roman Catholic Church has the biggest base of followers, making it the second largest denomination in the country. The Roman Catholic Church has existed in Romania since Medieval times and, like the Eastern Orthodox Church underwent persecution during the Communist era. In 1990, its relationship with the Holy See was reestablished. The majority of its practitioners live in Transylvania and Bacau County in Moldavia. The Greek Catholic Church has a union with the Roman Catholic Church, although it conducts services in the Romanian language and uses the Byzantine liturgical rite. Its followers primarily inhabit the northern region of Transylvania and represent only .75% of the Romanian population. The Eastern Orthodox Church has claimed some properties belonging to t...
Protestants make up 5.95% of the population of Romania. The major denominations within this religion include: Reformed (2.99%), Pentecostal (1.8%), Baptist (.56%), Seventh-Day Adventist (.4%), and Unitarian (.29%). The Reformed Church, which has the biggest following, belongs to the Calvinist Church. Around 95% of its followers are Hungarian, which is also the main language of the church. This is the third largest denomination after the Eastern Orthodox and Roman Catholic religions.
Other religions practiced in Romania include Islam (0.3%), Jehovah’s Witnesses (0.25%), Old Believers (0.16%), and Judaism (0.02%).
Despite legalizing religious freedom, Romania has many reports of religious persecution. Some religious groups find it difficult to register, thus continuing to practice without government recognition. Other religions, particularly the Greek Catholic Church, have difficulty reacquiring its previously confiscated properties from the Orthodox Church. In addition, the Orthodox Church has been accused of preventing non-Orthodox members from entering the cemeteries. Anti-Semitic reports have also occurred, which include the destruction of synagogues, anti-Semitic sermons, and denials of the Holocaust.
- Amber Pariona
In the United States, the major religious streams of Judaism are Reform, Conservative, Orthodox, and Reconstructionist. The Orthodox population is itself quite diverse, with numerous subgroups, such as ultra-Orthodox or Haredi Orthodox (a group that includes Hasidic Jews), centrist Orthodox and Modern Orthodox.
This religion does not specifically restrict any particular food or food preparation, but it does have tenets that are interpreted and followed in many aspects of daily life, including food consumption. Buddhists follow the principle guide to do no harm. This has been interpreted into the vegetarian dietary practice. Lacto-vegetarianism is most common for Buddhists, which includes dairy and animal products, but does not allow meat. Theravada, a branch of Buddhism does allow pork, chicken, and fish if the animal was not slaughtered for consumption, but consumption ends up being the best way to respectfully utilize the entire animal after death.
While there are many types of Christianity, a few, in particular, have religious dietary restrictions to be aware of. Catholicism– there are holy days and periods on which devout Catholics will fast. For example, meat is not allowed on Fridays during Lent. And fasting is expected on Good Friday and Ash Wednesday. Eastern Orthodox Christians– if practicing, there will be weekly fasts that require abstention from alcohol, eggs, dairy, fish, meat, and olive oil. There are other fasts that are longer and are more exclusionary in their food choices. Seventh-Day Adventists– are what’s called lacto-ovo-vegetarians. This means they avoid alcohol, fish, poultry, and other meat, but will eat some animal products, such as eggs and dairy.
Hindus do not eat eggs, fish, meat, or poultry, but do eat dairy. For this, they are considered lacto-vegetarians. Brahmins, a class of Hinduism, have special restrictions on who and how their food is prepared and stored. All practicing Hindus have several fasting periods, some of which are limited to plant foods and others that are more strict. While some Hindus will fast weekly, there are also New Moon days, holy days, and festivals that require fasting. Diwali is perhaps the most famous Hindu holy period, lasting five days, the last two of which, many Hindus will fast.
Halal is what is considered permissible under traditional Islamic law and is the guide under which we understand dietary restrictions. There are a number of restrictions, but in general, foods that are kosher are also acceptable under Halal. The largest exception is alcohol, which Halal does not permit. Ramadan is a particularly holy period with associated dietary restrictions and food traditions. For more about Ramadan, this Primercan be helpful as canthis guideto fasting and fast-breaking.
Jainism practices non-violence and has strict rules for the protection of all life. For this reason, they do not eat eggs, fish, meat or poultry. They also avoid most root vegetables because the entire plant is usually killed when harvesting the root. Honey is also prohibited because it is eating off the labor of honeybees and the collection of honey often results in violence to the bees. There are holy days where fasting is observed. Paryushan is the largest and most well-known, lasting eight days. These fasts will often call for the elimination of green and raw vegetables, because they are considered more alive than simple grains, and they will only eat before sunset.
The religious dietary restrictions guide regarding what can be consumed by practicing Jews is called kosher.Foods labeled kosher are prepared under strict guidelines to the entire supply chain, from harvest and slaughter to preparation, packaging, and food combinations. Pork and shellfish are famously not allowed. Religious holidays have additional restrictions and also food traditions. Rosh Hashanah, Yom Kippur, and Passover are some of the more famous Jewish holy days. Food traditions and restrictions are very important on these and other holy days throughout the year. It’s best to purchase pre-packaged kosher meals and leave them unopened to ensure the attendee can see there hasn’t been any contamination. For more about this, please see this article about kosher and meal planning for events.
Specific religious dietary restrictions are coffee, tea, alcohol, tobacco, and illegal drugs. The idea for Mormons is to avoid mind-altering substances. However, Mormons are also advised to eat respectfully and with appreciation through portion control, zero waste, and by avoiding overindulgence. In addition, Mormons participate in a show of self-control and humility through a monthly fast, equating to missing two meals, on the first Sunday of each month. Sundays are also considered a time of rest and avoid doing work or requiring the work of others. This can be helpful when planning an event that should be inclusive in an area or with a guest list featuring Mormons.
Rastafarians have dietary restrictions relating to clean eating. Their rule is l-tal, which means eating natural and clean. Lightly cooked meals are okay, and fish is permitted as long as it is less than 12 inches long. Pork, scavengers, and shellfish are prohibited, although meat, in general, is not a common food. Salt, alcohol, milk, and coffee are also on the restricted list. There are Rastafarian holy days throughout the year, and in general, a Rastafarian diet will not change; however, most holy meals will be strictly vegetarian or vegan. Most holidays are marked by a large feast and celebratory gathering. This is a very brief summary of some of the major religions and their dietary practices. It’s always best to find out what your attendees require ahead of time and consult a professional when it comes to menu planning. I can not only help with menu management when it comes to religious dietary restrictions, but I often work with event budgets to ensure your menu doesn’t becom...
- related to: types of orthodox religions