Ticks (Ixodida) are arachnids, typically 3 to 5 mm long, part of the superorder Parasitiformes.Along with mites, they constitute the subclass Acari.Ticks are external parasites, living by feeding on the blood of mammals, birds, and sometimes reptiles and amphibians.
- American Dog Tick (Dermacentor variabilis) The American dog tick have a dark brown body. Females have an off-white shield, while adult males look more mottled.
- Blacklegged “Deer” Tick (Ixodes scapularis) This tick is most easily identified by its reddish-orange body, black shield and dark black legs. Pathogens: The deer tick is known to transmit Borrelia burgdorferi (the agent of Lyme disease), Borrelia mayonii (which causes a Lyme-like illness), Borrelia miyamotoi and Borrelia hermsii (that both cause relapsing fever Borreliosis), Ehrlichia muris (ehrlichiosis), Anaplasma phagocytophilum (anaplasmosis), Babesia microti (babesiosis), multiple species of Rickettsia, deer tick virus, and Powassan virus.
- Brown Dog Tick (Rhipicephalus sanguineus) The brown dog tick is a reddish brown with a narrow shape in comparison to other ticks. Pathogens: All life stages of this tick can transmit Rocky Mountain spotted fever (Rickettsia rickettsia), Q Fever, and other rickettsioses to humans.
- Groundhog Tick (Ixodes cookei) The groundhog tick, also known as woodchuck tick, has a light brown or blond color. Pathogens: The groundhog tick is the primary vector for Powassan virus disease.
- Pacific Coast Tick. Scientific name: Dermacentor occidentalis. Native Range: Found along the Western seaboard of the continental US, from Oregon to Baja California.
- Western-Blacklegged Tick. Scientific name: Ixodes pacificus. Native Range: Found along the Western seaboard and in parts of Nevada, Utah and Arizona. Distinctive Features: The adult females have a brown body and legs, with a darker brown head.
- Gulf Coast Tick. Scientific name: Amblyomma maculatum. Native Range: Found along the US Gulf Coast and up the Eastern seaboard to Maryland. It's also found through Central America.
- Cayenne Tick. Scientific name: Amblyomma cajennense. Native Range: This tick is found in the south central U.S., and its range reaches into South America.
May 12, 2020 · To the untrained eye, all ticks look alike. But should you get a bite, knowing the species is important.“Different types of ticks transmit different types of germs,” says Thomas Mather, Ph.D ...
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The following descriptions provide key facts about each of these different types of ticks, including what each tick looks like at various stages of the lifecycle, some distinguishing characteristics, regions where they’re typically found, and what kinds of ticks carry Lyme disease and other illnesses that can infect both people and pets.
The fossil record suggests ticks have been around at least 90 million years. There are over 800 species of ticks throughout the world, but only two families of ticks, Ixodidae (hard ticks) and Argasidae (soft ticks), are known to transmit diseases or illness to humans. Hard ticks have a scutum, or hard plate, on their back while soft ticks do not.
Lyme disease, also known as Lyme borreliosis, is an infectious disease caused by the Borrelia bacterium which is spread by ticks. The most common sign of infection is an expanding red rash, known as erythema migrans, that appears at the site of the tick bite about a week after it occurred.
Feb 28, 2019 · Hook SA, et al. U.S. public's experience with ticks and tick-borne diseases: Results from national HealthStyles surveys. Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases. 2015;6:483. Lewis LA, et al. Identification of 24 h Ixodes scapularis immunogenic tick saliva proteins.
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- Risk Factors
Alpha-gal syndrome is a recently identified type of food allergy to red meat. In the United States, the condition most often begins when a Lone Star tick bite transmits a sugar molecule called alpha-gal into the body. In some people, this triggers an immune system reaction that later produces mild to severe allergic reactions when they eat red meat.The Lone Star tick is found predominantly in the southeastern United States, and most cases of alpha-gal syndrome occur in this region. The condit...
Signs and symptoms of an alpha-gal allergic reaction are often delayed compared with other food allergies. Most reactions to common food allergens — peanuts or shellfish, for example — happen within minutes of exposure. In alpha-gal syndrome, signs and symptoms typically don't appear for three to six hours after eating red meat.Signs and symptoms of alpha-gal syndrome may include: 1. Hives, itching, or itchy, scaly skin (eczema) 2. Swelling of the lips, face, tongue and throat, or other body...
Most people who develop alpha-gal syndrome in the U.S. develop the condition when a Lone Star tick bites them. Bites from other types of ticks can lead to the condition in Europe, Australia and Asia.
Doctors don't yet know why some people develop alpha-gal syndrome after exposure and others don't. The condition mostly occurs in the southeastern United States and parts of New York, New Jersey and New England. You're at increased risk if you live or spend time in these regions and: 1. Spend a lot of time outdoors 2. Have received multiple Lone Star tick bites 3. Have a mast cell abnormality such as indolent systemic mastocytosisIn the past 20 to 30 years, the Lone Star tick has been found i...
Alpha-gal syndrome can cause food-induced anaphylaxis, a medical emergency that requires treatment with an epinephrine (adrenaline) injector (EpiPen, Auvi-Q, others) and a trip to the emergency room.Anaphylaxis signs and symptoms can include: 1. Constriction of airways 2. Swelling of the throat that makes it difficult to breathe 3. A severe drop in blood pressure (shock) 4. Rapid pulse 5. Dizziness, lightheadedness or loss of consciousnessBased on recent research, doctors now believe that som...
The best way to prevent alpha-gal syndrome is to avoid areas where ticks live, especially wooded, bushy areas with long grass. You can decrease your risk of getting alpha-gal syndrome with some simple precautions: 1. Cover up. When in wooded or grassy areas, wear shoes, long pants tucked into your socks, a long-sleeved shirt, a hat and gloves. Try to stick to trails and avoid walking through low bushes and long grass. Keep your dog on a leash. 2. Use insect repellents. Apply insect repellent...