Typhoid fever, also known simply as typhoid, is a bacterial infection due to a specific type of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica that causes symptoms. Symptoms may vary from mild to severe, and usually begin 6 to 30 days after exposure.
During the American Civil War, 81,360 Union soldiers died of typhoid or dysentery, far more than died of battle wounds. In the late 19th century, the typhoid fever mortality rate in Chicago averaged 65 per 100,000 people a year. The worst year was 1891, when the typhoid death rate was 174 per 100,000 people.
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Paratyphoid fever, also known simply as paratyphoid, is a bacterial infection caused by one of the three types of Salmonella enterica. Symptoms usually begin 6–30 days after exposure and are the same as those of typhoid fever. Often, a gradual onset of a high fever occurs over several days. Weakness, loss of appetite, and headaches also commonly occur. Some people develop a skin rash with rose-colored spots. Without treatment, symptoms may last weeks or months. Other people may carry the ...
The most notorious carrier of typhoid fever, but by no means the most destructive, was Mary Mallon, also known as Typhoid Mary. History 2 [ edit ] In 1907, she was the first typhoid carrier identified and traced, while working as a cook in New York.
Typhoid, is spread by eating or drinking food, or water, contaminated with the feces of an infected person. Risk Factor [ change source ] Risk factors include, poor sanitation , and poor hygiene.
Typhoid, also called typhoid fever, is an illness caused by the bacterium Salmonella Typhi. The disease is spread through water which has the Salmonella Typhi bacteria in it ( transmission is by faeco oral route) Typhoid usually lasts between two weeks and a month. The symptoms of typhoid often appear 10 to 14 days after infection.
Irish immigrant Mary Mallon (better known as Typhoid Mary) becomes the first person in the United States identified as an asymptomatic carrier of the pathogen associated with typhoid fever. Presumed to have infected 51 people (three of whom die), Mary Mallon would be forcibly isolated for quarantine purposes twice in her life, once in 1907 and again in 1915.
Also known as "enteric fever" (of which paratyphoid fever is an additional subset) Diagnosed in 2% of febrile travelers and caused by Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi (formerly Salmonella typhi) serotype paratyphi A, B, and C. Endemic in Mexico, Indonesia, Peru, and the Indian subcontinent.
Typhoid vaccines are vaccines that prevent typhoid fever. Several types are widely available: typhoid conjugate vaccine, Ty21a and Vi capsular polysaccharide vaccine. They are about 30 to 70% effective for the first two years depending on the specific vaccine in question. The Vi-rEPA vaccine has been shown to be efficacious in children. The World Health Organization recommends vaccinating all children in areas where the disease is common. Otherwise they recommend vaccinating those at high risk.
Typhoid fever is an acute illness associated with fever caused by the Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi bacteria. It can also be caused by Salmonella paratyphi, a related bacterium that usually causes a less severe illness.