Typhoid fever, also known simply as typhoid, is a bacterial infection due to a specific type of Salmonella that causes symptoms. Symptoms may vary from mild to severe, and usually begin 6 to 30 days after exposure.
In 2000, typhoid fever caused an estimated 21.7 million illnesses and 217,000 deaths. It occurs most often in children and young adults between 5 and 19 years old. In 2013, it resulted in about 161,000 deaths – down from 181,000 in 1990.
- Signs and symptoms
Paratyphoid fever, also known simply as paratyphoid, is a bacterial infection caused by one of the three types of Salmonella enterica. Symptoms usually begin 6–30 days after exposure and are the same as those of typhoid fever. Often, a gradual onset of a high fever occurs over several days. Weakness, loss of appetite, and headaches also commonly occur. Some people develop a skin rash with rose-colored spots. Without treatment, symptoms may last weeks or months. Other people may carry the...
Paratyphoid fever resembles typhoid fever. Infection is characterized by a sustained fever, headache, abdominal pain, malaise, anorexia, a nonproductive cough, a relative bradycardia, and hepatosplenomegaly. About 30% of Caucasians develop rosy spots on the central body. In adults, constipation is more common than diarrhea. Only 20 to 40% of people initially have abdominal pain. Nonspecific symptoms such as chills, sweating, headache, loss of appetite, cough, weakness, sore throat, dizziness, an
Paratyphoid fever is caused by any of three strains of Salmonella paratyphoid: S. Paratyphi A, S. schottmuelleri, or S. hirschfeldii.
After ingestion, if the immune system is unable to stop the infection, the bacteria multiply and then spread to the bloodstream, after which the first signs of disease are observed in the form of fever. They penetrate further to the bone marrow, liver, and bile ducts, from which bacteria are excreted into the bowel contents. In the second phase of the disease, the bacteria penetrate the immune tissue of the small intestine, and the initial symptoms of small-bowel movements begin.
Providing basic sanitation and safe drinking water and food are the keys for controlling the disease. In developed countries, enteric fever rates decreased in the past when treatment of municipal water was introduced, human feces were excluded from food production, and pasteurization of dairy products began. In addition, children and adults should be carefully educated about personal hygiene. This would include careful handwashing after defecation and sexual contact, before preparing or eating f
Control requires treatment of antibiotics and vaccines prescribed by a doctor. Major control treatments for paratyphoid fever include ciprofloxacin for 10 days, ceftriaxone/cefotaxime for 14 days, or aziththromycin.
Typhoid, also called typhoid fever, is an illness caused by the bacterium Salmonella Typhi. The disease is spread through water which has the Salmonella Typhi bacteria in it ( transmission is by faeco oral route) Typhoid usually lasts between two weeks and a month. The symptoms of typhoid often appear 10 to 14 days after infection.
Typhoid vaccines are vaccines that prevent typhoid fever. Several types are widely available: typhoid conjugate vaccine (TCV), Ty21a (a live vaccine given by mouth) and Vi capsular polysaccharide vaccine (ViPS) (an injectable subunit vaccine).
Typhoid fever is an acute illness associated with fever caused by the Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi bacteria. It can also be caused by Salmonella paratyphi, a related bacterium that usually causes a less severe illness. The bacteria are deposited in water or food by a human carrier and are then spread to other people in the area. Typhoid fever is contracted by drinking or eating the bacteria in contaminated food or water. People with acute illness can contaminate the surrounding water supply through stool, which contains a high concentration of the bacteria. Contamination of the water supply can, in turn, taint the food supply. The bacteria can survive for weeks in water or dried sewage.
The incidence of typhoid fever in the United States has markedly decreased since the early 1900s, when tens of thousands of cases were reported in the U.S. Today, less than 400 cases are reported annually in the United States, mostly in people who have recently traveled to Mexico and South America. This improvement is the result of better environmental sanitation. India, Pakistan, and Egypt are also known as high-risk areas for developing this disease. Worldwide, typhoid fever affects more than 21 million people annually, with about 200,000 people dying from the disease.
After the ingestion of contaminated food or water, the Salmonella bacteria invade the small intestine and enter the bloodstream temporarily. The bacteria are carried by white blood cells in the liver, spleen, and bone marrow, where they multiply and reenter the bloodstream. People develop symptoms, including fever, at this point. Bacteria invade the gallbladder, biliary system, and the lymphatic tissue of the bowel. Here, they multiply in high numbers. The bacteria pass into the intestinal tract and can be identified in stool samples. If a test result isn't clear, blood or urine samples will be taken to make a diagnosis.
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- Several different researchers work on the idea of protection against typhoid fever at the same time.
- Throughout the century, the incidence of typhoid fever steadily declines, due to the introduction of vaccinations and improvements in public sanitation and hygiene. In particular, the water chlorination would significantly reduce the incidence of typhoid fever among the population.
- Antibiotics like fluoroquinolones such as ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin become widespread especially in countries where multidrug resistance is a problem.
- According to the World Health Organization, there are about 22 million cases of typhoid fever and 200,000 deaths annually.
Mary Mallon (September 23, 1869 – November 11, 1938), also known as Typhoid Mary, was an Irish-born cook believed to have infected 53 people with typhoid fever, three of whom died, and the first person in the United States identified as an asymptomatic carrier of the disease.
- Risk Factors
Typhoid fever is caused by Salmonella typhi bacteria. Typhoid fever is rare in industrialized countries. However, it remains a serious health threat in the developing world, especially for children.Typhoid fever spreads through contaminated food and water or through close contact with someone who's infected. Signs and symptoms usually include a high fever, headache, abdominal pain, and either constipation or diarrhea.Most people with typhoid fever feel better within a few days of starting ant...
Signs and symptoms are likely to develop gradually — often appearing one to three weeks after exposure to the disease.
Typhoid fever is caused by virulent bacteria called Salmonella typhi. Although they're related, Salmonella typhi and the bacteria responsible for salmonellosis, another serious intestinal infection, aren't the same.
Typhoid fever remains a serious worldwide threat — especially in the developing world — affecting an estimated 26 million or more people each year. The disease is established (endemic) in India, Southeast Asia, Africa, South America and many other areas.Worldwide, children are at greatest risk of getting the disease, although they generally have milder symptoms than adults do.If you live in a country where typhoid fever is rare, you're at increased risk if you: 1. Work in or travel to areas w...
The most serious complications of typhoid fever — intestinal bleeding or holes (perforations) in the intestine — may develop in the third week of illness. A perforated intestine occurs when your small intestine or large bowel develops a hole, causing intestinal contents to leak into your abdominal cavity and triggering signs and symptoms such as severe abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting and bloodstream infection (sepsis). This life-threatening complication requires immediate medical care.
In many developing nations, the public health goals that can help prevent and control typhoid fever — safe drinking water, improved sanitation and adequate medical care — may be difficult to achieve. For that reason, some experts believe that vaccinating high-risk populations is the best way to control typhoid fever.A vaccine is recommended if you live in or you're traveling to areas where the risk of getting typhoid fever is high.
Dec 04, 2017 · Typhoid is a common bacterial infection in countries with low incomes. Untreated, it is fatal in around 25 percent of cases. Symptoms include a high fever and gastrointestinal problems.; Some ...