The UCLA Phonological Segment Inventory Database(or UPSID) is a statistical survey of the phonemeinventories in 451 of the world's languages. The database was created by American phoneticianIan Maddiesonfor the University of California, Los Angeles(UCLA) in 1984 and has been updated several times.
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The UCLA Phonological Segment Inventory Database. Data on the phonological systems of 451 languages, with programs to access it, by Ian Maddieson and Kristin Precoda. This is an elderly DOS program (and thus Windows only), neither of whose developers are still at UCLA, and no support is offered.
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Note: This is NOT the UCLA Phonetics Archive, completed in Dec. 2008 with NSF funding. This page (Phonetics Lab Data) is phonetics teaching materials compiled from the lab's collection by Peter and Jenny Ladefoged (originally "Sounds of the World's Languages").
UCLA Phonological Segment Inventory Database, UPSID-451, and are supported in at least two different language families situated in at least two distinct and extensive geographical areas.
- Consonant Inventory
- Vowel Inventory
- Loanword Phonology
Sereer has a moderately large consonant inventory with 32 distinctive consonant phonemes. Strikingly, there are 21 phonemically distinctive oral stops. The consonant inventory makes use of some combinations of parameters that are unusual cross-linguistically, including contrastive voicing in both egressive and ingressive stops. The use of implosives is fairly common in languages of sub-saharan Africa, particularly in the "Macro-Sudan belt" (cf. Güldemann 2010) that spans the non-desert regions and sahel from Senegal to Sudan. The use of voiceless implosives, however, is considerably less common, even within this area (cf. McLaughlin 2005). Sereer also has multiple uvular phonemes, a rarity for sub-Saharan Africa. The consonant inventory is shown below. Orthography for a given symbol is indicated in parentheses following a symbol if the orthography differs from the IPA.
Sereer has a 5 vowel system that is contrastive for length. There are no diphthongs: coda /w y/ may give off this impression, but they can be analyzed as precisely that. There are no restrictions on the appearance of long or short vowels in any environment. Notes on realization: 1. Vowels after implosive consonants are sometimes creaky; this, however, is not contrastive. 2. /o/ is realized as [ɔ] in closed syllables. See ñaaƴloox [ɳaʄlɔ:x] "feces" vs. laalo[la:lo] "baobab leaf". 3. /e/ has a lax variant [ɛ] that also surfaces in closed syllables. See saate [sa:te] "town, village" vs. yeeyet[je:jɛt] "insect". 4. Tenseness generally covaries with vowel length; long vowels are more tense than short vowels. 5. /a/ is realized somewhat higher than cardinal [a] when short and in a closed syllable. It is particularly susceptible in this position to coarticulation with neighboring consonants, as in the word 'cook' jaw, which is consistently realized as something like [ɟəw].
Stressis assigned metrically in Sereer. Stress is assigned to the left-most long vowel in a word; if there are no long vowels, then stress is assigned to the first stem syllable. Thus, stress is often realized on the penultimate syllable of a word. Due to these stress-assignment rules, many word-initial V syllables are not stressed. Coda consonants are extra-moraic, and thus do not seem to attract stress assignment. It is unclear at this point what the phonological correlates of stress are in Sereer. However, pitch or intensity or a combination of both can serve as a cue for a stressed syllable. It is suggested that instances of consonant mutationthat appear at multiple discontinuous locations are suprasegmental features are applied at the word level. It is unclear how well this analysis is supported, however, and is not necessarily descriptive, but rather theoretical.
Borrowed words show phonemes that are not normally present in Serer, like /y/ in [myyr] 'wall' (Fr. mur), or /ʃ/ in [maʃin] 'machine, device' (Fr. machine). These phonemes are irregularly adapted to Sereer phonology, as has happened on occasion to "wall," which can be pronounced as [miir].
in turn provided the database required to test for phonological universals. Specifically, such phonological investigations allowed Maddieson (1984, 1991) and Maddieson and Precoda (1990) to establish the UCLA Phonological Segment Inventory Database (UPSID), the most widely used database for typological and universal research in phonology.
1 The size and structure of phonological inventories. 1.1 Introduction. The database is known formally as the UCLA Phonological Segment Inventory Database, and its acronym is UPSID. 1.2 Design of the database. A. The database includes the inventories of 317 languages.
In this paper we discuss the contact-induced phonological changes in the Hindi lexicon of Contact Hindi (CH) in Meghalaya. CH is the link language in Meghalaya and is used at all the public places.
Descriptive Analyses of Phonological Development in Typically Developing Hindi-Speaking Children communication involving a set of small unit (syllables or words) that can be combined to yield an infinite number of larger language forms (Hoff & Naigles, 2002  ).