Chaperon — Canada's contribution to the United Nations of one military observer to the United Nation Mission of Observers in Prevlaka (UNMOP). Celesta — Australian naval surveillance in Australia's southern waters against illegal fishing .
The United Nations Disengagement Observer Force is a United Nations peacekeeping mission tasked with maintaining the ceasefire between Israel and Syria in the aftermath of the 1973 Yom Kippur War. The mission was established by United Nations Security Council Resolution 350 on 31 May 1974, to implement Resolution 338 which called for an immediate ceasefire and implementation of United Nations Security Council Resolution 242. The resolution was passed on the same day the Agreement on Disengagemen
- Camp Faouar
- 31 May 1974
- UN Security Council
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- Māori Tribal Warfare Before 1806
- Musket Wars
- New Zealand Wars
- Second Boer War
- First World War
- Fiji Expeditionary Force
- Second World War
- Compulsory Military Training
- Korean War
The level of intertribal warfare amongst pre-European Māori is unknown. Oral histories, legends and whakapapa include many stories of battles and wars but little research has been carried out into how often wars actually happened. In Making Peoples James Belich argues that they were probably uncommon in the few centuries immediately after the arrival of Māori in New Zealand in about 1280 CE, as there was ample land and resources to go around. Archaeological evidence suggests that following population growth and the extinction of the moa (a large flightless bird), warfare increased as tribes and hapū (subtribes) competed over scarce resources. At some point, perhaps before this cultural change, one group migrated to the Chatham Islands, where they developed the largely pacifist Morioriculture. Their pacifism left the Moriori unable to defend themselves when the islands were invaded by mainland Māori in the 1830s. In the 'classic' Māori culture of 1550 CE onward, warriors were held in...
The Musket Wars were a series of battles in the early 19th century, fought between various Māori tribal groups, mainly on the North Island. Northern tribes, such as the rival Ngā Puhi and Ngāti Whātua, were the first to obtain muskets and inflicted heavy casualties upon each other and on neighbouring tribes, some of whom had never seen firearms. In time, all the tribes traded to obtain muskets and the conflict ultimately reached an uneasy stalemate. The wars gave Māori experience in fighting with and defending against guns – experience which would be vital in the New Zealand Wars. In the Harriet Affair of 1834, a group of British soldiers of the 50th Regiment from Australia landed in Taranaki to rescue the wife and children of John (Jacky) Guard and punish the kidnappers, the first clash between Māori and British troops. The expedition was sent by Governor Bourkefrom Sydney, but was subsequently criticised for use of excessive force by a British House of Commons report in 1835.
The New Zealand Wars were a series of wars fought between Māori on one side and a mixture of settler troops, imperial troops and Māori on the other. What the wars were fought over has been debated by historians, with Keith Sinclair arguing that they were about land, while James Belich has argued that although land was a major factor, the wars were essentially a contest over sovereignty. This debate is reflected in the naming of the wars: there is no real consensus over whether they should be called the 'New Zealand Wars' or the 'Land Wars', although Belich's books and television series about the conflict popularised the former term, as did a book by historian James Cowan published in the 1920s. The name 'Māori Wars' has fallen into disuse. Māori names for the armed conflicts are Te Riri Pākehā ("white man's anger") or Ngā pakanga o Aotearoa ("the great New Zealand wars").While the fighting began in 1843 and the last shots were arguably fired in the early 20th century, the bulk of fi...
The Second Boer War, fought from 11 October 1899 until 31 May 1902 and between the British Empire and the two independent Boer republics of the Orange Free State and the South African Republic (Transvaal Republic), resulted from the history of British encroachment into or involvement in areas already settled by Afrikaners – who were known colloquially as Boers (farmers) – the descendants of the original Dutch settlers. This was exacerbated by the discovery of gold and diamonds in the South African Republic, after which many miners from British Empire countries migrated there. New Zealand decided to help fight for the Empire and sent 6,500 mounted troops to assist the British efforts, making the war New Zealand's first overseas military campaign. Virtually every man in New Zealand was desperately keen to get to war, so the first soldiers to go were selected on the basis of who could afford to go. If a man could provide his own horse, rifle and equipment, costing abou...
When the United Kingdom declared war on Germany at the start of the First World War, the dominion of New Zealand automatically entered the war also. The total number of New Zealand troops and nurses to serve overseas in 1914–1918, excluding those in British and other Dominion forces, was 103,000, from a population of just over a million. Forty-two percent of men of military age served in the NZEF. 16,697 New Zealanders were killed and 41,317 were wounded during the war – a 58 percent casualty rate. Approximately a further thousand men died within five years of the war's end, as a result of injuries sustained, and 507 died whilst training in New Zealand between 1914 and 1918. The First World War saw Māori soldiers officially serve for the first time in a major conflict with the New Zealand Army. 2688 Māori and 346 Pacific islandersserved with New Zealand forces in total. New Zealand's first act of the war was to seize and occupy German Samoa. Although Germany refused to officially su...
In the first peacetime deployment of New Zealand Forces overseas (other than commemorative contingents), New Zealand deployed a fifty six strong force of regular soldiers to Fiji to support the civilian authorities during a period of civil unrest. Under the command of Major Edward Puttick, the small force deployed to Fiji on the government steamer Tutanekai on 5 February 1920 and would remain in Fiji until 18 April 1920.
New Zealand entered World War II by declaring war on Germany as of 9.30 pm, on 3 September 1939 (NZT). Politically, New Zealand had been a vocal opponent of European fascism and also the appeasement of those dictatorships, national sentiment for a strong show of force was generally supported. Economic and defensive considerations also motivated the New Zealand involvement; reliance on Britain meant that if she were threatened, New Zealand would be too in terms of economic and defensive ties. There was also a strong sentimental link between the former British colony and the United Kingdom, with many seeing Britain as the "mother country" or "Home". The Prime Minister of the time, Michael J. Savage, summed this up at the outbreak of war with a quote that would become a popular cry in New Zealand during the war;:"Where Britain goes, we go! Where she stands, we stand!" New Zealand provided personnel for service in the British Royal Air Force (RAF) and British Royal Navy, the New Zealand...
From the late 1940s to the early 1970s, compulsory military training (CMT) was twice established by a National Party government and then abolished by a Labour Party government. On 3 August 1949 a national referendum was held in regards to instituting CMT, and conscription into the Territorial Force of the New Zealand Army. The vote was 553,016 in favour of conscription and 152,443 against. More than 60,000 young New Zealanders completed the 18 weeks of training. The second Labour governmentabolished the programme in 1958, but it was reinstated in revised form after Labour lost power. About 3,000 18-year-olds were selected annually by a ballot of birthdates.. The scheme was abolished by the third Labour governmenton 31 December 1972. Since that date, all service in the New Zealand Armed Forces has been voluntary. Conscripts were never sent to battle zones in this period, although many opted to continue their military careers and fight in Malaysia, Vietnam and other theatres of conflict.
The Malayan Emergency was declared by the British government on 18 June 1948 after guerrillas of the Malayan Races Liberation Army, the militant arm of the Malayan Communist Partykilled three British rubber planters. Initially New Zealand made a small contribution of planes, officers and frigates. New Zealand became more directly involved in the Emergency from 1955, following its decision to contribute forces to the British Commonwealth Far East Strategic Reserve, the primary role of which wa...
As a part of its withdrawal from its Southeast Asian colonies, the United Kingdom moved to combine its colonies on Borneo, Sarawak and British North Borneo, with those on peninsular Malaya, to form the Federation of Malaysia. This move was opposed by the government of Indonesia. The Indonesia-Malaysia confrontation began on 20 January 1963 when Indonesian Foreign Minister Subandrio announced that Indonesia would pursue a policy of Konfrontasi(Confrontation) with the Malaysia. From late 1963 t...
New Zealand contributed six frigates, several smaller craft and a 1044 strong volunteer force (known as KAYFORCE) to the Korean War. The ships were under the command of a British flag officer and formed part of the US Navy screening force during the Battle of Inchon, and performed shore raids and inland bombardments. KAYFORCE was formed around an artillery regiment, 16th Field Regiment, and distinguished itself at the Battle of Kapyong. New Zealand troops remained in Korea in significant numbers for four years after the 1953 armistice, the last New Zealand soldiers leaving in 1957, and a single liaison officer remained until 1971. A total of 3,794 New Zealand soldiers served in KAYFORCE and 1300 in the Navy deployment. 33 were killed in action, 79 wounded and 1 soldier was taken prisoner. That prisoner was held in North Korea for eighteen months and repatriated after the armistices. A New Zealander flying with the Royal Air Force was also captured when he was shot down near P'yongya...
Iran/Iraq Border (1988–1991) Participated as part of the UN Iran-Iraq Military Observer Group (UNIIMOG) to supervise the Iran–Iraq War ceasefire. Namibia (1989–1990) Contributed a battalion to the UN Transition Assistance Group (UNTAG) to supervise Namibia's elections and transition to independence. Western Sahara (1991–present)
Chaperon — Canada's contribution to the United Nations of one military observer (UNMO). Celesta — Australian naval surveillance in Australia's southern waters against illegal fishing. Condor (1974) — Joint-operations by various South American countries, and supported by the United States, against dissidents in each other's borders.
The Palestinians plan to ask the United Nations to upgrade their status to become a "non-member observer state" on 29 November 2012. It follows a failed bid to join the international body as a full member state in 2011 because of a lack of support in the UN Security Council. Here is a guide to what is likely to happen and its significance.