en.wikipedia.org/wiki/National_Guard_of_the_United_States#:~:text=The National Guard is a joint activity of,earliest English colonization of the Americas in 1607.
- The National Guard is a joint activity of the United States Department of Defense (DoD) composed of reserve components of the United States Army and the United States Air Force: the Army National Guard and the Air National Guard, respectively. Local militias were formed from the earliest English colonization of the Americas in 1607.
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The National Defense Act of 1933 provided that the National Guard is considered a component of the Army at all times. Beginning with this law, each National Guard member has two military statuses—a member of the National Guard of his or her state, or a member of the National Guard of the United States when ordered into active duty. This ...
The Army National Guard (ARNG), in conjunction with the Air National Guard, is an organized militia force and a federal military reserve force of the United States Army.They are simultaneously part of two different organizations: the Army National Guard of each state, most territories, and the District of Columbia (also referred to as the Militia of the United States), and the Army National ...
- Constitutional Basis
- Other Organizations
- Duties and Administrative Organization
- National Guard Active Duty Character
- National Guard vs Reserve
- Relevant Laws
From its founding until the early 1900s, the United States maintained only a minimal army and relied on state militias to supply the majority of its troops. As a result of the Spanish-American War, Congress was called upon to reform and regulate the training and qualification of state militias. In 1903, with passage of the Dick Act, the predecessor to the modern-day National Guard was formed. It required the states to divide their militias into two sections. The law recommended the title "National Guard" for the first section, known as the organized militia, and "Reserve Militia" for all others. During World War I, Congress passed the National Defense Act of 1916, which required the use of the term "National Guard" for the state militias and further regulated them. Congress also authorized the states to maintain Home Guards, which were reserve forces outside the National Guards being deployed by the Federal Government. In 1933, with passage of the National Guard Mobilization Act, Co...
The National Guard of the several states, territories, and the District of Columbia serves as part of the first-line of defense for the United States. The state National Guard is organized into units stationed in each of the 50 states and US territories, and operates under their respective state governor or territorial adjutant general.The National Guard may be called up for active duty by state governors or territorial adjutants general to help respond to domestic emergencies and disasters, such as hurricanes, floods, and earthquakes. The National Guard is administered by the National Guard Bureau, which is a joint activity under the DoD. The National Guard Bureau provides a communication channel for state National Guards to the DoD. The National Guard Bureau also provides policies and requirements for training and funds for state Army National Guard and state Air National Guard units, the allocation of federal funds to the Army National Guard and the Air National Guard, as well as...
Both the Army National Guard and Air National Guard are expected to adhere to the same moral and physical standards as their "full-time" active duty and "part-time" reserve federal counterparts. The same ranks and insignia of the U.S. Army and U.S. Air Force are used by the Army National Guard and the Air National Guard, respectively, and National Guardsmen are eligible to receive all United States military awards. The respective state National Guards also bestow state awardsfor services rendered both at home and abroad. Under Army regulations, these awards may be worn while on state active duty or while on Title 32 federal activation. Regular Army and Army Reserve soldiers are also authorized to accept these awards, but are not authorized to wear them.
The respective state National Guards are authorized by the Constitution of the United States. As originally drafted, the Constitution recognized the existing state militias, and gave them vital roles to fill: "to execute the Laws of the Union, suppress Insurrections and repel Invasion." (Article I, Section 8, Clause 15). The Constitution distinguished "militias," which were state entities, from "Troops", which were unlawful for states to maintain without Congressional approval. (Article I, Section 10, Clause 3). Under current law, the respective state National Guards and the State Defense Forces are authorized by Congress to the states and are referred to as "troops." 32 U.S.C. § 109. Though originally state entities, the Constitutional "Militia of the Several States" were not entirely independent, however, because they could be federalized. According to Article I, Section 8; Clause 14, the United States Congress is given the power to pass laws for "calling forth the Militia to exec...
State Defense Forces
Many states also maintain their own state defense forces. Although not federal entities like the National Guard of the United States, these forces are components of the state militias like the individual state National Guards. These forces were created by Congress in 1917 as a result of the state National Guards' being deployed and were known as Home Guards. In 1940, with the onset of World War II and as a result of its federalizing the National Guard, Congress amended the National Defense Ac...
Although there are no Naval or Marine Corps components of the National Guard of the United States, there is a Naval Militia authorized under federal law.10 U.S.C. § 7851. Like the soldiers and airmen in the National Guard of the United States, members of the naval militia are authorized federal appointments or enlistments at the discretion of the Secretary of the Navy.10 U.S.C. § 7852. To receive federal funding and equipment, a state militia must be composed of at least 95% Marine or Naval r...
National Guard units can be mobilized for federal active duty to supplement regular armed forces during times of war or national emergency declared by Congress, the President or the Secretary of Defense. They can also be activated for service in their respective states upon declaration of a state of emergency by the governor of the state or territory in which they serve, or in the case of Washington, D.C., by the Commanding General. Unlike Army Reservemembers, National Guard members cannot be mobilized individually, except through voluntary transfers and Temporary Duty Assignments (TDY). The National Guard Bureau is in Arlington, Virginia, and is a joint activity of the Department of Defense to conduct all the administrative matters pertaining to the Army National Guard and the Air National Guard. The current chief of the National Guard Bureau is General Frank J. Grass. The chief is either an Air Force or an Army 4-star general (flag) officer, is the senior uniformed National Guard...
The term "activated" simply means that a unit or individual of the reserve components has been placed on orders. The purpose and authority for that activation will determine limitations and duration of the activation. The Army and Air National Guard may be activated in a number of ways as prescribed by public law. Broadly, under federal law, there are two titles in the United State Code under which units and troops may be activated: as federal soldiers or airmen under Title 10 ("Armed Forces") and as state soldiers or airmen performing a federally funded mission under Title 32 ("National Guard").Outside federal activation, the Army and Air National Guard may be activated under state law. This is known as state active duty (SAD).
The claim that the National Guard is older than the nation itself, with over three and a half centuries of service, is based on the claim that the modern-day 101st Field Artillery Regiment, 182nd Infantry Regiment, 101st Engineer Battalion and 181st Infantry Regiment of the Massachusetts Army National Guard are directly descended from Massachusetts Bay Colony regiments formed over 375 years ago. On December 13, 1648, the General Court of the Massachusetts Bay Colony had ordered that the Colon...
Throughout the 19th century the Regular U.S. Army was small, and the state militias provided the majority of the troops during the Mexican-American War, the start of the American Civil War, and the Spanish-American War. With the Militia Act of 1903, the militia was more organized and the name "National Guard" recommended. In 1933, the state National Guards were required to join the National Guard of the United States, a reserve force for the U.S. Army; this is the official founding of the pre...
National Guard units played a major role in providing security and assisting recovery efforts in the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina, in September 2005. In January and February 2007, National Guard troops from 8 states were activated to go help shovel snow, drop hay for starving cattle, deliver food and necessities to stranded people in their houses, and help control traffic and rescue stranded motorists in blizzards dropping feet of snow across the country. The Air National Guard has more tha...
The Army National Guard consists of 28 fully capable brigade combat teams with combat support and combat service support components. The Army Reserve is mostly Combat Service Support and Combat Support with only one infantry unit (the 100th Infantry Battalion).
The senior National Guard Officer in each state is called the Adjutant General and is either appointed or elected in accordance with state laws. The National Guard may receive state funding however in most states it is primarily funded through the federal government. The Army Reserve is solely funded by the federal government. The Army Reserve is also, however, restricted by Posse comitatus.
The United States Congress has enacted various laws which control the National Guard 1. The Militia Act of 1792 1.1. Providing for the authority of the President to call out the Militia, and providing federal standards for the organization of the Militia. 1.2. For the 111 years that the Militia Act of 1792 remained in effect, it defined the position of the militia in relation to the federal government. The War of 1812 tested this uniquely American defense establishment. To fight the War of 1812, the republic formed a small regular military and trained it to protect the frontiers and coastlines. Although it performed poorly in the offensive against Canada, the small force of regulars backed by a well-armed militia, accomplished its defensive mission well. Generals like Andrew Jacksonproved that, just as they had in the Revolution, regulars and militia could be effective when employed as a team. 2. The Insurrection Act 3. The Militia Act of 1862 3.1. Providing for the service of perso...
Created by the 1933 amendments to the National Defense Act of 1916, the National Guard of the United States is a joint reserve component of the United States Army and the United States Air Force. The National Guard of the United States maintains two subcomponents: the Army National Guard of the United States  for the Army and the Air Force's Air National Guard of the United States .
The U.S. Air Force is composed of the Regular Air Force, United States Air Force Reserve, and United States Air National Guard. The U.S. Air Force is organized into nine major commands, which conduct the majority of the service's organize, train, and equip functions and command forces attached to the combatant commands.
The modern day National Guard in the United States traces its origins to 13 December 1636, when the Massachusetts Bay Colony's General Court passed an act calling for the creation of three regiments, organizing existing separate militia companies in and around Boston.
The traditional guard in particular was founded in 1991 after president Roh Tae-woo reviewed the Old Guard Fife and Drum Corps and the Commander-in-Chief's Guard of the 3rd U.S. Infantry Regiment of the United States. Since then the traditional honour guards have taken the role of officially welcoming heads of state and other dignitaries.