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  1. Karlsruhe - Wikipedia › wiki › Karlsruhe
    • Geografie
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    The ceety lees at an altitude atween 100 m (on the eastren shore o the river Rhine) an 322 m (near the communications touer. In the suburb o Wettersbach). Its geographical coordinates are 49°00′N 8°24′E / 49.000°N 8.400°E / 49.000; 8.400; the 49th parallel rins throuch the ceety centre. Its course is merked bi a stane an painted line in the Stadtgarten("ceety park"). The ceety wis planned wi the palace touer (Schloss) at the centre an 32 streets radiating oot frae it lik the spokes o a wheel, or the ribs o a folding fan, sae that ane nickname for Karlsruhe in German is the "fan ceety" (Fächerstadt). Naur aw o thir streets survived til the day. Acause o this ceety layout, in metric geometry, Karlsruhe metricrefers tae a meisur o distance that assumes traivel is anerly possible alang radial streets an alang circular avenues aroon the centre. The ceety centre is the auldest pairt o toun an lees sooth o the palace in the quadrant defined bi nine o the radial streets. The central pair...

    Accordin tae legend, the name Karlsruhe, that translates as Charles’ repose, wis gien tae the new ceety efter a huntin trip whan Charles III William, Margrave o Baden-Durlach, woke frae a dream in that he dreamt o foundin his new ceety. Charles William foundit the ceety on Juin 17, 1715, efter a dispute wi the ceetizens o his previous caipital, Durlach. The foundin o the ceety is close linkit tae the construction o the palace. Karlsruhe became the caipital o Baden-Durlach an in 1771 o the unitit Badentil 1945. Biggit in 1822, the "Ständehaus" wis the first parliament biggin in a German State. In the eftercome o the democratic revolution o 1848, a republican govrenment wis elect here. In 1860, the first-ever international professional convention, the Karlsruhe Congress, wis held in the ceety.[citation needit] A fair bit o the central aurie, includin the palace, wis reduced tae rubble bi Allied bombing durin Warld War II but wis biggit again efter the war. Locate in the American zone...

    The Stadtgarten is a recreational aurie naur the main railwey station (Hauptbahnhof) an wis biggit again in 1967 durin the 'Federal Garden Shaw' (Bundesgartenschau). It is the site o Karlsruhe Zooan aa. The Durlacher Turmberg haes a leuk-oot touer (hence its name). It is a umwhile keepdatin back tae the 13t century. The ceety haes twa botanical gardens: the municipal Botanischer Garten Karlsruhe that forms pairt o the Palace complex, an the Botanischer Garten der Universität Karlsruhewhich is maintained bi the varsity. The Marktplatz haes a stane pyramid markin the grave o the ceety's founder. Biggit in 1825, it is the emblem o Karlsruhe.The ceety is eiknamed the fan ceety (Die Fächerstadt) acause o its design layout, wi straucht streets radiating fan-lik frae the Palace. The Karlsruhe Palace (Schloss) is a interestin piece o airchitectur; the adjacent Schlossgartenincludes the Botanical Garden wi a palm, cactus an orchid hoose, an walkin paths throuch the wid tae the north. The sic...


    Karlsruhe is the seat o the German Federal Constitutional Court (Bundesverfassungsgericht) an the heichest Court o Appeals in civil an criminal cases, the Bundesgerichtshof. The courts came tae Karlsruhe efter Warld War II, whan the provinces o Baden an Württemberg war merged. Stuttgart, caipital o Württemberg, became the caipital o the new province (Württemberg-Baden in 1945 an Baden-Württembergin 1952). In compensation for the state authorities relocated tae Stuttgart, Karlsruhe applied tae...

    Public health

    Thare fower hospitals: The municipal Klinikum Karlsruhe provides the maximum level o medical services, the St. Vincentius-Kliniken an the Diakonissen krankenhaus, conneckit tae the Catholic an Protestant kirks, respectively, offer central services, an the private Paracelsus-Klinik basic medical care, accordin tae state hospital demand planning.[citation needit]

    Germany's mucklest oil refinery is locatit in Karlsruhe, at the wastren rand o the ceety, directly on the river Rhine. The Technologieregion Karlsruhe is a loose confederation o the region's cities for tae promote heich tech industries; the day, aboot 20% o the region's jobs are in research an development. EnBW, ane o Germany's muckle maist electric utility companies an a revenue o 19.2 billion € in 2012,is headquartered in the ceety.

    The Verkehrsbetriebe Karlsruhe (VBK) operates the ceety's urban public transport network, comprising seiven tram routes an a network o bus routes. This network is weel developed an aw ceety auries can be reaked roun the clock bi tram an a nicht bus seestem. The Turmbergbahn funicular railwey, tae the east o the ceety centre, is operated bi the VBK an aa. The VBK is a partner, wi the Albtal-Verkehrs-Gesellschaft an Deutsche Bahn, in the operation o the Karlsruhe Stadtbahn, the rail seestem that serves a lairger aurie aroond the ceety. This seestem maks it possible tae reak ither towns in the region, lik Ettlingen, Wörth am Rhein, Pforzheim, Bad Wildbad, Bretten, Bruchsal, Heilbronn, Baden-Baden, an even Freudenstadt in the Black Forest right frae the ceety centre. The Stadtbahn is weel kent in transport circles aroond the warld for pioneering the concept o operating trams on train tracks, tae achieve a mair effective an attractive public transport seestem, tae the extent that this is...

    Jews settled in Karlsruhe syne its foundation. Thay war attracted bi the numerous privileges granted bi its founder tae settlers, athout discrimination as tae creed. offeecial documents attest the presence o several Jewish families at Karlsruhe in 1717. A year later, the ceety council addressed tae the margrave a report whaur a quaisten wis raised as tae the proportion o municipal charges tae be borne bi the newly arrived Jews, wha formed an organized congregation in that year, wi Rabbi Nathan Uri Kohen o Metz at its heid. A document dated 1726 gies the names o twenty-fower Jews wha haed takken pairt in an election o municipal officers. As the ceety grew permission tae settle thare became less easy obtained bi Jews, an the community developed mair slowly. A 1752 Jewry ordinance stated Jews war forbidden tae lae the ceety on Sundays an Christian halidays, or tae gang oot o thair houses durin kirk services, but thay war exempted frae service bi court summonses on Sabbaths. Thay coud s...

    Karlsruhe is a renowned research an study centre, wi ane o Germany's finest institutions o heicher education.

    In 1999 the ZKM (Zentrum für Kunst und Medientechnologie, Centre for Art an Media) wis opened. Athin a short time, it biggit up a warldwide reputation as a cultural institution. Linking new media theory an practice, the ZKM is locatit in a umwhile wappens factory. Amang the institutes relatit tae the ZKM are the Staatliche Hochschule für Gestaltung (State University o Design), whase preses is philosopher Peter Sloterdijkan the Museum for Contemporary Art.

    Twin towns / Sister cities

    Karlsruhe is twinnedwi: 1. Nottingham, England, United Kingdom 2. Nancy, France 3. Krasnodar, Roushie 4. Timişoara, Romania 5. Halle, Germany


    The ceety is an aa in a partnership relationship wi: 1. Oulu

    • Karlsruhe
    • Germany
  2. Index of World War II articles (U) - Wikipedia › wiki › List_of_World_War_II

    United States Army enlisted rank insignia of World War II. United States Army Forces in the British Isles. United States Army North. United States Army Pigeon Service. United States Army Uniform in World War II. United States Asiatic Fleet. United States Engineer Regiments in World War II. United States Fourth Fleet.

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  4. List of modern universities in Europe (1801–1945) - Wikipedia › wiki › List_of_modern_universities
    • List
    • See Also
    • Sources
    • Further Reading

    The list is sorted by the date of recognition. At places where more than one university was established, the name of the institution is given in brackets.

    Rüegg, Walter: "Themes", in: Rüegg, Walter (ed.): A History of the University in Europe. Vol. III: Universities in the Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Centuries (1800–1945), Cambridge University Pre...
    Rüegg, Walter: "European Universities and Similar Institutions in Existence between 1812 and the End of 1944: A Chronological List: Universities", in: Rüegg, Walter (ed.): A History of the Universi...
    Jílek, Jubor (ed.): "Historical Compendium of European Universities/Répertoire Historique des Universités Européennes", Standing Conference of Rectors, Presidents and Vice-Chancellors of the Europe...
    Ridder-Symoens, Hilde de (ed.): A History of the University in Europe. Vol. I: Universities in the Middle Ages, Cambridge University Press, 1992, ISBN 0-521-36105-2
    Ridder-Symoens, Hilde de (ed.): A History of the University in Europe. Vol. II: Universities in Early Modern Europe (1500–1800), Cambridge University Press, 1996, ISBN 0-521-36106-0
    Rüegg, Walter (ed.): A History of the University in Europe. Vol. IV: Universities Since 1945, Cambridge University Press, 2011, ISBN 978-0-521-36108-8
  5. Mannheim - Wikipedia › wiki › Mannheim&
    • History
    • Demographics
    • Inventions
    • Politics
    • United States Military Installations
    • Theatre
    • Education
    • Geography
    • Main Sights
    • Industry

    Early history

    The name of the city was first recorded as Mannenheim in a legal transaction in 768, surviving in a twelfth-century copy in the Codex Laureshamensis from Lorsch Abbey. The name is interpreted as "the home of Manno", a short form of a Germanic name such as Hartmann or Hermann.Mannheim remained a mere village throughout the Middle Ages.

    Early Modern Age

    In 1606, Frederick IV, Elector Palatinestarted building the fortress of Friedrichsburg and the adjacent city centre with its grid of streets and avenues. On 24 January 1607, Frederick IV gave Mannheim the status of a "city", whether it really was one by then or not. Mannheim was mostly levelled during the Thirty Years War around 1622 by the forces of Johan Tilly. After being rebuilt, it was again severely damaged by the French Army in 1689 during the Nine Years' War. After the rebuilding of M...

    18th and 19th centuries

    During the eighteenth century, Mannheim was the home of the "Mannheim School" of classical music composers. Mannheim was said to have one of the best court orchestras in Europe under the leadership of the conductor Carlo Grua. The royal court of the Palatinate left Mannheim in 1778. Two decades later, in 1802, Mannheim was removed from the Palatinate and given to the Grand Duchy of Baden. In 1819, Norwich Duffwrote of Mannheim: In 1819, August von Kotzebuewas assassinated in Mannheim. The cli...

    The following list shows significant groups of foreigners in the city of Mannheim by nationalities.In total 44,7% of all Mannheim inhabitants are from foreign descent. With 68,9% in the Neckarstadt-West district the population is the most foreign, in the Wallstadt district with 23,1% it is the least.

    According to Forbesmagazine, Mannheim is known for its exceptional inventive power and was ranked 11th among the Top 15 of the most inventive cities worldwide. Many important inventions were made in Mannheim: 1. Karl Drais built the first two-wheeled draisinein 1817. 2. Karl Benz drove the first automobile on the streets of Mannheim in 1886. At his workshop in Mannheim he produced a lightweight three-wheeled vehicle powered by a single cylinder petrol/gasoline-fueled engine, first shown in public during 1886. This powered tricycle subsequently came to be widely regarded as the first automobile/motor car powered by an internal-combustion engine. Karl's wife Bertha Benz undertook the world's first road trip by automobile from Mannheim to Pforzheimin August 1888. 3. The Lanz Bulldog, a popular tractor with a rugged, simple Diesel engine was introduced in 1921. 4. Karl Benz developed the world's first compact diesel-powered car at the Benz & Cie.motor works in Mannheim during 1923. 5. J...

    City council

    The council has 48 seats and is elected by direct suffrage for five years. In the local elections in Baden-Württemberg, voters are allowed to take advantage of cumulative voting and vote splitting. Since the Second World War the SPD, except in the elections of 1999 and 2004, has received more votes than the CDU. At the 2019 election the Greens received most votes for the first time. The next municipal election will take place in 2024. The outcome of the local elections of 25 May 2019 and the...


    The mayor is the head of the city council and chairman of the council, being selected by direct suffrage for a term of eight years. The current mayor is Peter Kurz from the Social Democratic Party of Germany(SPD), who was elected during 2007 with 50.53 percent on a turnout of 36.64 percent in the first round. Kurz was reelected in 2015 with 52 percent in the second round. The city leaders since 1810 are:

    A number of U.S. Army Europe installations were located in and near Mannheim during the Cold War. The following locations provided services to and housed the "U.S. Army Garrison Mannheim" and other units of the U.S. Army. The U.S. Army Garrison Mannheim was formally deactivated on 31 May 2011. 1. Coleman Barracks and Coleman Army Airfield (Mannheim-Sandhofen): The headquarters of the American Forces Network-Europe, and the home of the Army's 28th Transportation Battalion. Also, the location of the United States Army Corrections Facility-Europe. 2. Funari Barracks (Mannheim-Käfertal), vacated in 2014. 3. Spinelli Barracks (Mannheim-Feudenheim), vacated in 2015. 4. Sullivan Barracks (Mannheim-Käfertal): formerly the headquarters of the U.S. Army's 7th Signal Brigadeand the 529th Military Police Honor Guard Company's 2nd Platoon; vacated in 2014. 5. Taylor Barracks (Mannheim-Vogelstang): formerly the headquarters of the U.S. Army's 2nd Signal Brigade; vacated in 2011. 6. Turley Barrack...

    The National Theatre Mannheim was founded in 1779 and is the oldest "Stage" in Germany. In 1782 the premier of Die Räuber, written by Friedrich Schiller, was shown. Recently, more smaller stages have opened, such as the Oststadt-Theater, the TIG7 (Theater im Quadrat G7), the Theater Oliv, the Freilichtbühne, the Theater31, the Theater ImPuls, the Theater Felina-Areal, the Mannheimer Puppenspiele, the Kleinkunstbühne Klapsmühl', Schatzkistl, and zeitraumexit.

    The University of Mannheim is one of Germany's younger universities. Although founded in 1967, it has its origins in the 1763-established Palatine Academy of Sciences and the former Handelshochschule. Situated in Mannheim Palace, it is Germany's leading university in business and economics and attracts students from around the world. Described by "Die Zeit" magazineas the 'Harvard of Germany' it is seen as the alma mater of German businessmen and women. The university town also houses one of the medical schools of Heidelberg University, the Hochschule Mannheim, a branch of the Duale Hochschule of the State of Baden-Württembergand several musical and theatrical academies, including the Pop Academy Mannheim, the Musikhochschule and the Theaterakademie. These institutions draw a large and diverse student body. Dependents of U.S. military personnel attended Mannheim Elementary School until it closed in June 2012.In the 1980s the school had 2,200 students.


    Mannheim is located in Germany's warmest summer region, the "Rhine shift". In summer, temperatures sometimes rise up to 35 °C (95 °F) and higher. The highest recorded temperature was 39.8 °C (104 °F) on 7 August 2015. The daily lows during heat waves can be very high by north European standards (around 25 °C / 77 °F). In comparison to other regions of Germany, Mannheim has a higher humidity in summer which causes a higher heat index. Snow is rare, even in the cold months. Precipitation occurs...

    The New Economy Magazine elected Mannheim under the 20 cities that best represent the world of tomorrow emphasizing Mannheim's positive economic and innovative environment. The successor to the Karl Benz automobile manufacturing companies begun in Mannheim, Daimler AG, has had a large presence in Mannheim. Today, diesel engines and buses are assembled there. The Swiss Hoffmann–La Roche Diagnostic group (formerly known as Boehringer Mannheim) has its division headquarters in Mannheim. Additionally, the city also hosts large factories and officesof ABB, Alstom, BASF (Ludwigshafen), Bilfinger Berger, Bombardier, Fuchs Petrolub AG, John Deere, Siemens, SCA, Südzucker, and other companies.

  6. Pforzheim - Wikipedia › wiki › Eutingen_an_der_Enz
    • Geography
    • History
    • Politics
    • Economy and Infrastructure
    • Culture and Places of Interest
    • Notable People
    • Miscellaneous Topics
    • Gallery
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    • Notes

    Pforzheim is located at the northern rim of the eastern part of the Black Forest (Schwarzwald) and the rim of the hilly country of the Kraichgau, in an open valley at the confluences of the rivers Würm and Nagold and the rivers Nagold and Enz. Due to its location, this city is also called the "three-valleys town" (Drei-Täler Stadt) or the "Gateway to the Black Forest" (Pforte zum Schwarzwald / Porta Hercynia). Pforzheim and its surrounding area belongs to the "Densely Populated Area Karlsruhe/Pforzheim". Pforzheim has the functions of a regional center (Mittelzentrum) for the towns and municipalities Birkenfeld (Enz), Eisingen, Engelsbrand,Friolzheim, Heimsheim, Ispringen, Kämpfelbach, Keltern, Kieselbronn, Königsbach-Stein, Mönsheim, Neuenbürg, Neuhausen, Neulingen, Niefern-Öschelbronn, Ölbronn-Dürrn, Remchingen, Straubenhardt, Tiefenbronn, Wiernsheim, Wimsheim and Wurmberg.

    It was settled by the Romans earlier than the current centers of Stuttgart and Karlsruhe were. These colonists constructed a ford through the river, shortly past the confluence of the three rivers, for their military highway. Due to this strategic location, Pforzheim later became a center for the timber-rafting trade, which transported timber from the Black Forest via the rivers Wuerm, Nagold, Enz and down the Neckar and Rhine to, among other markets, the Netherlands for use in shipbuilding. Their timbers were also used to construct the foundations for Amsterdam, which was built in a swamp. Since 90: A settlement was established by Roman citizens at the Enz River near the modern Altstädter Brücke (old town bridge). Archeological surveys have unearthed several artifacts of that period which are kept and displayed in the Kappelhof Museum. The settlement was located where the Roman military road connecting the military camp Argentoratum (nowadays Strasbourg in France) and the military...

    City council

    The city council of Pforzheim consists of the Lord Mayor as its president and 40 elected (part-time) councillors. It is democratically elected by the citizens for a period of five years. The last election was on 25 May 2014. The city council is the main representative body of the city and determines the goals and frameworks for all local political activities. It makes decisions about all important issues regarding the public life and administration of the city and directs and monitors the wor...

    City administration

    The city administration is led by the Lord Mayor (presently Gert Hager) and three Mayors (presently Alexander Uhlig, Roger Heidt and Monika Mueller).The administration consists of four departments (Dezernat) which are in charge of the following areas: Department I: Personnel, finances, business development, generaladministration. (Managed by Gerd Hager.) Department II: Construction and planning, environment. (Managed by Alexander Uhlig.) Department III: Education, culture, social affairs, spo...

    (Lord) Mayors

    At an early stage, the town administration was led by the mayor(Schultheiss) who used to be appointed by the lord (owner) of the town. Later on, there was a council with a mayor leading it, who since 1849 holds the title "Lord Mayor". The terms of office of the mayors until 1750 are unknown. Only the names of the mayors are mentioned in historical documents. 1. 1750–1758: Ernst Matthaeus Kummer 2. 1758–1770: W.C. Steinhaeuser 3. 1770–1775: Weiss 4. 1775–1783: Kissling 5. 1783–1795: Guenzel 6....

    Pforzheim is one of the regional centers (Oberzentrum) in Baden-Württembergand has one of the highest densities of industrial activity in the state. Pforzheim is historically an important jewelry and watch-making centre in Germany. Due to this reason, Pforzheim is nicknamed as Golden City. Jewelry and watch-making industry is first set up by Jean François Autran after receiving an edict from then overlord Margrave Karl Friedrich von Baden.This enterprise is later joined by other commercial enterprises and helped Pforzheim to become an important manufacturing city. Pforzheim accounts for just under 70 percent of the total sales of the German jewelry and silverware industry and around 80 percent of all the pieces of jewelry exported by Germany come from Pforzheim. However, a smaller fraction of the economy nowadays is dedicated to producing the traditional products of watches and jewellery. Only 11,000 people are employed in the jewelry and watch-making industries. Two thirds of all e...


    1. Municipal Theatre of Pforzheim (opera, operetta, dance, musical, drama)


    1. Pforzheim Chamber Orchestra– This orchestra was founded by Friedrich Tilegant in 1950. It participated in the world premiere of a work of Boris Blacher and has a good reputation beyond the region. 2. Symphony Orchestra of the City of Pforzheim


    1. Archeological Site Kappelhof – Roman and medieval excavation objects 2. Civic Museum Eutingen 3. Museum on the German Democratic Republic (former east Germany) 4. The Center of Fellow-Countrymen Associations (Landsmannschaften; especially those from eastern Europe) 5. The Pforzheim Minerals Museum 6. The Pforzheim Gallery (paintings) 7. Reuchlinhaus 8. The Pforzheim Jewellery Museum in the Reuchlinhaus 9. The Pforzheim City Museum Pforzheim (on city history) 10. The Technical Museum of the...

    Honorary citizens

    1. 1939 Alfons Kern, historian 2. 1965 Johann Peter Brandenburg, politician (FDP/DVP), Member of State Parliament, Lord Mayor of Pforzheim 3. 1985 Willi Weigelt, politician (SPD), Lord Mayor of Pforzheim 4. 1991 Richard Ziegler, painter 5. 1998 Rolf Schweizer, church music director

    The FreemasonsLodge "Reuchlin" is located in Pforzheim.
    The internationally successful rock band Fool's Garden("Lemon Tree") has its origins in Pforzheim.
    Church of St. Michael
    The New City Hall and Waisenhaus square
    Enz river at Rossbrücke
    Statue of Johannes Reuchlin
    Klaus Kortüm: Portus – Pforzheim. Untersuchungen zur Archäologie und Geschichte in römischer Zeit, Sigmaringen, Germany; (1995); (=Quellen und Studien zur Geschichte der Stadt Pforzheim 3); in German.
    Hans-Peter Becht (Hg): Pforzheim im Mittelalter, Pforzheimer Geschichtsblätter, Band 6, Thorbecke, Sigmaringen, Germany; ISBN 3-7995-6044-0; (1983); in German.
    Hans-Peter Becht (Hg): Pforzheim in der frühen Neuzeit, Pforzheimer Geschichtsblätter, Band 7, Thorbecke, Sigmaringen, Germany; ISBN 3-7995-6045-9; (1989); in German.
    ^ ReferencesBrief history on the official Web site of the City of Pforzheim.
    ^ ReferencesHans-Peter Becht: Pforzheim im Mittelalter, p. 41.
    ^ ReferencesHans-Peter Becht: Pforzheim im Mittelalter, chapters "Pforzheim im Mittelalter", pp. 39–62, and "Commercium et Connubium", pp. 63–76.
    ^ ReferencesIn: Die Pest: Das grosse Sterben um 1500.
  7. Category:Historians of World War II - Wikipedia › wiki › Category:Historians_of

    Pages in category "Historians of World War II" The following 200 pages are in this category, out of approximately 206 total. This list may not reflect recent changes ( learn more ).

  8. Divers find wreck of German World War II ship that was bombed ... › news › wreckage-german-world-war

    Oct 03, 2020 · The documents, which were shown to The Associated Press, say the Karlsruhe was built in 1905 at the Seebeck yard in Bremerhaven. Toward the end of World War II, it was included in the Hannibal ...

  9. Max Breitenöder - › wiki › Max_Breitenöder

    At the end of May 1942 he completed his habilitation at the Technical University of Karlsruhe with Wittmann, Böss and the mathematics lecturer Fritz Reutter (1911–1990), as a representative for Gerhard Haenzel, who was called up for military service, with the text The inflow to drainage pipes in mineral soils: an agricultural problem ...

  10. World War II Timeline From 1939 to 1945 - › world-war-ii-timeline-1779991
    • 1939
    • 1940
    • 1941
    • 1942
    • 1943
    • 1944
    • 1945

    Sept. 1 may be the official start of World War II, but it didn't start in a vacuum. Europe and Asia had been tense for years prior to 1939 because of the rise of Adolf Hitlerand the Third Reich in Germany, the Spanish Civil War, the Japanese invasion of China, the German annexation of Austria, and the imprisonment of thousands of Jews in concentration camps. After Germany's occupation of areas of Czechoslovakia not previously agreed to in the Munich Pact and its invasion of Poland, the rest of Europe realized it couldn't try to appease Germany any longer. The United States tried to remain neutral, and the Soviet Union invaded Finland. 1. August 23: Germany and the Soviet Union sign the Nazi-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact. 2. September 1: Germany invades Poland, starting World War II. 3. September 3: Britain and France declare war on Germany. 4. September: Battle of the Atlantic begins.

    The first full year of the war saw Germany invading its European neighbors: Belgium, the Netherlands, France, Denmark, Norway, Luxembourg, and Romania, and the bombing of Britain lasted for months. The Royal Air Force undertook nighttime raids in Germany in response. Germany, Italy, and Japan signed a joint military and economic agreement, and Italy invaded Egypt, which was controlled by the British, Albania, and Greece. The United States shifted to a stance of "nonbelligerancy" rather than neutrality so it could find ways to help the Allies, and the Lend-Lease Act (the exchange of materiel aid then for 99-year leases on property to be used for foreign military bases) was proposed late in the year. Popular opinion still didn't want Americans in another war "over there." The Soviet Union, meanwhile, took part of Romania and installed Communists in the Baltic States, later annexing them. 1. May: Auschwitzis established. 2. May 10: Germany invades France, Belgium, and the Netherlands....

    The year 1941 was one of escalation around the world. Italy may have been defeated in Greece, but that didn't mean that Germany wouldn't take the country. Then it was on to Yugoslavia and Russia. Germany broke its pact with the Soviet Union and invaded there, but the winter and Soviet counterattack killed many German troops. The Soviets next joined the Allies. Within a week of the Pearl Harbor attack, Japan had invaded Burma, Hong Kong (then under British control), and the Philippines, and the United States was officially in the conflict. 1. March 11: U.S. President Franklin D. Rooseveltsigns the Lend-Lease bill. 2. May 24: The British ship Hood is sunk by Germany's Bismarck. 3. May 27: The Bismarckis sunk. 4. June 22: Germany invades the Soviet Union(Operation Barbarossa). 5. August 9: Atlantic Conference begins. 6. September 8: Siege of Leningradbegins. 7. December 7: The Japanese launch a sneak attack on Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. 8. December 11: Germany and Italy declare war on the U...

    U.S. troops first arrived in Britain in January 1942. Also that year, Japan captured Singapore, which was Britain's last location in the Pacific, as well as islands such as Borneo and Sumatra. By the middle of the year, though, the Allies started gaining ground, with the Battle of Midway being the turning point there. Germany captured Libya, but the Allies started making gains in Africa, and Soviet counterattacks made progress as well in Stalingrad. 1. January 20: The Wannsee Conference 2. February 19: Roosevelt issues Executive Order 9066, which allows the internment of Japanese Americans. 3. April 18: The Doolittle Raid on Japan 4. June 3: The Battle of Midway begins. 5. July 1: First Battle of El Alamein begins. 6. July 6: Anne Frankand her family go into hiding. 7. August 2: Guadalcanal Campaign begins. 8. August 21: Battle of Stalingrad begins. 9. October 23: Second Battle of El Alameinbegins. 10. November 8: The Allies invade North Africa (Operation Torch).

    Stalingrad turned into Germany's first major defeat in 1943, and the North Africa stalemate ended, with the surrender of the Axis powers to the Allies in Tunisia. The tide was finally turning, though not fast enough for the people in the 27 merchant vessels sunk by Germany in the Atlantic in four days in March. But Bletchley codebreakers and long-range aircraft inflicted a serious toll on the U-boats, pretty much ending the Battle of the Atlantic. The autumn of the year saw the fall of Italy to Allied forces, prompting Germany to invade there. The Germans successfully rescued Mussolini, and battles in Italy between forces in the north and south drug on. In the Pacific, Allied forces gained territory in New Guinea—to attempt to protect Australia from Japanese invasion—as well as Guadalcanal. The Soviets continued expelling Germans from their territory, and the Battle of Kursk was key. The end of the year saw Winston Churchill and Josef Stalin meeting in Iran to discuss the invasion o...

    American troops played a big role in battles to take back France in 1944, including landings on Normandy beaches that caught the Germans by surprise. Italy was finally liberated as well, and the Soviets' counterattack pushed the German soldiers back to Warsaw, Poland. Germany lost 100,000 soldiers (captured) during the battle in Minsk.1 The Battle of the Bulge, however, postponed the Allies marching into Germany for a while. In the Pacific, Japan gained more territory in China, but its success was limited by the Communist troops there. The Allies fought back by taking Saipan and invading the Philippines. 1. January 27: After 900 days, the Siege of Leningrad is finally over.2 2. June 6: D-Day 3. June 19: Battle of the Philippine Sea 4. July 20: Assassination attempt against Hitlerfails. 5. August 4: Anne Frank and her family are discovered and arrested. 6. August 25: The Allies liberate Paris. 7. October 23: Battle of Leyte Gulfbegins. 8. December 16: Battle of the Bulgebegins.

    Liberation of concentration camps, such as Auschwitz, made the extent of the Holocaust clearer to the Allies. Bombs still fell on London and Germany in 1945, but before April was over, two of the Axis leaders would be dead and Germany's surrender would soon follow. Franklin D. Roosevelt also died in April but of natural causes. The war in the Pacific continued, but the Allies made significant progress there through battles at Iwo Jima, the Philippines, and Okinawa, and Japan started to retreat from China. By mid-August, it was all over. Japan surrendered shortly after the second atomic bomb was unleashed on the island nation and Sept. 2, the surrender was formally signed and accepted, officially ending the conflict. Estimates put the death toll at 62 and 78 million,3 including 24 million from the Soviet Union,4 and 6 million Jews, 60 percent of all the Jewish population in Europe. 5 1. February 4: Yalta Conferencebegins. 2. February 13: Allies begin bombing Dresden. 3. February 1...

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