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  1. Mannheim - Wikipedia › wiki › Monnem

    He was born in Mühlburg (now part of Karlsruhe). Early 20th century and World War I. The Schütte-Lanz company, founded by Karl Lanz and Johann Schütte in 1909, built 22 airships. The company's main competitor was the Zeppelin works. When World War I broke out in 1914, Mannheim's industrial plants played a key role in Germany's war economy.

  2. Albert Speer | World War II Wiki | Fandom › wiki › Albert_Speer

    Berthold Konrad Hermann Albert Speer The shortened footnote template {{sfn}} creates a short author-date citation in a footnote. For use with Shortened footnotes. Template:Harvard citation documentation (German:[ˈʃpeːɐ̯](13px listen); March19, 1905– September1, 1981) was a German architect who was, for a part of World War II, Minister of Armaments and War Production for the Third Reich ...

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  4. World War II Timeline From 1939 to 1945 - ThoughtCo › world-war-ii-timeline-1779991

    Feb 18, 2020 · 1939 . Sept. 1 may be the official start of World War II, but it didn't start in a vacuum. Europe and Asia had been tense for years prior to 1939 because of the rise of Adolf Hitler and the Third Reich in Germany, the Spanish Civil War, the Japanese invasion of China, the German annexation of Austria, and the imprisonment of thousands of Jews in concentration camps.

  5. Federal Constitutional Court - Wikipedia › wiki › Federal_Constitutional

    Since its inception with the beginning of the post-World War II republic, the court has been located in the city of Karlsruhe, which is also the seat of the Federal Court of Justice. [2] The main task of the Federal Constitutional Court is judicial review , and it may declare legislation unconstitutional , thus rendering them ineffective.

    • 12 years (mandatory retirement at 68)
    • Stephan Harbarth
  6. Karlsruhe, Germany | Article about Karlsruhe, Germany by The ... › Karlsruhe

    After 1771 it was the capital of the duchy (later grand duchy and, after 1919, state) of Baden. The old part of Karlsruhe, badly damaged in World War II, was laid out as a vast semicircle with the streets converging radially upon the ducal palace (1752–85; restored after 1945).

  7. List of modern universities in Europe (1801–1945) - Wikipedia › wiki › List_of_modern_universities

    The list of modern universities in Europe (1801–1945) contains all universities that were founded in Europe after the French Revolution and before the end of World War II. Universities are regarded as comprising all institutions of higher education recognized as universities by the public or ecclesiastical authorities in charge and authorized ...

  8. Watch Countdown to Victory: World War II - The Ultimate ... › Countdown-Victory-World-Ultimate

    The prospect of a protracted land campaign, resulting in the deaths of many more American military personnel, was too high a price to pay, leaving Truman to make the decision to end World War II swiftly, with the nuclear bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki.

  9. Countdown to War - Wikipedia › wiki › Countdown_to_War

    Countdown to War is a television film made in 1989 as a co-production by Granada Television and PBS.It recounts the events that occurred between 15 March 1939, when the German army commanded by Adolf Hitler invaded Czechoslovakia and created the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia, and 3 September 1939, the date when France and United Kingdom declared war on Germany.

  10. Albert Speer - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia › 6479d1bfeff15d125a9e7727c2a03570
    • Early Years
    • Nazi Architect
    • Minister of Armaments
    • Nuremberg Trial
    • Imprisonment
    • Release and Later Life
    • Legacy and Controversy
    • References
    • External Links

    Speer was born in Mannheim, Germany, into a wealthy middle class family. He was the second of three sons of Albert and Luise Speer. In 1918, the family moved permanently to their summer home, Schloss-Wolfsbrunnenweg, in Heidelberg.[4] According to Henry T. King, deputy prosecutor at Nuremberg who later wrote a book about Speer, "Love and warmth were lacking in the household of Speer's youth."[5] Speer originally wanted to become a mathematician, but his father said if Speer chose this occupation he would "lead a life without money, without a position, and without a future".[6] Instead, Speer followed in the footsteps of his father and grandfather and studied architecture.[7] Speer began his architectural studies at the University of Karlsruhe instead of a more highly acclaimed institution because the hyperinflation crisis of 1923 limited his parents' income.[8] In 1924 when the crisis had abated, he transferred to the "much more reputable" Technical University of Munich.[9] In 1925...

    [edit] Joining the Nazis

    Speer stated he was apolitical when he was a young man, and that he attended a Berlin Nazi rally in December 1930 at the urging of some of his students.[15] He was surprised to find Hitler dressed in a neat blue suit, rather than the brown uniform seen on Nazi Party posters, and was greatly impressed, not only with Hitler's proposals, but also with the man himself. Several weeks later he attended another rally, though this one was presided over by Joseph Goebbels. Speer was disturbed by the w...

    [edit] First Architect of the Third Reich

    When Troost died on January 21, 1934, Speer effectively replaced him as the Party's chief architect. Hitler appointed Speer as head of the Chief Office for Construction, which placed him nominally on Hess's staff.[33] One of Speer's first commissions after Troost's death was the Zeppelinfeld stadium—the Nuremberg parade grounds seen in Leni Riefenstahl's propaganda masterpiece Triumph of the Will. This huge work was capable of holding 340,000 people.[34] The tribune was influenced by the Perg...

    [edit] Wartime architect

    Speer supported the German invasion of Poland and subsequent war, though he recognized that it would lead to the postponement, at the least, of his architectural dreams.[56] In his later years, Speer, talking with his biographer-to-be Gitta Sereny, explained how he felt in 1939: "Of course I was perfectly aware that [Hitler] sought world domination ... [A]t that time I asked for nothing better. That was the whole point of my buildings. They would have looked grotesque if Hitler had sat still...

    [edit] Appointment and increasing power

    On February 8, 1942, Minister of Armaments Fritz Todt died in a plane crash shortly after taking off from Hitler's eastern headquarters at Rastenburg. Speer, who had arrived in Rastenburg the previous evening, had accepted Todt's offer to fly with him to Berlin, but had canceled some hours before takeoff (Speer stated in his memoirs that the cancellation was due to exhaustion from travel and a late-night meeting with Hitler). Later that day, Hitler appointed Speer as Todt's successor to all o...

    [edit] Fall of the Reich

    Speer's name was included on the list of members of a post-Hitler government drawn up by the conspirators behind the July 1944 assassination plot to kill Hitler. However, the list had a question mark and the annotation "to be won over" by his name, which likely saved him from the extensive purges that followed the scheme's failure.[80] By February 1945, Speer, who had long concluded that the war was lost, was working to supply areas about to be occupied with food and materials to get them thr...

    After Hitler's death, Speer offered his services to the so-called Flensburg Government, headed by Hitler's successor, Karl Dönitz, and took a significant role in that short-lived regime. On May 15, the Americans arrived and asked Speer if he would be willing to provide information on the effects of the air war. Speer agreed, and over the next several days, provided information on a broad range of subjects. It was not until May 23, weeks after the surrender of German troops, that the Allies arrested the members of the Flensburg Government and brought Nazi Germany to a formal end.[91] Speer was taken to several internment centers for Nazi officials and interrogated. In September 1945, Speer was told that he would be tried for war crimes, and several days later, he was taken to Nuremberg and incarcerated there.[92] Speer was indicted on all four possible counts: first, participating in a common plan or conspiracy for the accomplishment of crime against peace, second, planning, initiati...

    On July 18, 1947, Speer and his six fellow prisoners, all former high officials of the Nazi regime, were flown from Nuremberg to Berlin under heavy guard.[105] The prisoners were taken to Spandau Prison in the British Sector of what would become West Berlin, where they would be designated by number, with Speer given Number Five.[106] Initially, the prisoners were kept in solitary confinement for all but half an hour a day, and were not permitted to address each other or their guards.[107] As time passed, the strict regimen was relaxed, especially during the three months in four that the three Western powers were in control; the four occupying powers took overall control on a monthly rotation.[108] Speer considered himself an outcast among his fellow prisoners for his acceptance of responsibility at Nuremberg.[109] Speer made a deliberate effort to make as productive a use of his time as possible. He wrote, "I am obsessed with the idea of using this time of confinement for writing a...

    Speer's release from prison was a worldwide media event, as reporters and photographers crowded both the street outside Spandau and the lobby of the Berlin hotel where Speer spent his first hours of freedom in over 20 years.[129] However, Speer said little, reserving most comments for a major interview published in Der Spiegel in November 1966, in which he again took personal responsibility for crimes of the Nazi regime.[130] Abandoning plans to return to architecture (two proposed partners died shortly before his release),[131] he revised his Spandau writings into two autobiographical books, and later researched and published a third work, about Himmler and the SS. His books, most notably Inside the Third Reich (in German, Erinnerungen, or Reminiscences[132]) and Spandau: The Secret Diaries, provide a unique and personal look into the personalities of the Nazi era, and have become much valued by historians. Speer was aided in shaping the works by Joachim Fest and Wolf Jobst Siedler...

    [edit] Architectural legacy

    Little remains of Speer's architectural works, other than the plans and photographs. No buildings designed by Speer in the Nazi era remain in Berlin; a double row of lampposts along the Strasse des 17. Juni designed by Speer still stands.[141] The tribune of the Zeppelinfeld stadium in Nuremberg, though partly demolished, may also be seen.[142]

    [edit] Actions regarding the Jews

    As General Building Inspector, Speer was responsible for the Central Department for Resettlement.[143] From 1939 onwards, the Department used the Nuremberg Laws to evict Jewish tenants of non-Jewish landlords in Berlin, to make way for non-Jewish tenants displaced by redevelopment or bombing.[143] Eventually, 75,000 Jews were displaced by these measures.[144] Speer was aware of these activities, and inquired as to their progress.[145] At least one original memo from Speer so inquiring still e...

    [edit] Knowledge of the Holocaust

    Speer maintained at Nuremberg and in his memoirs that he had no actual knowledge of the Holocaust. In Inside the Third Reich, he wrote that in mid-1944, he was told by Hanke (by then Gauleiter of Lower Silesia) that the minister should never accept an invitation to inspect a concentration camp in neighboring Upper Silesia, as "he had seen something there which he was not permitted to describe and moreover could not describe".[151] Speer later concluded that Hanke must have been speaking of Au...

    Edgar, David (2000), Albert Speer: Based on the Book Albert Speer: His Battle with Truth by Gitta Sereny (a play), Nick Hern Books, ISBN 1854594850
    Fest, Joachim (1999), Speer: The Final Verdict, translated by Ewald Osers and Alexandra Dring, Harcourt, ISBN 0151005567
    Fest, Joachim (2007), Albert Speer: Conversations with Hitler's Architect, translated by Patrick Camiller, Polity Press, ISBN 0745639186
    King, Henry T. (1997), The Two Worlds of Albert Speer: Reflections of a Nuremberg Prosecutor, University Press of America, ISBN 0761808728
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