The university's professor of philosophy from 1927 to 1958, John Anderson, was a significant figure referred to as "Sydney's best known academic". A native of Scotland, Anderson's controversial views as a self-proclaimed atheist and advocate of free thought in all subjects raised the ire of many, even to the point of being censured by the state legislature in 1943.
- Urban, parks
- 60,968 (2020)
- The stars change, the mind remains the same
- Sidere mens eadem mutato (Latin)
The University of Sydney is a public university in Sydney, Australia. The main campus is in the suburbs of Camperdown and Darlington. Founded in 1850, it is the oldest university in Australia and Oceania. In 2011, it had 32,393 undergraduate and 16,627 graduate students. The University of Sydney is organised into sixteen faculties and schools.
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Liberal education and useful knowledge: a brief history of the University of Sydney, 1850–2000, Chancellor's Committee, University of Sydney, 2002. ISBN 1-86487-439-2; Inspiring leaders at Women's College
- Arrival of Great Britain
- Aboriginal Resistance and Conflicts
- Sydney Town
- 1850s Gold Rush and Economic Power
- Political Development
- Cultural Development
- 20th Century
- See Also
The first people to occupy the area now known as Sydney were Australian Aboriginals. Radiocarbon dating suggests that they lived in and around Sydney for at least 30,000 years. In an archaeological dig in Parramatta, Western Sydney, it was found that the Aboriginals used charcoal, stone tools and possible ancient campfires. Near Penrith, a far westernsuburb of Sydney, numerous Aboriginal stone tools were found in Cranebrook Terraces gravel sediments having dates of 45,000 to 50,000 years BP. This would mean that there was human settlement in Sydney earlier than thought. Prior to the arrival of the British there were 4,000 to 8,000 native people in the Sydney area from as many as 29 different clans. Sydney Cove from Port Jackson to Petersham was inhabited by the Cadigal clan. The principal language groups were Darug, Guringai, and Dharawal. The earliest Europeans to visit the area noted that the indigenous people were conducting activities such as camping and fishing, using trees for...
On 19 April 1770, the crew of HMS Endeavour, under the command of Lieutenant (later Captain) James Cook, were the first known Europeans to sight the east coast of Australia. Ten days later they came across an extensive but shallow inlet, and upon entering it moored off a low headland fronted by sand dunes. The ship's naturalist, Sir Joseph Banks, was so impressed by the volume of flora and fauna hitherto unknown to European science, that Cook named the inlet Botany Bay, on the Kurnell Peninsula, just near Silver Beach, and made contact of a hostile nature with the GweagalAborigines, on 29 April. At first Cook bestowed the name "Sting-Ray Harbour" to the inlet after the many such creatures found there; this was later changed to "Botanist Bay" and finally Botany Bay after the unique specimens retrieved by the botanists Joseph Banks, Daniel Solander and Herman Spöring. Cook charted the east coast to its northern extent and, on 22 August, at Possession Island in the Torres Strait, took...
With the expansion of European settlement large amounts of land was cleared for farming, which resulted in the destruction of Aboriginal food sources. This, combined with the introduction of new diseases such as smallpox, caused resentment within the Aboriginal clans against the British and resulted in violent confrontations. Pemulwuy, an Aboriginal Political leader, is notable for his resistance to the European settlement of Australia. He persuaded the Eora, Dharug and Tharawal people to join his campaign against the newcomers. From 1792 Pemulwuy led raids on settlers from Parramatta, Georges River, Prospect, Toongabbie, Brickfield Hill and Hawkesbury River. His most common tactic was to burn crops and kill livestock. Whether Pemulwuy was actively resisting European settlement, or was only attempting to uphold Aboriginal law, which often involved revenge acts, is debated by historians. Regardless, the British believed the attacks made against them were acts of war. In March 1797, P...
Early Sydney was moulded by the hardship suffered by early settlers. In the early years, drought and disease caused widespread problems, but the situation soon improved. The military colonial government was reliant on the army, the New South Wales Corps (also known as the "Rum Corps" due to their monopolyon the importation of alcohol). Conditions for convicts in the penal colony were harsh. In 1804, Irish convicts led the Castle Hill Rebellion. Conflicts arose between the governors and the officers of the Rum Corps, many of which were land owners such as John Macarthur. In 1808 these conflicts came to open rebellion, with the Rum Rebellion, in which the Rum Corps ousted Governor William Bligh (known from the mutiny on the Bounty). The New South Wales Corps was formed in England in 1789 as a permanent regiment to relieve the marines who had accompanied the First Fleet. Officers of the Corps soon became involved in the corrupt and lucrative rum trade in the colony. In the Rum Rebellio...
Australia experienced a number of gold rushes in the mid-19th century, beginning with the discovery of gold in Bathurst (150 km west of Sydney) in 1851. Large numbers of immigrant miners poured into Sydney and the population grew from 39,000 to 200,000 people 20 years later. Demand for infrastructure to support the growing population and subsequent economic activity led to massive improvements to the city's railway and portsystems throughout the 1850s and 1860s. After a period of rapid growth, further discoveries of gold in Victoria began drawing new residents away from Sydney towards Melbourne and a great rivalry began to grow between the two cities. The rivalry culminated as Australia moved to become a federation and both Melbourne and Sydney lobbied to be officially recognised as the capital city (a dispute settled with the creation of a new city, Canberra, instead).
The first government established in Sydney after 1788 was an autocratic system run by an appointed governor – although English law was transplanted into the Australian colonies by virtue of the doctrine of reception, thus notions of the rights and processes established by the Magna Carta of 1215 and the Bill of Rightsof 1689 were brought from Britain by the colonists. Agitation for representative government began soon after the settlement of the colonies. The oldest legislative body in Australia, the New South Wales Legislative Council, was created in Sydney in 1825 as an appointed body to advise the Governor of New South Wales. The northern wing of Macquarie Street's's Rum Hospitalwas requisitioned and converted to accommodate the first Parliament House in 1829, as it was the largest building available in Sydney at the time. William Wentworth established the Australian Patriotic Association (Australia's first political party) in 1835 to demand democratic government for New South Wa...
Over the course of the 19th-century Sydney established many of its major cultural institutions. Governor Lachlan Macquarie's vision for Sydney included the construction of grand public buildings and institutions fit for a colonial capital. Macquarie Street began to take shape as a ceremonial thoroughfare of grand buildings. He founded the Royal Botanic Gardens and dedicated Hyde Parkto the "recreation and amusement of the inhabitants of the town and a field of exercises for the troops". Macquarie set aside a large portion of land for an Anglican Cathedral and laid the foundation stone for the first St Mary's Catholic Cathedral in 1821. St Andrew's Anglican Cathedral, though more modest in size than Macquarie's original vision, later began construction and, after fire and setbacks, the present St Mary's Catholic Cathedral foundation stone was laid in 1868, from which rose a towering gothic-revival landmark. Religious groups were also responsible for many of the philanthropic activiti...
Ferries have played a key role in the transport and economic development of the city. Leading up to the 1932 opening of the Sydney Harbour bridge, Sydney had the world's largest ferry fleet. From the time of the first European settlement in Sydney Cove, slow and sporadic boats ran along the Parramatta River serving Parramatta and the agricultural settlements in between. By the mid-1830s, speculative ventures established regular services. From the late-nineteenth century the North Shore develo...
Sydney once had the largest tram system in Australia, the second largest in the British Commonwealth (after London), and one of the largest in the world. It was extremely intensively worked, with about 1,600 cars in service at any one time at its peak during the 1930s (cf. about 500 trams in Melbournetoday). Sydney's first tram was horse-drawn, running from the old Sydney Railway station to Circular Quay along Pitt Street. Built in 1861, the design was compromised by the desire to haul railwa...
Federation, Great War and Great Depression
With the inauguration of the Commonwealth of Australia on 1 January 1901, Sydney ceased to be a colonial capital and became the capital of the Australian state of New South Wales. With industrialisation, Sydney expanded rapidly, and by the early 20th century it had a population well in excess of one million. With the close of the Victorian Era, the character of Sydney began to change in various ways. During the 19th century, Sydney's beaches had become popular seaside holiday resorts, but day...
World War II
Main articles: Australian home front during World War II, and Military history of Australia during World War II On 3 September 1939 Prime Minister Robert Menzies announced the beginning of Australia's involvement in World War II on every national and commercial radio station across Australia. Sydney-siders fighting in the Australian Armed Forces served in campaigns against Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy in Europe, the Mediterranean and North Africa, as well as against Imperial Japanin south-e...
Following the Second World War, the Australian government launched a largescale multicultural immigration program. Consequently, Sydney experienced population growth and increased cultural diversification throughout the post-war period. During the post war period, Sydney enhanced its position as an education capital of the Western Pacific. Five new universities were developed to service the demands of an increasing population and demand for education: University of New South Wales, University...
The University of Sydney. The jacaranda was a historically significant specimen of Jacaranda mimosifolia tree that stood in the south-eastern corner of the University of Sydney main quadrangle, and now describes its clone replanted in the same location. The first planting was in 1928 by Associate Professor Eben Gowrie Waterhouse, and replaced ...
St Andrew's College is a residential college for women and men within the University of Sydney, in the suburb of Newtown. Home to over 336 male and female undergraduate students, postgraduate students, resident Fellows and graduate residents. The College, governed by its own elected Council, is situated within the campus of the University of Sydney. Set in its own picturesque grounds, it has offered residency, academic and social support to students for 150 years. The College provides students w