The Upper Paleolithic is divided by the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), during about 25 to 15 ka. The peopling of the Americas occurred during this time, with East and Central Asia populations reaching the Bering land bridge after about 35 ka, and expanding into the Americas by about 15 ka.
During the late Upper Paleolithic (Latest Pleistocene) c. 18,000 BP, the Beringia land bridge between Asia and North America was blocked by ice, which may have prevented early Paleo-Indians such as the Clovis culture from directly crossing Beringia to reach the Americas.
t. e. This timeline of prehistory comprises the time from the first appearance of Homo sapiens in Africa 315,000 years ago to the invention of writing and the beginning of history, 5,000 years ago. It thus covers the time from the Middle Paleolithic (Old Stone Age) to the very beginnings of world history .
Paleo-Indians, Paleoindians or Paleo-Americans, were the first peoples who entered, and subsequently inhabited, the Americas during the final glacial episodes of the late Pleistocene period. The prefix "paleo-" comes from the Greek adjective palaios (παλαιός), meaning "old" or "ancient". The term "Paleo-Indians" applies specifically to ...
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In the classification of the archaeological cultures of North America, the Archaic period in North America, taken to last from around 8000 to 1000 BC in the sequence of North American pre-Columbian cultural stages, is a period defined by the archaic stage of cultural development.
- Timeline of The Upper Paleolithic
- Tools of The Upper Paleolithic
- Upper Paleolithic Lifestyles
- Colonization During The Up
- The End of The Upper Paleolithic
- Upper Paleolithic Sites
In Europe, it is traditional to split the Upper Paleolithic into five overlapping and somewhat regional variants, based on differences between stone and bone tool assemblages. 1. Chatelperronian (~40,000-34,000 BP) 2. Aurignacian(~45,000-29,000 BP) 3. Gravettian/Upper Perigordian (29,000-22,000) 4. Solutrean (22,000-18,000 BP) 5. Magdalenian (17,000-11,000 BP) 6. Azilian/Federmesser(13,000-11,000 BP)
Stone tools of the Upper Paleolithic were primarily blade-based technology. Blades are stone pieces that are twice as long as they are wide and, generally, have parallel sides. They were used to create an astonishing range of formal tools, tools created to specific, wide-spread patterns with specific purposes. In addition, bone, antler, shell and wood were used to a great degree for both artistic and working tool types, including the first eyed needles presumably for making clothing about 21,000 years ago. The UP is perhaps best known for the cave art, wall paintings and engravings of animals and abstractions at caves such as Altamira, Lascaux, and Coa. Another development during the UP is mobiliary art (basically, mobiliary art is that which can be carried), including the famous Venus figurinesand sculpted batons of antler and bone carved with representations of animals.
People living during the Upper Paleolithic lived in houses, some built of mammoth bone, but most huts with semi-subterranean (dugout) floors, hearths, and windbreaks. Hunting became specialized, and sophisticated planning is shown by the culling of animals, selective choices by season, and selective butchery: the first hunter-gatherereconomy. Occasional mass animal killings suggest that in some places and at some times, food storage was practiced. Some evidence (different site types and the so-called schlep effect) suggest that small groups of people went on hunting trips and returned with meat to the base camps. The first domesticated animal appears during the Upper Paleolithic: the dog, companion to us humans for over 15,000 years.
Humans colonized Australia and the Americasby the end of the Upper Paleolithic and moved into hitherto unexploited regions such as deserts and tundras.
The end of the UP came about because of climate change: global warming, which affected humanity's ability to fend for itself. Archaeologists have called that period of adjustment the Azilian.See Upper Paleolithic Sites in EuropeIsrael: Qafzeh Cave, Ohalo IIEgypt:Nazlet KhaterMorocco: Grotte des Pigeons
See specific sites and issues for additional references. Cunliffe, Barry. 1998. Prehistoric Europe: An Illustrated History.Oxford University Press, Oxford. Fagan, Brian (editor). 1996 The Oxford Companion to Archaeology, Brian Fagan. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to history: History – discovery, collection, organization, and presentation of information about past events. History can also mean the period of time after writing was invented (the beginning of recorded history ).
Compared to the preceding Upper Paleolithic and the following Neolithic, there is rather less surviving art from the Mesolithic. The Rock art of the Iberian Mediterranean Basin , which probably spreads across from the Upper Paleolithic, is a widespread phenomenon, much less well known than the cave-paintings of the Upper Paleolithic, with which ...
- What Is The Meaning of “Paleolithic”?
- Paleolithic Period Timeline
- Early Stone Age
- Stone Age
- Middle Stone Age
- Upper Stone Age
- Paleolithic Age Facts
- Art in Paleolithic Age
- Lifestyle During The Paleolithic Age
- Tools Used During The Paleolithic Period
You must be wondering how and why the name “Paleolithic”? Well, just as for most other words, the term Paleolithic derived from the ancient (and dead) language: Greek. In Greek, the word “Paleo” means “old” while the world “Lithos” means Stone. During the Paleolithic Period, humans and human-like species were still evolving and not as intelligent or structurally similar to modern humans, thus “old.” Moreover, since the primary tool used in the Paleolithic Period was stone, “lithos” was added to the world, forming “Paleolithic”.
The Paleolithic Period timeline can be briefly classified as Stone Age, Early Stone Age, Middle Stone Age, and Neanderthals; some of these time periods did indeed coexist. A brief of the sub-periods of the Paleolithic Period is given below.
The Lower Paleolithic Period spanned from 3.4 million years ago to 3 hundred thousand years ago. Homo Erectus, Homo habilis, and Homo ergaster were the most dominating species during this time period. They also often ended up waging war against each other. The greatest achievement was the discovery of the ability to shape stones and their applications.
The Stone Age existed 2.5 million years to 20 thousand years ago. Archaeology and paleontology were the two great inventions that took place during the Paleolithic Period. Hunting, carving on caves, and cooking using stone tools were still in the developmental phase during this time period.
The Middle Stone Age spanned from 2 hundred thousand years to 45 thousand years ago. This was the time when Homo sapiens, as in our own species, were seen for the first time (and were visibly smarter than the other Homo species). Moreover, Neanderthals also evolved during the Middle Stone Age. During this period, the use of stone was mastered by the Homospecies, who used it almost everywhere (like we use electricity almost everywhere today).
The Upper Stone Age was a time period that lasted from 45 thousand years ago to 10 thousand years ago. During this period, most of the other Homo species apart from Homo sapiensdisappeared or were in the process of extinction. The only human-like species remained Neanderthals, who existed till 30 thousand BP. In the Upper Stone Age, humans had made use of stone to such an extent that they now felt limited by their tool. Thus, this was the last time period in the stone age which then moved on to the Bronze Age.
The Paleolithic Period was a time period consisting of interesting events and marked important evolutions that led to the current lifestyle of humans. Here are some facts about the Paleozoic Era that will deeply intrigue you: 1. The most common way of dying during the Paleozoic Period was by being the dinner of a predator. 2. Human families, in general, had a minimum of 4 cubs. 3. The primary tool used in almost anything, from cooking to hunting, was stone (generally along with wood). 4. The first signs of humans using language were found to be in the Paleolithic Period. 5. The concept of wearing something on the body (clothes) was extremely low in humans before the stone age and never done by any animal apart from humans. However, during the stone age, wearing clothes almost became a necessity for humans. 6. Humans were not the only highly intelligent species during the Paleozoic Period. Apart from Homo sapiens (humans), Homo erectus, Neanderthal, Homo habilis, Homo heidelbergensis...
One of the most famous features of the Paleolithic Period is its art. Humans and human-like species famously drew (or sculpted) images of their lifestyle, hunting down animals, etc. on the walls of the caves they lived in and stone tablets that they made by chipping raw stone into a cuboidal structure. Most of the known Paleolithic Arts were produced during the Aurignacian-Perigordian Period (14 thousand BC to 13.5 thousand BC). They include Lascaux Painting (the sculpture at Laussel) and Venuses (various male and female figurines). Another time period when a significant amount of Paleolithic Arts was producedis Solutreo-Magdalenian (14 thousand BC to 9.5 thousand BC). During this time period, various murals were made, which can today be found in various caves, such as Rouffignac Cave, the Cave of Niaux, and the Cave at Altamira. The style of painting during the Paleolithic Period, called Franco-Cantabrian, include various techniques, such as painting with fingers, sticks, and heaps...
During the Paleolithic Period, survival was the key thing amongst humans and human-like animals. Unlike modern-day, during the Paleolithic Period, people weren’t as “civilized” and lived in jungles. They were exposed to almost all animals and insects and could be attacked any second. Therefore, their primary lifestyle included daily defense practices such as hunting which enabled them to protect themselves in those frequent occasions when their life was put at stake by predators. The primary food during the Paleolithic Era was meat, fruit, and vegetables. People went for collecting coconuts and other fruits and vegetables from trees and grasslands, while they used stone weapons such as bamboo spears with the stone tip to hunt animals down. Thus, during the Paleolithic Period, people did not have any markets from where they could just purchase their food. After a day of hard work, they would be rewarded with the “fruit” of their sweat! However, they didn’t just eat raw meat or vegeta...
The toolkit of the Paleolithic Period was mostly made of stones. The toolkit of an average citizen of the Paleolithic Period includes the following items: 1. Hammerstones, which were stones uses to strike-off other stones to sharpen them or burn fire (though the sparkles the strike produces) 2. Sharp Stones (flints) which were also used as knives 3. Bows made of bamboo and arrow made of wood body and stone tip 4. Spear with a bamboo/wood body and long sharp stone tip 5. Stone utensils (stones that were hollowed from the inside to hold other items) 6. Nets made of thread and joints connected by stone, mostly to catch fish 7. Axes, made of stones that were deliberately sharpened on one side Clearly, the tools used in the stone age had something to do either with eating or with hunting. We can see how their most prominently made use of stone, bamboo, and wood.