In the history of the United Kingdom, the Victorian era was the period of Queen Victoria's reign, from 20 June 1837 until her death on 22 January 1901. The era followed the Georgian period and preceded the Edwardian period, and its later half overlaps with the first part of the Belle Époque era of Continental Europe.
Victorian era, in British history, the period between approximately 1820 and 1914, corresponding roughly but not exactly to the period of Queen Victoria ’s reign (1837–1901) and characterized by a class-based society, a growing number of people able to vote, a growing state and economy, and Britain’s status as the most powerful empire in the world.
Jun 17, 2020 · But the Victorian Era—the 63-year period from 1837-1901 that marked the reign of England’s Queen Victoria—also saw a demise of rural life as cities rapidly grew and expanded, long and regimented...
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The Victorian era was a time of unprecedented population increase in England. One reason for the increase was that there was no catastrophic epidemic or famine in England or Scotland in the nineteenth century. On the other hand, Ireland’s population decreased rapidly, primarily due to the Irish Potato Famine (1845–1849), from 8.2 million in 1841 to less than 4.5 million in 1901.
The middle of the nineteenth century saw The Great Exhibition of 1851, the first World's Fair and showcased the greatest innovations of the century. At its center was the Crystal Palace, an enormous, modular glass and iron structure—the first of its kind. It was condemned by critic John Ruskin as the very model of mechanical dehumanization in design, but later came to be presented as the prototype of Modern architecture. The emergence of photography, which was showcased at the Great Exhibition, resulted in significant changes in Victorian art with Queen Victoria being the first British monarch to be photographed. John Everett Millais was influenced by photography (notably in his portrait of Ruskin) as were other Pre-Raphaelite artists. It later became associated with the Impressionisticand Social Realist techniques that would dominate the later years of the period in the work of artists such as Walter Sickert and Frank Holl. Gothic Revival architecture became increasingly significan...
Popular forms of entertainment varied by social class. Victorian Britain, like the periods before it, was interested in theater and the arts, and music, drama, and opera were widely attended. There were, however, other forms of entertainment. Gambling at cards in establishments popularly called casinos was wildly popular during the period: so much so that evangelical and reform movements specifically targeted such establishments in their efforts to stop gambling, drinking, and prostitution. Brass bands and 'The Bandstand' became popular in the Victorian era. The band stand was a simple construction that not only created an ornamental focal point, but also served acoustic requirements whilst providing shelter from the changeable British weather. It was common to hear the sound of a brass band whilst strolling through parklands. At this time musical recording was still very much a novelty. Another form of entertainment involved 'spectacles' where paranormal events, such as hypnotism,...
The impetus of the Industrial Revolution had already occurred, but it was during this period that the full effects of industrialization made themselves felt, leading to the mass consumer society of the twentieth century. The revolution led to the rise of railways across the country and great leaps forward in engineering, most famously by Isambard Kingdom Brunel. Another great engineering feat in the Victorian Era was the sewage system in London. It was designed by Joseph Bazalgette in 1858. He proposed to build 82 mi (132 km) of sewerage linked with over 1,000 mi (1,600 km) of street sewers. Many problems were found but the sewers were completed. After this, Bazalgette designed the Thames Embankment which housed sewers, water pipes and the London Underground. During the same period London's water supply network was expanded and improved, and gasreticulation for lighting and heating was introduced in the 1880s. During the Victorian era, science grew into the discipline it is today. I...
Nineteenth-century Britain saw a huge population increase accompanied by rapid urbanization stimulated by the industrial revolution. The large numbers of skilled and unskilled people looking for work suppressed wages down to barely subsistence level. Available housing was scarce and expensive, resulting in overcrowding. These problems were magnified in London, where the population grew at record rates. Large houses were turned into flats and tenements, and as landlords failed to maintain these dwellings, slum housing developed. Kellow Chesney described the situation as follows "Hideous slums, some of them acres wide, some no more than crannies of obscure misery, make up a substantial part of the, metropolis... In big, once handsome houses, thirty or more people of all ages may inhabit a single room." (The Victorian Underworld)
The Victorian era became notorious for employing young children in factories and mines and as chimney sweeps. Children were expected to help towards the family budget, often working long hours in dangerous jobs and low wages. Agile boys were employed by the chimney sweeps; small children were employed to scramble under machinery to retrieve cotton bobbins; and children were also employed to work in coal mines to crawl through tunnels too narrow and low for adults. Children also worked as errand boys, crossing sweepers, shoe blacks, or selling matches, flowers and other cheap goods.Many children got stuck in the chimneys that they were sweeping and eventually died. In factories it was not uncommon for children to lose limbs crawling under machinery to pick things up. Several Factory Acts were passed to prevent the exploitation of children in the workplace. Children of poor families would leave school at the age of eight and were then forced to go to work. School was not free at this...
Beginning in the late 1840s, major news organizations, clergymen and single women became increasingly concerned about prostitution, which came to be known as "The Great Social Evil." Although estimates of the number of prostitutes in London by the 1850s vary widely (in his landmark study, Prostitution, William Acton reported that the police estimated there were 8,600 in London alone in 1857), it is enough to say that the number of women working the streets became increasingly difficult to ignore. When the United Kingdom Census 1851 publicly revealed a 4 percent demographic imbalance in favor of women (i.e. 4 percent more women than men), the problem of prostitution began to shift from a moral/religious cause to a socio-economic one. The 1851 census showed that the population of Great Britain was roughly 18 million; this meant that roughly 750,000 women would remain unmarried simply because there were not enough men. These women came to be referred to as "superfluous women" or "redun...
Religion was a dominant interest throughout the Victoria era, impacting almost every aspect of life and culture. Whether the issue was politics, marriage, sexuality, class relations, literature or attitudes to other peoples and countries, religion played a central role in discussion. Doctrinal disputes within Christianity generally and the Church of England in particular, as well as debate between religion and science, characterized the era. Although the Church of England remained the Established Church, other denominations increased in size and in influence, especially in the new industrial cities, which were often dominated by civic leaders from the Free Churches. The Victorian era saw much missionary activity. Societies founded by different denominations sent personnel to countries within the British Empire and to countries ruled by other powers. Commentators point out that Victorian Britain was the most religious society that the world had ever known.Church attendance was as hig...
The legacy of the Victorian era continues through its literature, music and art, through technological and scientific advances that enriched and still enrich human life. One significant aspect of Victorian morality was its focus on public duty and responsibility. Victorian imperialism was in many respects patronizing and exploitative but the idea that government has a duty to improve people's lives took deep root. At the beginning of the era, dealing with poverty or the welfare of the body politic was more or less left to private philanthropy. As such Acts as the Mines Act (1842), the Education Act (1870), and the Health Act (1875) became law, responsibility for public welfare was gradually transferred from private philanthropy to government. Since Victoria reigned over a global empire, the ideals that stimulated concern for public welfare also spread across the globe. As a consequence, many more people throughout the world started to regard themselves as members of a common culture...
Victorian age is named after Victoria, who became a queen in 1837 at the age of 18 and ruled for 68 years until her death in 1901. So, the period from 1837 to 1901 is called the Victorian era. Also, check out the ages that preceded the Victorian era – the Georgian era, the Regency era and the Edwardian era which was after the Victorian age.
The Victorian era takes its name from Queen Victoria who ruled between 1837 and 1901. Learn more about the Victorians through in-depth history articles, podcasts, slideshows & more.
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Mar 22, 2019 · The Victorian Period revolves around the political career of Queen Victoria. She was crowned in 1837 and died in 1901 (which put a definite end to her political career).
The Victorian era women also had very conservative viewpoints. It was generally accepted by most women that all dresses should be long sleeved and go all the way to the floor. You should never wear pants or trousers, and legs should never be shown in public. This was a time period where the legs were known as extremities and meant to be covered.
- They didn’t die young. People lived to an average age of just 40 in 19th-century England, but that number is deceiving. Certainly, infants and children died of disease, malnutrition and mishaps at much higher rates than they do today.
- They didn’t marry young. At the end of the 18th century, the average age of first marriage was 28 years old for men and 26 years old for women. During the 19th century, the average age fell for English women, but it didn’t drop any lower than 22.
- They didn’t marry their cousins. Marrying your first cousin was perfectly acceptable in the early 1800s, and the practice certainly offered some benefits: Wealth and property were more likely to remain in the same hands, and it was easier for young women to meet and be courted by bachelors within the family circle.
- They didn’t wear tight corsets. The popular image of young ladies lacing themselves into corsets drawn up as tight as their maids could make them is a bit misleading.