Vietnam, officially the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, is a country in Southeast Asia. It is located at the eastern edge of the Indochinese Peninsula, and is divided into 58 provinces and five municipalities, covering 331,699 square kilometres, with a population of over 96 million inhabitants, making it the world's sixteenth-most populous country. Vietnam shares borders with China to the north, Laos and Cambodia to the west; whilst maintaining maritime borders with Thailand through the Gulf of T
The name Việt Nam is a variation of Nam Việt, a name that...
Archaeological excavations have revealed the existence of...
Vietnam is located on the eastern Indochinese Peninsula...
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Vietnam is a unitary Marxist-Leninist one-party socialist...
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In Vietnam, the approximate population is 97,094,658. 25.2% of these people are aged between 0-14, with 11,954,354 being male and 10,868,610 being female. 69.3% of the population are between the ages of 15-64. The male-to-female ratio is almost evenly split, with 31,301,879 being male and 31,419,306 being female. 5.5% are 65 and over, with 1,921,652 being male and 3,092,589 being female. So within the older two categories, there are more women than men. The population is not from one origin. There are many ethnic tribes that developed in the history of Vietnam. This makes Vietnam's history and culture very diverse. It's not the same as a country where every family landed on the country's shores in the same century. French and Chinese colonization didn't involve an excessive migration of people to Vietnam. Nowadays, the blend of cultures has been increasing with the influence of globalization and world interest. Many Vietnamese that have been living overseas are described as the Viet...
The length of the country, from North to South, is 1,650 kilometers (1,025 miles). "At its narrowestpoint, Vietnam is only 30 miles (48 kilometers) wide". The country is covered in rainforests that are currently going through rapid deforestation. It borders the South China Sea to the east, Laos and Cambodia to the west, and China to the north. The country is slightly larger than Malaysia.The country is slightly smaller than Japan
Vietnam's history has long been characterized by the neighborhood of China in the north. For about 1,000 years, northern Vietnam belonged to China, but from 938 the country became independent and later expanded southward at the expense of the Champa kingdom. In the 19th century the country was colonized by France and during the Second World War, the country was occupied by Japan. After this war, the colonial empire did not have the resources to restore the regime and lost the military battle against the liberation forces. This led to the division of the country, which in turn led to the Vietnam War with major human and material losses for the country. The war ended on 30 April 1975 by the fact that North Vietnamtook the southern part. After experimental planning in the 1970s and 1980s, the economy was reformed in a market economy direction.
Vietnam is divided into 58 provinces. There are also five city municipalities which have province authority. The provinces of Vietnam are divided (by the government) into provincial cities and provinces.
Media said in 2011 that investment in science and technology was 2% of GDP. "Vietnam provides no incentives for students to return to Vietnam from their foreign graduate programmes" was the opinion (in 2011) of French physicist Pierre Darriulat.
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History of Vietnam From Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia The history of Vietnam begins around 2,700 years ago. Successive dynasties based in China ruled Vietnam directly for most of the period from 207 BC until 938 when Vietnam regained its independence.
Vietnam War Chiến tranh Việt Nam (); Part of the Indochina Wars and the Cold War: Clockwise, from top left: U.S. combat operations in Ia Đrăng, ARVN Rangers defending Saigon during the 1968 Tết Offensive, two A-4C Skyhawks after the Gulf of Tonkin incident, ARVN recapture Quảng Trị during the 1972 Easter Offensive, civilians fleeing the 1972 Battle of Quảng Trị, and burial of ...
- 1 November 1955 – 30 April 1975, (19 years, 5 months, 4 weeks and 1 day)
- North Vietnamese and Viet Cong/PRG victory, Withdrawal of U.S. coalition's forces from Vietnam, Communist forces take power in South Vietnam, Cambodia and Laos, Reunification of Vietnam, Start of the boat people and refugee crises, Start of the Cambodian genocide and the Third Indochina War
- Background and Causes
- Gulf of Tonkin Resolution
- Guerilla Warfare
- Fall of Saigon
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France began to colonize Vietnam between 1859 and 1862, when they took control of Saigon. By 1864 they controlled all of Cochinchina, the southern part of Vietnam. France took control of Annam, the large central part of Vietnam, in 1874. After France defeated China in the Sino-French war (1884–1885), they took over Tonkin, the northern part of Vietnam. French Indochina was formed in October 1887 from these three areas of Vietnam (Cochinchina, Annam and Tonkin), as well as the Kingdom of Cambodia. Laos was added after a war with Thailand, the Franco-Siamese War, in 1893. During World War II, after Nazi Germany defeated the French in 1940, French Indochina was controlled by the Vichy French government, a puppet government approved by Nazi Germany. In March 1945 Imperial Japanlaunched the Second French Indochina Campaign. Japan occupied Indochina until their surrender in August 1945. After the defeat of Nazi Germany, the Vichy government was no longer in control of France or its territ...
On 2 August 1964, the destroyer USS Maddox was in the Gulf of Tonkin, on an intelligence mission along North Vietnam's coast. The US said that three North Vietnamese torpedo boats attacked the destroyer. The Maddox fired back and damaged the three torpedo boats. The US then claimed that two days later, the torpedo boats again attacked the Maddox and the destroyer USS Turner Joy. In this second attack the US ships did not actually see the torpedo boats, but said they had found them using the ship's radar. After the alleged second attack the U.S. launched air strikes against North Vietnam. The Congress passed the Gulf of Tonkin Joint Resolution(H.J. RES 1145) on 7 August 1964. This gave the president the power to run large-scale military operations in Southeast Asia without declaring war. There was little to no proof of these attacks and it was believed by some that they were an excuse for expanded U.S. involvement in Indochina. The North Vietnamese and Viet Cong were supplied by a va...
There were some large-scale battles during the Vietnam War however most of the fighting was guerilla warfare. This type of warfare is different from the large-scale battles fought between armies, like those in World War II. In guerilla warfare, small units fight limited battles against an enemy force, set up ambushes, make surprise attacks, and then retreat back into the countryside or blend into the local population. It also includes making it difficult for the enemy to operate by engaging in sabotage and harassing the enemy with lethal means such as land mines and booby traps. The communist troops more often engaged in guerilla warfare against the South Vietnamese and American troops. Although most traps were non-explosive, there were a few explosive traps which all used grenades. A trip wire was placed and if a soldier tripped over the wire, a grenade pin was pulled out and the grenade would blow, killing the soldier. Another style of trap was nicknamed “Venus Flytrap”. It had ab...
The Fall of Saigon was the capture of Saigon, the capital of South Vietnam, by the People's Army of Vietnam and the National Liberation Front on April 30, 1975. This marked the end of the Vietnam War and the beginning of the formal reunification of Vietnam into a communist state. Before the city fell the few American civilian and military personnel left Vietnam, along with tens of thousands of South Vietnamese soldiers and civilians had fled. North Vietnamese forces under the command of General Văn Tiến Dũngbegan their final attack on Saigon, which was commanded by General Nguyen Van Toan on April 29, with a heavy artillery bombardment of Tân Sơn Nhứt Airport which killed the last two American servicemen who died in Vietnam, Charles McMahon and Darwin Judge. By the afternoon of the next day, North Vietnamese troops had occupied the important points within the city and raised their flag over the South Vietnamese presidential palace. The government of South Vietnam formally gave up sh...
- 1 November 1955 – 30 April 1975, (19 years, 5 months, 4 weeks and 1 day)
- Decisive North Vietnamese victory, U. S. military and political defeat, Withdrawal of American forces from Indochina, Communist governments take power in South Vietnam, Cambodia and Laos, South Vietnam is annexed by North Vietnam
January 1 January. U.S. military personnel in South Vietnam totaled 334,600 on 31 December 1970. 1 January - May 1971. Project Copper was an unsuccessful operation to use three Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)-trained Cambodian irregular force battalions to interdict the Sihanouk Trail.
- Administrative Divisions
The official name of the South Vietnamese state was Việt Nam Cộng hòa (Republic of Vietnam) and the French name was referred to as République du Viêt Nam. The North was known as the "Democratic Republic of Vietnam". Việt Nam (Vietnamese pronunciation: [vjə̀tnam]) was the name adopted by Emperor Gia Long in 1804. It is a variation of "Nam Việt" (南 越, Southern Việt), a name used in ancient times. In 1839, Emperor Minh Mạng renamed the country Đại Nam ("Great South"). In 1945, the nation's official name was changed back to "Vietnam". The name is also sometimes rendered as "Viet Nam" in English. The term "South Vietnam" became common usage in 1954, when the Geneva Conferenceprovisionally partitioned Vietnam into communist and non-communist parts. Other names of this state were commonly used during its existence such as Free Vietnam and the Government of Viet Nam(GVN).
Founding of South Vietnam
Before World War II, the southern third of Vietnam was the concession (nhượng địa) of Cochinchina, which was administered as part of French Indochina. A French governor-general (toàn quyền) in Hanoi administered all the five parts of Indochina (Tonkin, Annam, Cochinchina, Laos, and Cambodia) while Cochinchina (Nam Kỳ) was under a French governor (thống đốc), but the difference from the other parts with most indigenous intelligensia and wealthy were naturalized French (Tourane now Đà Nẵng in t...
In July 1955, Diệm announced in a broadcast that South Vietnam would not participate in the elections specified in the Geneva Accords. As Saigon's delegation did not sign the Geneva Accords, it was not bound by it. He also claimed the communist government in the North created conditions that made a fair election impossible in that region. Dennis J. Duncanson described[undue weight? – discuss] the circumstances prevailing in 1955 and 1956 as "anarchy among sects and of the retiring Việt Minh i...
The Diệm government lost support among the populace, and from the Kennedy administration, due to its repression of Buddhists and military defeats by the Việt Cộng. Notably, the Huế Phật Đản shootings of 8 May 1963 led to the Buddhist crisis, provoking widespread protests and civil resistance. The situation came to a head when the Special Forces were sent to raid Buddhist temples across the country, leaving a death toll estimated to be in the hundreds. Diệm was overthrown in a coup on 1 Novemb...
South Vietnam went through many political changes during its short life. Initially, former Emperor Bảo Đại served as Head of State. He was unpopular however, largely because monarchical leaders were considered collaborators during French rule and because he had spent his reign absent in France. In 1955, Prime Minister Ngô Đình Diệm held a referendum to decide whether the State of Vietnam would remain a monarchy or become a republic. This referendum was blatantly rigged in favor of a republic. Not only did an implausible 98% vote in favor of deposing Bảo Đại, but over 380,000 more votes were cast than the total number of registered voters; in Saigon, for instance, Diệm was credited with 133% of the vote. Diệm proclaimed himself the president of the newly formed Republic of Vietnam. Despite successes in politics, economics and social change in the first 5 years, Diệm quickly became a dictatorial leader. With the support of the United States government and the CIA, ARVN officers led by...
The Republic of Vietnam Military Forces (RVNMF; Vietnamese: Quân lực Việt Nam Cộng hòa – QLVNCH), was formally established on 30 December 1955. Created out from ex-French Union Army colonial Indochinese auxiliary units (French: Supplétifs), gathered earlier in July 1951 into the French-led Vietnamese National Army – VNA (Vietnamese: Quân Đội Quốc Gia Việt Nam – QĐQGVN), Armée Nationale Vietnamiènne (ANV) in French, the armed forces of the new state consisted in the mid-1950s of ground, air, and naval branches of service, respectively: 1. Army of the Republic of Vietnam(ARVN) 2. Republic of Vietnam Air Force(RVNAF) 3. Republic of Vietnam Navy(RVNN) 4. Republic of Vietnam Marine Division(RVNMD) Their roles were defined as follows: to protect the sovereignty of the free Vietnamese nation and that of the Republic; to maintain the political and social order and the rule of law by providing internal security; to defend the newly independent Republic of Vietnam from external (and internal)...
There were four AM and one FM radio stations, all of them owned by government (VTVN), named Radio Vietnam. One of them was designated as a nationwide civilian broadcast, another was for military service and the other two stations included a French-language broadcast station and foreign language station broadcasting in Chinese, English, Khmer and Thai. Radio Vietnam started its operation in 1955 under then President Ngo Dinh Diem, and ceased operation on 30 April 1975, with the broadcast of su...
Television was introduced to South Vietnam on 7 February 1966 with black-and-white FCC system. Covering major cities in South Vietnam, started with a one-hour broadcast per day then increased to six hours in the evening during the 1970s. There were two main channels: 1. THVN-TV (Truyền hình Việt Nam-TV) on Channel 9, featuring Vietnamese-language shows, news and special announcements from Saigon. This entirely Vietnamese language channel catered to the Vietnamese populace. 2. AFVN-TV on Chann...
Writing in The Christian Science Monitor in 1970, Dan Sutherland remarked: "Under its new press law, South Vietnam now has one of the freest presses in Southeast Asia, and the daily paper with the biggest circulation here happens to be sharply critical of President Thieu ... since the new press law was promulgated nine months ago, the government has not been able to close down Tin Sang or any other newspaper among the more than 30 now being published in Saigon."[undue weight? – discuss]
South Vietnam was divided into forty-four provinces:
Throughout its history South Vietnam had many reforms enacted that affected the organisation of its administrative divisions. On 24 October 1956 President Ngô Đình Diệm enacted a reform of the administrative divisions system of the Republic of Vietnam in the form of Decree 147a/NV. This decree divided the region of Trung phầninto Trung nguyên Trung phần (the Central Midlands) and Cao nguyên Trung phần (the Central Highlands). The offices appointed representative and assistant representative o...
The South was divided into coastal lowlands, the mountainous Central Highlands (Cao-nguyen Trung-phan) and the Mekong Delta. South Vietnam's time zone was one hour ahead of North Vietnam, belonging to the UTC+8 time zone with the same time as the Philippines, Brunei, Malaysia, Singapore, Mainland China, Taiwan and Western Australia. Apart from the mainland, the Republic of Vietnam also administered parts of the Paracels and Spratly Islands. China seized controlof the Paracels in 1974 after the South Vietnamese navy attempted an assault on PRC-held islands.
South Vietnam maintained a capitalist free-market economy with ties to the West. It established an airline named Air Vietnam. The economy was greatly assisted by American aid and the presence of large numbers of Americans in the country between 1961 and 1973. Electrical production increased fourteen-fold between 1954 and 1973 while industrial output increase by an average of 6.9 percent annually. During the same period, rice output increased by 203 percent and the number of students in university increased from 2,000 to 90,000. US aid peaked at $2.3 billion in 1973, but dropped to $1.1 billion in 1974. Inflation rose to 200 percent as the country suffered economic shock due to the decrease of American aid as well as the oil price shock of October 1973. The unification of Vietnam in 1976 was followed by the imposition of North Vietnam's centrally planned economyin the South. A 2017 study in the journal Diplomatic Historyfound that South Vietnamese economic planners sought to model th...
In 1968, the population of South Vietnam was estimated to be 16,259,334. However, about one-fifth of the people who lived in Southern Vietnam (from Quang Tri Province to the South) lived in areas that were controlled by Viet Cong. In 1970 about 90% of population was Kinh (Viet), and 10% was Hoa (Chinese), Montagnard, French, Khmer, Cham, Eurasians and others. The Vietnamese language was the primary official language and was spoken by the majority of the population. Despite the end of French colonial rule, the French language still maintained a strong presence in South Vietnam where it was used in administration, education (especially at the secondary and higher levels), trade and diplomacy. The ruling elite population of South Vietnam was known to speak French as its primary language.:280–4 With US involvement in the Vietnam War, the English language was also later introduced to the armed forces and became a secondary diplomatic language. Languages...
Cultural life was strongly influenced by China until French domination in the 18th century. At that time, the traditional culture began to acquire an overlay of Western characteristics. Many families had three generations living under one roof. The emerging South Vietnamese middle class and youth in the 1960s became increasingly more Westernised, and followed American cultural and social trends, especially in music, fashion and social attitudes in major cities like Saigon.
Encyclopedic Dictionary of Vietnam. Từ điển bách khoa Việt Nam (Literally Encyclopaedic Dictionary of Vietnam) is a state-sponsored Vietnamese language encyclopedia that was published in Vietnam in 2005. It is the first state encyclopedia of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam. The compilation process began in 1987 and was completed in 2005.
Throughout history of Vietnam, besides official names, there are names that are used unofficially to refer to the territory of Vietnam. Vietnam was ever called Văn Lang during the Hùng Vương Dynasty, Âu Lạc when An Dương was king, Nam Việt during the Triệu Dynasty, Van Xuan during the Anterior Lý Dynasty, Đại Cồ Việt during the Đinh dynasty and Early Lê dynasty. Starting in 1054, Vietnam was called Đại Việt (Great Viet). During the Hồ dynasty, Vietnam was called Đại Ngu. Việt Nam (listen in Vietnamese) is a variation of Nam Việt (Southern Việt), a name that can be traced back to the Triệu dynasty (2nd century BC, also known as Nanyue Kingdom). The word "Việt" originated as a shortened form of Bách Việt, a word used to refer to a people who lived in what is now southern China in ancient times. The word "Việt Nam", with the syllables in the modern order, first appears in the 16th century in a poem by Nguyễn Bỉnh Khiêm. "Annam", which originated as a Chinese name in the seventh century...
In English, the spellings Vietnam, Viet-Nam, and Viet Nam have all been used. The 1954 edition of Webster's New Collegiate Dictionary gave both the unspaced and hyphenated forms; in response to a letter from a reader, the editors indicated that the spaced form Viet Nam was also acceptable, though they stated that because Anglophones did not know the meaning of the two words making up the name Vietnam, "it is not surprising" that there was a tendency to drop the space. In 1966, the U.S. government was known to use all three renderings, with the State Department preferring the hyphenated version. By 1981, the hyphenated form was regarded as "dated", according to Scottish writer Gilbert Adair, and he titled his book about depictions of the country in film using the unhyphenated and unspaced form "Vietnam". The modern Chinese name for Vietnam (Chinese: 越南; pinyin: Yuènán) can be translated as "Beyond the South", leading to the folk etymologythat the name is a reference to the country's...
1. Trần Quang Đức, Thousand years of caps and robes (千古衣冠), Nhã Nam published, Hanoï, 2013. 2. Nicholas Tarling (2000). The Cambridge History of Southeast Asia: From Early Times C. 1500. Cambridge University Press. p. 139. ISBN 0521663695. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) 3. Ring, Trudy; Salkin, Robert M.; La Boda, Sharon (1994). International Dictionary of Historic Places: Asia and Oceania. Taylor & Francis. p. 399. ISBN 1884964044. 4. L. Shelton Woods (2002). Vietnam: a global studie...
1. Meacham, William (1996). "Defining the Hundred Yue". Bulletin of the Indo-Pacific Prehistory Association. pp. 93–100. doi:10.7152/bippa.v15i0.11537. Archived from the original on 2014-02-28. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) 2. "Spelling Lesson". Newsweek. 1968. p. 13. Missing or empty |url= (help)
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