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  1. See full list on en.wikipedia.org In 1957 the Labor Party in Queensland was engulfed in the split that had been growing in the party across Australia over the influence of communism. The sitting...

    • Early Life and Career
    • Premiership
    • Assessment
    • Further Reading

    Nicklin was born in Murwillumbah, New South Wales on 6 August 1895, the son of newspaper proprietor George Francis Nicklin and his New Zealand-born wife, Edith Catherine, née Bond. He was educated at Murwillumbah Public School and Highfield College in Turramurra, Sydney. In 1910 the family moved to Beerwah in Queensland, where Nicklin's father took up banana farming. Nicklin enrolled in the army in 1916 served with distinction during World War I, where he was promoted to corporal and was awarded the Military Medal. On his return to Queensland he bought a small pineapple farm at Palmwoods, 100 kilometres north of Brisbane, through a soldier-settler scheme. Nicklin saved wisely and put his farming experience to good use, and his farm succeeded where many others failed. He led many fruit-growers' organisations, and then became involved in Country Partypolitics. When the Member for the solid Country Party seat of Murrumba retired in 1932, Nicklin became the new candidate for the hybrid...

    In the ensuing 3 August elections, every QLP MP faced an ALP challenger, while every ALP MP faced a QLP challenger. This created dozens of three-cornered contests, and the two Labor factions could not direct preferences to each other even if they'd wanted to do so. Taking advantage of the split in the Labor vote, Nicklin's Country-Liberal coalition came to power with 42 seats – the first non-Labor Government since 1932. The two Labor factions won only 31 seats between them.Nicklin was the first of six consecutive Country/National Party leaders to become Premier. Nicklin's first priority was to reverse the zonal electoral system in favour of his Government. Nicklin's redistribution was fairer than Hanlon's, but it still favoured the Country Party. The far-western region went down from five seats to three, and the provincial cities (which had traditionally voted ALP) were separated from their hinterlands, in which new Country Party seats were created. As a result, Liberals gained new...

    In many ways, Nicklin broke the mould of Queensland Premiers. Neither authoritarian nor populist in temperament, he was willing to share the power for which he had been forced to wait many years, and he was prepared to defer to those whom he knew to possess greater knowledge or talent than he. Both of these traits made his Government successful. His outstanding achievement was probably the mere fact that his Premiership was such a quiet and uneventful time. He was friendly and well liked by the people of Queensland, and was known as 'the gentleman Premier'. Still, there is some debate over whether Nicklin's geniality was entirely genuine or whether it concealed an iron fist. There were rumours that he inspired fear in his cabinet, although this is common among successful Premiers and Prime Ministers. He remains something of a paradox – determined yet open, honest and outwardly benevolent. Not the wisest or most imaginative of Queensland Premiers, he nonetheless achieved a good deal...

    Stevenson, B. (2003). "George Francis Reuben Nicklin – The Gentleman Premier," in The Premiers of Queensland(Eds. Denis Murphy, Roger Joyce, Margaret Cribb and Rae Wear), University of Queensland P...

  2. Liberal Party of Australia. The Liberal Party is the largest and dominant party in the Coalition with the National Party of Australia. In two states and territories of Australia the parties have merged, forming the Country Liberal Party of the Northern Territory and the Liberal National Party of Queensland.

  3. Sep 28, 2015 · One was Vince Gair in SVN in 1970, another was Johannes Bjelke-Petersen at the State School for Spastic Children, New farm, in 1973, and the last one was Annastacia Palaszczuk when she was Minister for Disability Services in 2010 and I was on the Disability Council of Queensland.

  4. Nicklin was born in Murwillumbah, New South Wales on 6 August 1895, the son of newspaper proprietor George Francis Nicklin and his New Zealand -born wife, Edith Catherine, née Bond. He was educated at Murwillumbah Public School and Highfield College in Turramurra, Sydney. In 1910 the family moved to Beerwah in Queensland, where Nicklin's ...

    • 1916–1919; 1942–1946
    • Australian
    • Background
    • First Term
    • Second Term
    • Constitutional Crisis
    • See Also

    The Australian Labor Party had entered opposition in 1949, following loss of the Chifley Government to Robert Menzies led Liberal-Country Party Coalition. The Coalition governed continuously for a further 23 years. Gough Whitlam had become deputy leader of the Labor Party in 1960 and replaced the retiring Arthur Calwell as leader in 1967 following Labor's poor result in the 1966 election. In April 1967, Whitlam was elected party leader, with Lance Barnard as Deputy Leader. Labor reduced the Gorton Government's majority and came within 4 seats of government in the 1969 election. Whitlam then led the Labor Party to victory against the McMahon Government at the 1972 election.[1]

    Duumvirate

    Whitlam took office with a majority in the House of Representatives, but without control of the Senate (elected in 1967 and 1970). The Senate at that time consisted of ten members from each of the six states, elected by proportional representation.[2] The ALP parliamentary caucus chose the ministers, but Whitlam was allowed to assign portfolios.[3] A caucus meeting could not be held until after the final results came in on 15 December. In the meantime, McMahon would remain caretaker Prime Min...

    Enacting an agenda

    The McMahon government had consisted of 27 ministers, twelve of whom comprised the Cabinet. In the run-up to the election, the Labor caucus had decided that should the party take power, all 27 ministers were to be Cabinet members.[12] Intense canvassing took place amongst ALP parliamentarians as the duumvirate did its work, and on 18 December the caucus elected the Cabinet. The results were generally acceptable to Whitlam, and within three hours, he had announced the portfolios of the cabinet...

    Early troubles

    In February 1973, the Attorney General, Senator Lionel Murphy, led a police raid on the Melbourne office of the Australian Security Intelligence Organisation, which was under his ministerial responsibility. Murphy believed that the ASIO might have files relating to threats against Yugoslav Prime Minister Džemal Bijedić, who was about to visit Australia, and feared the ASIO might conceal or destroy them.[21] The Opposition attacked the Government over the raid, terming Murphy a "loose cannon"....

    The economy

    By mid-1974, Australia was in an economic slump. The 1973 oil crisis had caused prices to spike, and according to government figures inflation topped 13 percent for over a year between 1973 and 1974.[34] Part of the inflation was due to Whitlam's desire to increase wages and conditions of the Commonwealth Public Service as a pacesetter for the private sector.[35] The Whitlam government had cut tariffs by 25 percent in 1973; 1974 saw an increase in imports of 30 percent and a $1.5 billion incr...

    Final months

    Whitlam appointed Senator Murphy to the High Court, even though Murphy's Senate seat would not be up for election if a half-Senate election were held. Labor then held three of the five short-term New South Wales Senate seats. Under proportional representation, Labor could hold its three short term seats in the next half-Senate election, but if Murphy's seat were also contested, Labor was unlikely to win four out of six. Thus, a Murphy appointment meant the almost certain loss of a seat in the...

    Loans Affair

    Minerals and Energy Minister Rex Connor wanted funds for a series of national development projects. He proposed that in order to finance his plans, the government should borrow $US 4 billion (at that time a huge sum of money). It was a requirement of the Australian Constitution that non-temporary government borrowings must be through the Loan Council. Although the development projects were long-term, Whitlam, together with ministers Cairns, Murphy and Connor authorised Connor to seek the loan...

    In October 1975, the Opposition, led by Fraser, determined to block supply by deferring consideration of appropriation bills. With Field on leave (his Senate appointment having been challenged), the Coalition had an effective majority of 30–29 in the Senate. The Coalition believed that if Whitlam could not deliver supply, and would not advise new elections, Kerr would have to dismiss him.[61] Supply would run out on 30 November.[62] The stakes were raised in the conflict on 10 October, when the High Court declared valid the Act granting the territories two senators each. In a half-Senate election, most successful candidates would not take their places until 1 July 1976, but the territorial senators, and those filling Field's and Bunton's seats, would assume their seats at once. This gave Labor an outside chance of controlling the Senate, at least up until 1 July 1976.[63] On 14 October, Labor minister Rex Connor, mastermind of the loans scheme, was forced to resign when Khemlani rel...

    • Early and Family Life
    • Military Service
    • Early Political Career
    • Labor Party Leader
    • Prime Minister 1972–1975
    • Constitutional Crisis
    • Out of Office
    • Legacy
    • See Also
    • External Links

    Edward Gough Whitlam was born on 11 July 1916 in Kew, a suburb of Melbourne. He was the older of two children (he has a younger sister, Freda)[1] born to Martha (née Maddocks) and Fred Whitlam.[2] His father was a federal public servant who later served as Commonwealth Crown Solicitor, and Whitlam senior's involvement in human rights issues was a powerful influence on his son.[3] Since the boy's maternal grandfather was also named Edward, from early childhood he was called by his middle name.[4] In 1918, Fred Whitlam was promoted to Deputy Crown Solicitor and transferred to Sydney. The family lived first in the North Shore suburb of Mosman and then in Turramurra. At age six, Gough began his education at Chatswood Church of England Girls School (early primary schooling at a girls' school was not unusual for small boys at the time). After a year there, he attended Mowbray House School and Knox Grammar School, in the suburbs of Sydney.[5] Fred Whitlam was promoted again in 1927, this t...

    Soon after the outbreak of World War II in 1939, Whitlam enlisted in the Sydney University Regiment, part of the Army Reserve.[12] In late 1941, following the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, and with a year remaining in his legal studies, he volunteered for the Royal Australian Air Force.[13] In 1942, while awaiting entry into the service, Whitlam met and married Margaret Elaine Dovey, who had swum for Australia in the 1938 British Empire Games and was the daughter of barrister and future New South Wales Supreme Court judge Bill Dovey.[14] Whitlam trained as a navigator and bomb aimer, before serving with No. 13 Squadron RAAF, based mainly on the Gove Peninsula, Northern Territory, flying Lockheed Ventura bombers. He reaching the rank of Flight Lieutenant.[15] While in the service, he began his political activities, distributing literature for the Australian Labor Party during the 1943 federal election and urging the passage of the "Fourteen Powers" referendum of 1944, which would...

    Candidate and backbencher

    With his war service loan, Whitlam built a house in seaside Cronulla.[17] He sought to make a career in the ALP there, but local Labor supporters were sceptical of Whitlam's loyalties, given his privileged background.[17] In the postwar years, he practised law, concentrating on landlord/tenant matters, and sought to build his bona fides in the party. He ran twice–unsuccessfully–for the local council, once (also unsuccessfully) for the New South Wales Legislative Assembly, and campaigned for o...

    Deputy leader

    By the late 1950s Whitlam was seen as a leadership contender once the existing Labor leaders exited the scene. Most Labor leaders, including Evatt, Deputy Leader Arthur Calwell, Eddie Ward, and Reg Pollard, were in their sixties, twenty years older than Whitlam.[25] In 1960, after losing three elections, Evatt resigned and was replaced by Calwell, with Whitlam defeating Ward for deputy leader.[26] Calwell came within a handful of votes of winning the cliffhanger 1961 election. He had not want...

    Reforming the ALP

    Gough Whitlam saw that the party had little chance of being elected unless it could expand its appeal from the traditional working-class base to include the suburban middle class.[40] He sought to shift control of the ALP from union officials to the parliamentary party, and hoped that even rank-and-file party members could be given a voice in the conference.[41] In 1968, controversy erupted within the party when the Executive refused to seat new Tasmanian delegate Brian Harradine, a Whitlam s...

    Leader of the Opposition

    Soon after taking the leadership, Whitlam reorganised the ALP caucus, assigning portfolios and turning the Labor frontbench into a shadow cabinet.[48] While the Liberal/Country Coalition had a huge majority in the House of Representatives, Whitlam energised the party by campaigning intensively to win two by-elections in 1967: first in Corio in Victoria, and later that year in Capricornia (Queensland). The November half-Senate election saw a moderate swing to Labor and against the Coalition, c...

    Duumvirate

    Whitlam took office with a majority in the House of Representatives, but without control of the Senate (elected in 1967 and 1970). The Senate at that time consisted of ten members from each of the six states, elected by proportional representation.[73] The ALP parliamentary caucus chose the ministers, but Whitlam was allowed to assign portfolios.[74] A caucus meeting could not be held until after the final results came in on 15 December. In the meantime, McMahon would remain caretaker Prime M...

    Enacting an agenda

    The McMahon government had consisted of 27 ministers, twelve of whom comprised the Cabinet. In the run-up to the election, the Labor caucus had decided that should the party take power, all 27 ministers were to be Cabinet members.[83] Intense canvassing took place amongst ALP parliamentarians as the duumvirate did its work, and on 18 December the caucus elected the Cabinet. The results were generally acceptable to Whitlam, and within three hours, he had announced the portfolios of the cabinet...

    Early troubles

    In February 1973, the Attorney General, Senator Lionel Murphy, led a police raid on the Melbourne office of the Australian Security Intelligence Organisation, which was under his ministerial responsibility. Murphy believed that the ASIO might have files relating to threats against Yugoslav Prime Minister Džemal Bijedić, who was about to visit Australia, and feared the ASIO might conceal or destroy them.[92] The Opposition attacked the Government over the raid, terming Murphy a "loose cannon"....

    In October 1975, the Opposition, led by Malcolm Fraser, determined to block supply by deferring consideration of appropriation bills. With Field on leave (his Senate appointment having been challenged), the Coalition had an effective majority of 30–29 in the Senate. The Coalition believed that if Whitlam could not deliver supply, and would not advise new elections, Kerr would have to dismiss him.[125] Supply would run out on 30 November.[126] The stakes were raised in the conflict on 10 October, when the High Court declared valid the Act granting the territories two senators each. In a half-Senate election, most successful candidates would not take their places until 1 July 1976, but the territorial senators, and those filling Field's and Bunton's seats, would assume their seats at once. This gave Labor an outside chance of controlling the Senate, at least up until 1 July 1976.[127] On 14 October, Labor minister Rex Connor, mastermind of the loans scheme, was forced to resign when K...

    Return to Opposition

    As the ALP began the 1975 race, it seemed that its supporters would maintain their rage. Early rallies saw huge crowds, with attendees handing Whitlam money to pay election expenses. The crowds greatly exceeded those in any of Whitlam's earlier campaigns; in Sydney, 30,000 partisans gathered for an ALP rally in The Domain below a banner: "Shame Fraser Shame".[147] Fraser's appearances saw protests, and a letter bomb sent to Kerr was defused by authorities. Instead of making a policy speech to...

    Ambassador and elder statesman

    Whitlam was made a Companion of the Order of Australia in June 1978,[157] and resigned from Parliament on 31 July of the same year. He took various academic positions, and when Labor was restored to power under Bob Hawke in 1983, Whitlam was appointed Ambassador to UNESCO, based in Paris. He served for three years in this post, defending UNESCO against allegations of corruption. In 1985, he was appointed to Australia's Constitutional Commission.[158] Whitlam was appointed chairman of the Nati...

    Now in his mid-nineties, Whitlam remains well remembered for the circumstances of his dismissal. It is a legacy he has done little to efface; he wrote a 1979 book, The Truth of the Matter (the title is a play on that of Kerr's 1978 memoir, Matters for Judgment) and devoted part of his subsequent book, Abiding Interests, to the circumstances of his removal.[172] According to journalist and author Paul Kelly, who penned two books on the crisis, Whitlam has "achieved a paradoxical triumph: the shadow of the dismissal has obscured the sins of his government".[160] More books have been written about Whitlam, including his own writings, than about any other Australian prime minister.[173] According to Whitlam biographer Jenny Hocking, for a period of at least a decade, the Whitlam era was viewed almost entirely in negative terms, but that has changed. Still, she feels that Australians take for granted programs and policies initiated by the Whitlam government, such as recognition of China,...

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