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  1. Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia › wiki › Main_Page

    From today's featured article Arthur Blackburn (1892–1960) was an Australian soldier, lawyer, politician, and recipient of the Victoria Cross. Enlisting in the Australian Imperial Force in 1914, he fought with his unit for most of the Gallipoli campaign of 1915, during which he was commissioned. On 23 July 1916, during the Battle of Pozières in France, he led four sorties to drive Germans ...

  2. Politics - Wikipedia › wiki › Political_jargon
    • Etymology
    • History
    • Political Science
    • Political System
    • Levels of Politics
    • Political Values
    • See Also
    • Further Reading

    The English politics has its roots in the name of Aristotle's classic work, Politiká, which introduced the Greek term politiká (Πολιτικά, 'affairs of the cities'). In the mid-15th century, Aristotle's composition would be rendered in Early Modern English as Polettiques [sic],[a] which would become Politics in Modern English. The singular politic first attested in English in 1430, coming from Middle French politique—itself taking from politicus, a Latinization of the Greek πολιτικός (politikos) from πολίτης (polites, 'citizen') and πόλις (polis, 'city').

    The history of politics spans human history and is not limited to modern institutions of government.

    The study of politics is called political science, or politology. It comprises numerous subfields, including comparative politics, political economy, international relations, political philosophy, public administration, public policy, gender and politics, and political methodology. Furthermore, political science is related to, and draws upon, the fields of economics, law, sociology, history, philosophy, geography, psychology/psychiatry, anthropology, and neurosciences. Comparative politics is the science of comparison and teaching of different types of constitutions, political actors, legislature and associated fields, all of them from an intrastate perspective. International relations deals with the interaction between nation-states as well as intergovernmental and transnational organizations. Political philosophyis more concerned with contributions of various classical and contemporary thinkers and philosophers. Political science is methodologically diverse and appropriates many m...

    The political system defines the process for making official government decisions. It is usually compared to the legal system, economic system, cultural system, and other social systems. According to David Easton, "A political system can be designated as the interactions through which values are authoritatively allocated for a society." Each political system is embedded in a society with its own political culture, and they in turn shape their societies through public policy. The interactions between different political systems are the basis for global politics.


    Macropolitics can either describe political issues that affect an entire political system (e.g. the nation state), or refer to interactions between political systems (e.g. international relations). Global politics (or world politics) covers all aspects of politics that affect multiple political systems, in practice meaning any political phenomenon crossing national borders. This can include cities, nation-states, multinational corporations, non-governmental organizations, and/or international...


    Mesopolitics describes the politics of intermediary structures within a political system, such as national political parties or movements. A political party is a political organization that typically seeks to attain and maintain political power within government, usually by participating in political campaigns, educational outreach, or protest actions. Parties often espouse an expressed ideology or vision, bolstered by a written platform with specific goals, forming a coalitionamong disparate...


    Micropolitics describes the actions of individual actors within the political system. This is often described as political participation.Political participation may take many forms, including: 1. Activism 2. Boycott 3. Civil disobedience 4. Demonstration 5. Petition 6. Picketing 7. Strike action 8. Tax resistance 9. Voting (or its opposite, abstentionism)


    Democracy is a system of processing conflicts in which outcomes depend on what participants do, but no single force controls what occurs and its outcomes. The uncertainty of outcomes is inherent in democracy. Democracy makes all forces struggle repeatedly to realize their interests and devolves power from groups of people to sets of rules. Among modern political theorists, there are three contending conceptions of democracy: aggregative, deliberative, and radical.


    Equality is a state of affairs in which all people within a specific society or isolated group have the same social status, especially socioeconomic status, including protection of human rights and dignity, and equal access to certain social goods and social services. Furthermore, it may also include health equality, economic equality and other social securities. Social equality requires the absence of legally enforced social class or caste boundaries and the absence of discrimination motivat...


    Political freedom (also known as political liberty or autonomy) is a central concept in political thought and one of the most important features of democratic societies. Negative liberty has been described as freedom from oppression or coercion and unreasonable external constraints on action, often enacted through civil and political rights, while positive liberty is the absence of disabling conditions for an individual and the fulfillment of enabling conditions, e.g. economic compulsion, in...

    James, Raul; Soguk, Nevzat (2014). Globalization and Politics, Vol. 1: Global Political and Legal Governance. London: Sage Publications. Retrieved 19 February 2016.
    Ryan, Alan (2012). On Politics: A History of Political Thought from Herodotus to the Present. London: Allen Lane. ISBN 978-0-7139-9364-6.
  3. Autonome Nationalisten - Wikipedia › wiki › Autonomous_nationalists

    Autonome Nationalisten (English: Autonomous Nationalists, abbreviated AN) are German, British, Dutch and to a lesser degree Flemish neo-Nazis, who have adopted some of the far left and Antifa's organizational concepts (autonomous activism), demonstration tactics (), symbolism, and elements of clothing, including Che Guevara T-shirts and keffiyehs.

  4. Lüneburg - Wikipedia › wiki › Lüneburg
    • History
    • Geography
    • Demographics
    • Economy
    • Governance
    • Twin Towns – Sister Cities
    • Arts and Culture
    • Sports
    • Infrastructure
    • Education


    The first signs of human presence in the area of Lüneburg date back to the time of Neanderthal Man: 56 axes, estimated at 150,000 years old, were uncovered during the construction in the 1990s of the autobahn between Ochtmissen and Bardowick.The site of the discovery at Ochtmissen was probably a Neanderthal hunting location where huntsmen skinned and cut up the animals they had caught. The area was almost certainly not continuously inhabited at that time, however, due to the various glaciatio...

    From village to commercial town

    Lüneburg was first mentioned in medieval records in a deed signed on 13 August, 956 AD, in which Otto I, Holy Roman Emperor granted "the tax from Lüneburg to the monastery built there in honour of Saint Michael" (German: den Zoll zu Lüneburg an das zu Ehren des heiligen Michaels errichtete Kloster, Latin: teloneum ad Luniburc ad monasterium sancti Michahelis sub honore constructum). An older reference to the place in the Frankish imperial annals dated 795 fluvium Albim pervenit a...

    Hanseatic period

    As a consequence of the monopoly that Lüneburg had for many years as a supplier of salt within the North German region, a monopoly not challenged until much later by French imports, it very quickly became a member of the Hanseatic League. The League was formed in 1158 in Lübeck, initially as a union of individual merchants, but in 1356 it met as a federation of trading towns at the first general meeting of the Hansetag. Lüneburg's salt was needed in order to pickle the herring caught in the B...


    Lüneburg lies on the river Ilmenau, about 30 kilometres (19 mi) from its confluence with the Elbe. The river flows through the town and is featured in its song; it was formerly traversed by cogstaking salt from the town to the other, larger, ports of the Hanseatic League nearby. To the south of the town stretches the 7,400-square-kilometre (2,857 sq mi) Lüneburg Heath which emerged as a result of widespread tree-felling, forest fires and grazing. The tradition that the heath arose from centur...

    Neighbouring towns and cities

    There are several towns, cities, and urban areas around Lüneburg in all directions:


    The houses in the historic quarter between the Lüneburg Saltworks (today the German Salt Museum) and the Kalkberg were built above a salt dome that was excavated by the saltworks and which extended to just below the surface of the ground. As a result of the increasing quantities of salt mined with improved technical equipment after 1830, the ground began to sink by several metres. This resulted in the so-called Senkungsgebiet or "subsidence area". The houses there and the local church (St. La...

    Lüneburg already had about 14,000 inhabitants in the Late Middle Ages and beginning of the Modern Period and was one of the largest 'cities' of its time, but its population shrank with the economic downturn to just 9,400 in 1757; then rose again to 10,400 in 1813. With the onset of industrialisationin the 19th century, population growth accelerated. If 13,000 were living in the town in 1855, by 1939 there were as many as 35,000. Shortly after the Second World War, refugees and displaced persons from Germany's eastern territories brought an increase in population within just a few months of around 18,000 people so that the total number in December 1945 was 53,000. In 2003 the 70,000 level was exceeded for the first time. The town of Lüneburg, its eponymous district and the neighbouring district of Harburg belong to the few regions in Germany that have experienced such a massive growth. The reasons for this include the growth of areas around the Hamburg Metropolitan Regionand the cons...

    At one time Lüneburg had over 80 breweries. The Lüneburger Kronen Brewery of 1485 in Heiligengeiststraße brewed beers such as Lüneburger Kronen-Pilsener and Moravia Pilsener that were very well known in North Germany. These beers are brewed today by the Holsten Brewery in Hamburg, although the original yeast stock (Hefestämme) was destroyed when the Kronen Brewery was taken over. Only the original Lüneburger Pilsener is still produced as before, although it is now made by the Holsten Brewery and only sold on tap. Today there are just two small inn breweries left in Lüneburg. In the Nolte Inn Brewery (Gasthausbrauerei Nolte) some distance from the centre on the Dahlenburger Landstraße and in the Brau- und Tafelhaus Mälzer in Heiligengeiststraßethe tradition of Lüneburger breweries lives on. Recently Lüneburg has increasingly developed into a venue for tourists. Nevertheless, medium-sized and small businesses still play a major role in Lüneburg's economy. The University of Lüneburghas...

    The town of Lüneburg is part of 'State Constituency 49 Lüneburg' and 'Federal Constituency No. 38 Lüchow-Dannenberg – Lüneburg'.

    Lüneburg is twinnedwith: In addition Lüneburg has friendly relations with German towns Kulmbach and Köthen.


    The Lüneburg Theatre (Theater Lüneburg) is one of the smallest, three-stage theatres in Germany. Not only are plays of all styles put on, but also operas, operettas, musicals and ballets. Although the financial means of the Lüneburg Theatre are comparatively limited, it is no 'provincial stage' and can hold its ground successfully against the many theatres in nearby Hamburg. In addition Lüneburg has a large number of amateur theatres, that also produce regular performances. Such a variety in...


    The historic town is itself a kind of open-air museum (a "Rothenburg of the North"), but there are numerous museums and historic churches (St. Michaelis, St. Johannis, St. Nicolai. The most important museums are the German Salt Museum in the premises of the old Lüneburg Saltworks, in which the significance of salt in the Middle Ages and the extraction of salt is portrayed, and the Museum of the Principality of Lüneburg, in which the town's history and the history of the surrounding area is ca...

    Town architecture

    Lüneburg is one of the few towns in North Germany whose historic centre was not destroyed during the Second World War. Nevertheless, the general neglect of its buildings until the 1960s and the damage in the area of subsidence has led to gaps in the historic architecture of the town. In addition the demolition of ramshackle buildings in the 1950s and 1960s and the construction of shops with a contemporary design broke up the historic appearance of many rows of houses. Since the beginning of t...

    Association football is the most popular sport in Lüneburg, as in Germany in general; ice-hockey and basketball are also popular. Most teams compete in the Regionalliga, which is highly ranked within Germany. 1. Football: Lüneburger SK Hansa (formed by merging Lüneburger SK with the football section of Lüneburger SV), Oberliga 2. Basketball: MTV Treubund Lüneburg, 2.Regionalliga (Women) Stadtliga(Men) 3. Ice-hockey: Adendorfer EC, Regionalliga 4. Handball: HSG Lüneburg, Regionalliga 5. Volleyball: SVG Lüneburg, Bundesliga 6. Baseball: Lüneburg Woodlarks, Regionalliga 7. American Football: Lüneburg Jayhawks, Oberliga


    Lüneburg has the following hospitals: Städtisches Krankenhaus Lüneburg and the "Landeskrankenhaus Lüneburg", now known as the Psychiatrische Klinik Lüneburg( Psychiatric Hospital Lüneburg).


    Lüneburg is part of the transportation company Hamburger Verkehrsverbund. There are 11 bus lines in the urban area of Lüneburg. As well as Lüneburg station, there is a smaller one located in Bardowick. The nearest cities within easy reach by rail are Hamburg, Hanover, Lübeck, Lauenburg, Uelzen and Winsen.

    The town has one university, the Leuphana Universität Lüneburg (previously known only as the Universität Lüneburg). The university has more than 7,000 students. There are 14 high schools in the town: 5 Gymnasien, 4 Realschulen, and 5 Hauptschulen; there is currently 1 Gesamtschule, the "IGS Lüneburg" founded in 2009. In addition, there are 6 vocational schools, 3 special schools, 3 private schools, and 12 elementary schools.

    • 14 districts
    • Lüneburg
  5. Turkey - Wikipedia › wiki › Turkey

    Republic of Turkey Türkiye Cumhuriyeti (Turkish) Flag Anthem: İstiklal Marşı (Turkish) "The Independence March" Capital Ankara Largest city Istanbul 41°1′N 28°57′E  /  41.017°N 28.950°E  / 41.017; 28.950 Official languages Turkish Spoken languages predominantly Turkish other languages Kurdish Zaza Laz Kabardian-Cherkess Arabic various others Ethnic groups (2016) 70–75% ...

  6. Hannah Arendt - Wikipedia › wiki › Hannah_Arendt

    Hannah Arendt (/ ˈ ɛər ə n t, ˈ ɑːr-/, US also / ə ˈ r ɛ n t /, German: [ˈaːʁənt]; 14 October 1906 – 4 December 1975) was a German-born American political theorist. Many of her books and articles have had a lasting influence on political theory and philosophy.

  7. List of German expressions in English - Wikipedia › wiki › List_of_German_expressions
    • German Terms Commonly Used in English
    • German Terms Common in English Academic Context
    • German Terms Mostly Used For Literary Effect
    • Terms Rarely Used in English
    • German Quotations Used in English
    • See Also
    • Further Reading
    • External Links

    Most of these words will be recognized by many English speakers; they are commonly used in English contexts. Some, such as wurst and pumpernickel, retain German connotations, while others, such as lager and hamburger, retain none. Not every word is recognizable outside its relevant context. A number of these expressions are used in American English, under the influence of German immigration, but not in British English.

    German terms sometimes appear in English academic disciplines, e.g. history, psychology, philosophy, music, and the physical sciences; laypeople in a given field may or may not be familiar with a given German term.

    There are a few terms which are recognised by many English speakers but are usually only used to deliberately evoke a German context: 1. Autobahn – particularly common in British English and American Englishreferring specifically to German motorways. 2. Achtung– lit. "attention" 3. Frau and Fräulein – woman and young woman or girl, respectively, in English. Indicating marital state, with Frau – Mrs. and Fräulein – Miss; in Germany, however, the diminutive Fräulein lapsed from common usage in the late 1960s. Regardless of marital status, a woman is now commonly referred to as Frau, because from 1972 the term Fräuleinhas been officially phased out for being politically incorrect and should only be used if expressly authorized by the woman concerned. 4. Führer (umlaut is usually dropped in English) – always used in English to denote Hitler or to connote a fascistic leader – never used, as is possible in German, simply and unironically to denote a (non-fascist) leader or guide (e.g. Ber...

    Eierlegende Wollmilchsau – literally "egg-laying wool-milk-sow", a hypothetical solution, object or person fulfilling unrealistically many different demands; also referring sometimes to a (really e...

    Some famous English quotations are translations from German. On rare occasions an author will quote the original German as a sign of erudition. 1. Muss es sein? Es muss sein!: "Must it be? It must be!" – Beethoven 2. Der Krieg ist eine bloße Fortsetzung der Politik mit anderen Mitteln: "War is politics by other means" (literally: "War is a mere continuation of politics by other means") – Clausewitz: "Vom Kriege", Book I, Chapter 1, Section 24 3. Ein Gespenst geht um in Europa – das Gespenst des Kommunismus: "A spectre is haunting Europe – the spectre of communism" – The Communist Manifesto 4. Proletarier aller Länder, vereinigt euch!: "Workers of the world, unite!" – The Communist Manifesto 5. Gott würfelt nicht: "God does not play dice" – Einstein 6. Raffiniert ist der Herrgott, aber boshaft ist er nicht: "Subtle is the Lord, but malicious He is not" – Einstein 7. Wir müssen wissen, wir werden wissen: "We must know, we will know" – David Hilbert 8. Was kann ich wissen? Was soll ich...

    J. Alan Pfeffer, Garland Cannon, German Loanwords in English: An Historical Dictionary, Cambridge University Press. 1994.

  8. Politik - definition of Politik by The Free Dictionary › Politik

    1. A German word meaning politics of realism, used to mean a cynical policy of pursuing a state’s own interests. 2. An approach to politics that is not idealistic but ruthlessly opportunistic, especially in advancing the interests of a country.

  9. Victor Hugo - Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia › wiki › Victor_Hugo
    • Life
    • Writings
    • Political Life and Exile
    • Religious Views
    • Victor Hugo and Music
    • Declining Years and Death
    • Drawings
    • Memorials
    • Works
    • References

    Victor Hugo was the son of Joseph Léopold Sigisbert Hugo (1773–1828) and Sophie Trébuchet (1772-1821). He had two older brothers called Abel Joseph Hugo (1798–1855) and Eugène Hugo (1800–1837). He was born in 1802, in Besançon (in the Doubs department). Hugo lived in France for most of his life. During the reign of Napoleon III he went into exile. In 1851, he lived in Belgium, in Brussels.He moved to Jersey in 1852. He stayed there until 1855 when he went to live in Guernseyuntil 1870. He lived there again in 1872-1873. From 1859, his exile was by choice. Some great events marked Hugo's early childhood. A few years before his birth, the Bourbon Dynasty was overthrown during the French Revolution. The First Republic rose and fell and the First French Empire rose under the rule of Napoléon Bonaparte. Napoléon became Emperor two years after Hugo's birth. The Bourbon Monarchy was restored when Hugo was 17. His parents had different political and religious views. Hugo's father was an off...

    François-René de Chateaubriand, the famous Romantic writer, influenced Hugo during the early 1800s. When Hugo was young, he said he would be Chateaubriand ou rien (“Chateaubriand or nothing”). Many things Chateaubriand did, Hugo copied. First, he defended the cause of Romanticism. Then, he became involved in politics and supported Republicanism. Finally, he was forced into exile because of his political views. Hugo's passion and eloquence in his early work made him successful and famous at an early age. His first collection of poetry (Odes et poésies diverses) was published in 1822. At the time, Hugo was only twenty years old. It earned him a royal pension (money from the king) from Louis XVIII. His poems were admired but it was his next collection, four years later in 1826 (Odes et Ballades) which revealed Hugo to be a great poet. Victor Hugo's first mature work of fiction appeared in 1829. It reflected his interest for society which appeared more often in his later work. Le Dernie...

    After three unsuccessful attempts, Hugo was finally elected to the Académie française in 1841, confirming his position in the world of French arts and letters. A group of French scholars, particularly Etienne de Jouy, were fighting against the "romantic evolution" and had managed to delay Victor Hugo's election. After that he became increasingly involved in French politics. He was raised to the peerage by King Louis-Philippe in 1841 and entered the Higher Chamber as a pair de France, where he spoke against the death penalty and social injustice, and in favour of freedom of the press and self-government for Poland. However, he was also becoming more supportive of the Republican form of government and, following the 1848 Revolution and the formation of the Second Republic, was elected to the Constitutional Assembly and the Legislative Assembly. When Louis Napoleon (Napoleon III) grabbed complete power in 1851, establishing an anti-parliamentary constitution, Hugo openly declared him a...

    Hugo's religious views changed radically over the course of his life. In his youth, he called himself as a Catholic and professed respect for Church hierarchy and authority. From there he became a non-practicing Catholic, and increasingly expressed anti-catholic views. He had a casual interest in Spiritualism during his exile (where he participated also in seances), and in later years settled into a Rationalist Deism similar to that espoused by Voltaire. A census-taker asked Hugo in 1872 if he was a Catholic, and he replied, "No. A Freethinker". Hugo never lost his antipathy towards the Roman Catholic Church, due largely to what he saw as the Church's indifference to the plight of the working class under the oppression of the monarchy; and perhaps also due to the frequency with which Hugo's work appeared on the Pope's list of "proscribed books" (Hugo counted 740 attacks on Les Misérables in the Catholic press). On the deaths of his sons Charles and François-Victor, he insisted that...

    Although Hugo's many talents did not include exceptional musical ability, he nevertheless had a great impact on the music world through the endless inspiration that his works provided for composers of the 19th and 20th century. Hugo himself particularly enjoyed the music of Gluck and Weber and greatly admired Beethoven, and rather unusually for his time, he also appreciated works by composers from earlier centuries such as Palestrina and Monteverdi. Two famous musicians of the 19th century were friends of Hugo: Berlioz and Liszt. The latter played Beethoven in Hugo’s home, and Hugo joked in a letter to a friend that thanks to Liszt’s piano lessons, he learned how to play a favourite song on the piano – even though only with one finger! Hugo also worked with composer Louise Bertin, writing the libretto for her 1836 opera La Esmeralda which was based on the character in The Hunchback of Notre Dame. Although for various reasons the opera closed soon after its fifth performance and is l...

    When Hugo returned to Paris in 1870, the country hailed him as a national hero. Despite his popularity Hugo lost his bid for reelection to the National Assembly in 1872. Within a brief period, he suffered a mild stroke, his daughter Adèle’s internment in an insane asylum, and the death of his two sons. (Adèle's biography inspired the movie The Story of Adele H.) His wife Adèle had died in 1868. His faithful mistress, Juliette Drouet, died in 1883, only two years before his own death. Despite his personal loss, Hugo remained committed to the cause of political change. On 30 January 1876 Hugo was elected to the newly created Senate. The last phase of his political career is considered a failure. Hugo took on the role of a maverick and got little done in the Senate. In February 1881 Hugo celebrated his 79th birthday. To honor the fact that he was entering his eightieth year, one of the greatest tributes to a living writer was held. The celebrations began on the 25th when Hugo was prese...

    Many are not aware that Hugo was almost as prolific in the visual arts as he was in literature, producing more than 4,000 drawings in his lifetime. Originally pursued as a casual hobby, drawing became more important to Hugo shortly before his exile, when he made the decision to stop writing in order to devote himself to politics. Drawing became his exclusive creative outlet during the period 1848-1851. Hugo worked only on paper, and on a small scale; usually in dark brown or black pen-and-ink wash, sometimes with touches of white, and rarely with color. The surviving drawings are surprisingly accomplished and "modern" in their style and execution, foreshadowing the experimental techniques of Surrealism and Abstract Expressionism. He would not hesitate to use his children's stencils, ink blots, puddles and stains, lace impressions, "pliage" or folding (i.e. Rorschach blots), "grattage" or rubbing, often using the charcoal from match sticks or his fingers instead of pen or brush. Some...

    The people of Guernsey built a statue in Candie Gardens (St. Peter Port) to commemorate his stay in the islands. The City of Paris has preserved his residences Hauteville House, Guernsey and 6, Place des Vosges as museums. The house where he stayed in Vianden, Luxembourg, in 1871 has also become a museum. Hugo is venerated as a saint in the Vietnamese religion of Cao Dai. The Avenue Victor-Hugo in the XVIème arrondissement of Paris bears Hugo's name, and links the Place de l'Étoile to the vicinity of the Bois de Boulogne by way of the Place Victor-Hugo. This square is served by a Paris Métro stop also named in his honor. A number of streets and avenues throughout France are likewise named after him. The school Lycée Victor Hugo was founded in his town of birth, Besançon in France. Avenue Victor-Hugo, in Shawinigan, Quebec, Canada, was named to honor him. In the city of Avellino, Italy, Victor Hugo briefly stayed in what is now known as Il Palazzo Culturale, when reuniting with his f...

    Published during Hugo's lifetime

    1. Odes et poésies diverses(1822) 2. Odes (Hugo)(1823) 3. Han d'Islande (1823) (Hans of Iceland) 4. Nouvelles Odes(1824) 5. Bug-Jargal(1826) 6. Nils Gunnar Lie's history(1826) 7. Odes et Ballades(1826) 8. Cromwell(1827) 9. Les Orientales(1829) 10. Le Dernier jour d'un condamné (1829) (The Last Day of a Condemned Man) 11. Hernani(1830) 12. Notre-Dame de Paris (1831), (The Hunchback of Notre Dame) 13. Marion Delorme(1831) 14. Les Feuilles d'automne(1831) 15. Le roi s'amuse(1832) 16. Lucrèce Bor...

    Published after Hugo's death

    1. Théâtre en liberté(1886) 2. La fin de Satan(1886) 3. Choses vues(1887) 4. Toute la lyre(1888) 5. Amy Robsart(1889) 6. Les Jumeaux(1889) 7. Actes et ParolesDepuis l'exil, 1876-1885 (1889) 8. Alpes et Pyrénées(1890) 9. Dieu(1891) 10. France et Belgique(1892) 11. Toute la lyre - dernière série(1893) 12. Les fromages(1895) 13. Correspondences - Tome I(1896) 14. Correspondences - Tome II(1898) 15. Les années funestes(1898) 16. Choses vues - nouvelle série(1900) 17. Post-scriptum de ma vie(1901)...

    Online texts

    1. Works by Victor Hugo at Project Gutenberg 2. Works by Victor Hugo at Internet Archive 3. Works by Victor Hugo at The Online Books Page 4. Political speeches by Victor Hugo: Victor Hugo, My Revenge is Fraternity! 5. Selected Poetry 6. Biography and speech from 1851 Archived 2007-08-08 at the Wayback Machine 7. Obituary in The Times

    Online references

    1. Afran, Charles (1997). “Victor Hugo: French Dramatist”. Website: Discover France. (Originally published in Grolier Multimedia Encyclopedia, 1997, v.9.0.1.) Retrieved November 2005. 2. Bates, Alfred (1906). “Victor Hugo”. Website: Theatre History. (Originally published in The Drama: Its History, Literature and Influence on Civilization, vol. 9. ed. Alfred Bates. London: Historical Publishing Company, 1906. pp. 11–13.) Retrieved November 2005. 3. Bates, Alfred (1906). “Hernani”. Website: The...

  10. Visuell poesi – Wikipedia › wiki › Visuell_poesi

    Visuell poesi är en vidareutveckling av konkret poesi. Den visuella poesin kombinerar text med icke-språkliga och visuella element, medan den grafiska formen hos texten står för det visuella innehållet i den konkreta poesin. Visuell poesi står som motsats till ljudpoesi, den andra ytterligheten på det poesitekniska spektrumet.

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