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    What does von Willebrand disease mean?

    What is the abbreviation for von Willebrand disease?

    Is von Willebrand disease hereditary?

  2. Are there any situations that pose an increased risk if my dog is affected? Ampicillin/Amoxicillin. Certain antihistamines. Certain antacid medications. Estrogens. Heparin. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs including aspirin (ASA), meloxicam (Metacam®), carprofen (Rimadyl®), and deracoxib ...

    • Background
    • Clinical Signs
    • Treatment
    • Laboratory Diagnosis
    • Inheritance

    von Willebrand Disease(abbreviated vWD) is an inherited bleeding disorder caused by lack of von Willebrand factor protein (vWF). This protein circulates in the blood stream and must be present at the site of blood vessel injury in order to control bleeding from that vessel. Von Willebrand disease is a distinct disorder, it is not hemophilia.

    Clinical signs of vWD range from a mild to severe bleeding tendency. Dogs may "carry" the vWD trait without expressing a bleeding tendency. Severe vWD causes spontaneous bleeding from the nose, mouth, and urinary, reproductive or intestinal tracts. Uncontrollable bleeding may occur after surgery. Dewclaw removal and teething may cause excessive bleeding in vWD-affected pups. Infections, endocrine disorders, and certain medications may exacerbate signs of bleeding in vWD-affected dogs.

    Treatment of a severe bleeding episode requires transfusion of canine blood products. There is no drug, vitamin, hormone, or dietary modification that can induce production of vWF. Bleeding from minor injuries may be controlled using sutures, bandages or wound glue. Affected dogs should not be given drugs that interfere with normal blood clotting mechanisms. These drugs include aspirin, sulfa-type antibiotics, and heparin.

    Laboratory diagnosis of vWD is most often based on results of von Willebrand factor antigen assay (abbreviated vWF:Ag). This test measures the amount or concentration of vWF in a blood sample. The Comparative Coagulation Section reports each dog's result as %vWF:Ag compared to a 100% standard. Dogs having low plasma vWF:Ag (below 50%) are at risk for transmitting or expressing the vWD trait. In general, the most severely affected dogs have marked reduction in plasma vWF:Ag, with values of less than 15%. The methods used to draw, process, and ship samples are important for accurate results. Samples containing clots or hemolysis (red cell breakdown) are the most likely to yield inaccurate or unreproducible results. Use of a standard sampling technique ensures optimum sample quality. Plasma vWF levels fluctuate from day to day in normal, healthy dogs. This fluctuation is exaggerated during pregnancy or heat in bitches, and in any dog having a systemic illness (especially liver disease...

    Inheritance and expression patterns of vWD differ between breeds. All males and females have 2 vWF genes, one inherited from dam and one from sire. In many breeds, the presence of 1 abnormal vWF gene appears sufficient to cause abnormal bleeding in some (but not all) dogs. Dogs having 2 abnormal genes express the most severe forms of vWD. Breeding Recommendations Use vWD diagnostic ranges as guidelines to reduce the prevalence of vWD within a family or line, without discriminating against all dogs in that line. Screening for vWD will ensure that no severely affected puppies are produced. Dogs that test in the normal range (vWF:Ag greater than 70%) are ideal for use in breeding programs. Matings between 2 vWD test-clear parents are predicted to produce only vWD clear pups. Progeny testing (testing parents and entire litter) is useful for confirming predicted genetic status based on a single vWF:Ag value. Progeny testing can help clarify the status of a borderline range parent. In som...

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    • 70 to 180
    • 50 to 69
    • Type 1: Airedale, Akita, Bernese Mountain Dog, Dachshund, Doberman Pinscher, German Shepherd, Golden Retriever,...
    • Type 2: German Shorthaired Pointer and German Wirehaired Pointer.
    • Type 3: Chesapeake Bay Retriever, Dutch Kooikerhondje, Scottish Terrier, Shetland Sheepdog, Blue Heeler, Border Collie,...
  3. Dog Breeds at High Risk for Having von Willebrand Disease German Shepherds Doberman Pinschers Standard Poodles Shetland Sheepdogs Golden Retrievers Chesapeake Bay Retrievers German Shorthaired Pointers Scottish Terriers Manchester Terrier Akita Pembroke Welsh Corgi Miniature Schnauzer Dutch Kooikers

  4. And just as VWD equally affects human males and females, can be diagnosed at any age, and is found in people of any race or ethnicity, any type of dog can have VWD—male or female, old or young, pure breed or mutt. Dogs also may be VWD carriers.

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