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  1. Władysław II Jagiełło - Wikipediaładysław_II_Jagiełło

    Władysław, however, bypassed his nobles and informed new Grand Master Ulrich von Jungingen that if the Knights acted to suppress Samogitia, Poland would intervene. This stung the Order into issuing a declaration of war against Poland on 6 August, which Władysław received on 14 August in Nowy Korczyn .

    • 4 March 1386
    • Algirdas
    • May 1377 – August 1381, 3/15 August 1382 – 1 June 1434
    • Władysław III
  2. Władysław I Herman - Wikipediaładysław_I_Herman

    Władysław was the second son of the Polish duke Casimir the Restorer and Maria Dobroniega of Kiev. As the second son, Władysław was not destined for the throne. However, due to the flight from Poland of his older brother Bolesław the Bold in 1079, he became duke of Poland.

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  4. Jagiellonian dynasty - Wikipedia

    In 1440 Władysław III assumed the Hungarian throne. Influenced by Julian Cesarini, the young king led the Hungarian army against the Ottomans in 1443 and again in 1444. Like Cesarini, Władysław III was killed at the Battle of Varna. Beginning toward the end of Jagiełło's life, Poland was practically governed by a magnate oligarchy led by Oleśnicki.

  5. Casimir III the Great - Wikipedia

    Casimir III the Great (Polish: Kazimierz III Wielki; 30 April 1310 – 5 November 1370) reigned as the King of Poland from 1333 to 1370. He was the third son of Władysław I the Elbow-high and Jadwiga of Kalisz, and the last Polish king from the Piast dynasty. Casimir inherited a kingdom weakened by war and made it prosperous and wealthy.

  6. Władysław Bartoszewski - Wikipedia

    Władysław Bartoszewski was a Polish politician, social activist, journalist, writer and historian. A former Auschwitz concentration camp prisoner, he was a World War II resistance fighter as part of the Polish underground and participated in the Warsaw Uprising. After the war he was persecuted and imprisoned by the communist Polish People's Republic due to his membership in the Home Army and opposition activity. After the collapse of the communist regime, Bartoszewski served twice as the ...

  7. Henry III of France | Historipedia Official Wiki | Fandom
    • Early Life
    • Polish-Lithuanian Reign
    • French Reign
    • References in Works of Fiction
    • References
    • External Links


    Henry was born at the royal Château de Fontainebleau, the fourth son of King Henry II and Catherine de' Medici and grandson of Francis I of France and Claude of France. His older brothers were Francis II of France, Charles IX of France, and Louis of Valois. He was made Duke of Angoulême and Duke of Orléans in 1560, then Duke of Anjouin 1566. He was his mother's favourite; she called him chers yeux ("precious eyes") and lavished fondness and affection upon him for most of his life. His elder b...


    In his youth, Henry was considered the best of the sons of Catherine de' Medici and Henry II[citation needed]. Unlike his father and elder brothers, he had little interest in the traditional Valois pastimes of hunting and physical exercise. Although he was both fond of fencing and skilled in it, he preferred to indulge his tastes for the arts and reading. These predilections were attributed to his Italian mother. At one point in his youth he showed a tendency towards Protestantism as a means...


    Reports that Henry engaged in same sex relations with his court favourites, known as the mignons, date back to his own time. Certainly he enjoyed intense relationships with them. The scholar Louis Crompton provides substantial contemporary evidence of Henry III's homosexuality, and the resulting problems at court and politics. Some modern historians dispute this. Jean-Francois Solnon, Nicolas Le Roux, and Jacqueline Boucherhave noted that Henry had many famous mistresses, that he was well kno...

    Following the death of the Polish ruler Sigismund II Augustus on 7 July 1572, Jean de Monluc was sent as the French envoy to Poland to negotiate the election of Henry to Polish throne in exchange for military support against Russia, diplomatic assistance in dealing with the Ottoman Empire, and financial subsidies. On 16 May 1573, Polish nobles chose Henry as the first elected monarch of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. The Lithuanian nobles boycotted this election, however, and it was left to the Lithuanian ducal council to confirm his election. Thus the Commonwealth elected Henry, rather than Habsburg candidates, partly in order to be more agreeable to the Ottoman Empire (a traditional ally of France through the Franco-Ottoman alliance) and strengthen a Polish-Ottoman alliancethat was also in effect. A Polish delegation went to La Rochelle to meet with Henry, who was leading the Siege of La Rochelle. Henry left the siege following their visit. In Paris, on 10 September, the Poli...

    Henry was crowned king of France on 13 February 1575 at Reims Cathedral. Although he was expected to produce an heir after he married Louise of Lorraineon 14 February 1575, no issue resulted from their union. In 1576, Henry signed the Edict of Beaulieu, which granted many concessions to the Huguenots. His action resulted in the Catholic activist Henry I, Duke of Guise, forming the Catholic League. After much posturing and negotiations, Henry was forced to rescind most of the concessions that had been made to the Protestants in the edict. In 1584, the King's youngest brother and heir presumptive, Francis, Duke of Anjou, died. Under Salic Law, the next heir to the throne was Protestant Henry of Navarre, a descendant of Louis IX(Saint Louis). Under pressure from the Duke of Guise, Henry III issued an edict suppressing Protestantism and annulling Henry of Navarre's right to the throne. On 12 May 1588, when the Duke of Guise entered Paris, an apparently spontaneous Day of the Barricadese...


    1. Pierre Matthieu, La Guisiade(1589)


    1. George Chapman, The Tragedy of Bussy D'Ambois (1607) and The Revenge of Bussy D'Ambois(1613) 2. John Dryden and Nathaniel Lee, The Duke of Guise(1683) 3. Alexandre Dumas, père's Henry III and His Court(1829) 4. Christopher Marlowe, The Massacre at Paris(1593)


    1. Alexandre Dumas, père's novels: La Reine Margot (1845), La Dame de Monsoreau (1846) and Les quarante-cinq(1847). 2. Alexandre Dumas Les deux Diane(1846) 3. Stanley Weyman, A Gentleman of France(1893), involves the events of Henry's reconciliation with the Huguenots and struggle against the Catholic League, leading to his assassination. 4. Template:IMDb title 5. Robert Merle Paris ma bonne ville(1980) 6. Robert Merle Le prince que voilà(1982) 7. Robert Merle La violente amour(1983) 8. Miche...

    Crawford, Katherine B., "Love, Sodomy, and Scandal: Controlling the Sexual Reputation of Henry III," Journal of the History of Sexuality, vol. 12 (2003), 513–42
    Durant, Will (1961). The Age of Reason Begins. VII. Simon and Schuster.
    Freer, Martha Walker (1888). Henry III, King of France and Poland: his court and times. New York: Dodd, Mead.
    Frieda, Leonie (2003). Catherine de Medici. New York: HarperCollins. Template:Citation/identifier.
  8. History of the Ukrainian minority in Poland - Wikipedia

    Since 1989, there has been a new wave of Ukrainian immigration to Poland, mostly consisting of jobseekers. According to the Ukrainian Ministry of Foreign Affairs, around 300,000 Ukrainian citizens work in Poland yearly. In recent years, the number of Ukrainian immigrants in Poland has grown considerably, numbering 1.3 million in 2016.

  9. History of Poland during the Piast dynasty - Wikipedia

    In 1313–1314, Władysław conquered Greater Poland. In 1320, he became the first king of Poland crowned in Kraków's Wawel Cathedral instead of Gniezno. The coronation was hesitantly agreed to by Pope John XXII in spite of the opposition of King John of Bohemia, who had also claimed the Polish crown. John undertook an expedition aimed at Kraków in 1327, which he was compelled to abort; in 1328, he waged a crusade against Lithuania, during which he formalized an alliance with the Teutonic ...

  10. Henry III of France - Wikipedia

    Henry III was interred at the Saint Denis Basilica. Childless, he was the longest-living of Henry II's sons to have become king and also the last of the Valois kings. Henry III of Navarre succeeded him as Henry IV, the first of the kings of the House of Bourbon. Arms

  11. Władysław II Jagiełło - WikiMili, The Best Wikipedia Readerładysław_II_Jagiełło

    Aug 31, 2020 · Jogaila ( Jogaila ), later Władysław II Jagiełło (Polish pronunciation: [vwaˈdɨswaf jaˈɡʲɛwːɔ] ( listen )) (c. 1352/1362 – 1 June 1434) was the Grand Duke of Lithuania (1377–1434) and then the King of Poland (1386–1434), first alongside his wife Jadwiga until 1399, and then sole King of Poland.