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  1. 98 Best Rulers of Poland images | Poland, Poland history, History

    Aug 30, 2013 - Explore Nancy Proctor's board "Rulers of Poland", followed by 191 people on Pinterest. See more ideas about Poland, Poland history, History.

  2. The Crusade of Varna
    • Prelude
    • The Crusader Army
    • The Ottoman Army
    • Movement
    • Tactics and Battle of Varna
    • The Death of The King
    • Aftermath

    The Ottoman Emperor Murad II was content with the current position and border of the empire. He believed that there was no force that could destabilize his European borders, so he abdicated from the throne in favor of his son. The young Mehmed sat on the throne of his father, while the old emperor went to Anatolia to rest after the long years of conquest and politics. The Crusaders (Hungary, Bohemia, Poland, Lithuania, Croatia, Moldova, Wallachia, Serbia, the Catholic Church, and the Bulgarians) saw in this a fair chance for them to gather their force again. Believing the young and inexperienced Sultan would have no chance against them, they organized a new expedition. Ther aim was to once and for all get rid of the Ottoman powers in the Balkan peninsula. The idea of the Crusade was immediately approved by the head of the Catholic Church.

    Commanders Force The main force of the Crusaders was around 15,000 men, mainly Hungarians, Polish, and Czechs. Around 7,000 more Wallachians under Vlad Dracul joined their force. The army also had in its midst Teutonic knights. The overall number of the force counted around 25-30,000 men.

    Commanders Seeing the rising power from the west, the young Sultan did understandably concerned. Persuaded by his advisers, Mehmed insisted upon the immediate return of his father, who complied with this command. Alongside the old sultan were the generals Kasim and Karadzha Pasha. Force The Ottoman force which was gathered to fight off the Crusader army was not as large as it could have been. However, even though they had to gather an army as quickly, it was still a considerable one. The mobilized units included Janissaries, Sipahi, and mercenaries from all over the Sultanate. The army Murad managed to gather was quite possibly twice as big as that of the Crusaders. Roughly, the Ottomans counted 40-50,000 men. However, Murad had another issue he had to deal with first and that was the movement. An allied force of Venetian, Papal, and Burgundian ships besieged the Dardanelles, forcing the Ottomans to pick another course. Nevertheless, Murad managed to go through the Bosphorus. He was...

    The Crusade, after all the preparations, started later than planned. It was already September before the army finally started their movement. This left them with just a few months before another harsh Balkan winter, which could kill all their efforts. Moreover, it was certainly next to no time for them to reconquer any lands before meeting with the Ottomans forces on the field. After the Crusaders had crossed the Danube it all went downhill. They did not manage to retake even a single city on their way. Thus they left the important fortresses of Vidin, Nicopolis, and Turnovo at their backs. The Crusaders were finally able to reconquer two important provinces. The Crusaders continued their march to the city of Varna. There they would’ve joined the naval forces of Venetia and the Papal contingent. Then Crusaders were looking forward to pushing the Ottomans out of Christian lands once and for all. On their way to Varna, the Crusaders went down on Via Pontica road, to speed up their adv...

    On November 9th, 1444, the forces of Murad had already won a significant tactical advantage. The road the Crusaders took was blocked and they were forced into an unfavorable position. A military council was called. Even though there were other suggestions, Hunyadi’s plan was accepted by Wladyslaw. Tactically it was a good strategy. They had two choices – to stay and defend their position or to lead a charge, break the Ottoman lines and join with the naval reinforcements. Hunyadi suggested exactly the latter, stating that a defense would not be possible to hold for long. Not only was winter coming, but they had little supplies, a poor defensive position, and no chance to join with the reinforcements if they chose to stay. Acting upon his plan, the Crusader army deployed their forces, ready to storm the Ottomans. Meanwhile, in the Ottoman camp, Murad was already confident that he would win. The former leader of the Ottoman Empire was familiar with Hunyadi’s thinking and expected the c...

    Wladyslaw saw Murad on the battlefield and charged on his steed to reach the enemy leader and defeat him. We could assume he hoped that if Murad fell killed by his hand the battle will be effectively over and won by the Crusaders. Unfortunately for him, his horse fell beneath him, leaving him on the ground and open to the enemy attack. King Władysław III was killed and, with his death, the Crusader’s last hope of victory was gone. The Ottomans quickly led a counter-attack and started massacring the already decimated Christian force. The last of the Crusader army survived only by the selfless effort of Hunyadi and his men. With extreme difficulty and at a cost of many lives, they withstood the counter-attack of the Ottomans and withdrew to Mizia.

    The casualties both sides suffered were immense. The Ottomans lost so many of their force that Murad allowed the remaining Crusaders go. The former Sultan chose to give his men three days rest before renewing military actions to recapture the lands taken by the Crusaders. The defeat of the Crusaders near Varna has a serious impact on the Christian countries. Four more years would pass before the Hunyadi could gather another force strong enough to fight the Ottomans. With this battle, however, the Ottomans successfully removed their strongest enemies. Subsequently, large territories were made vassal to the Ottomans and their power on the Peninsula lasted for centuries. Bibliography: 1. Kyumyudzhiev, The Great Battle of Nations – Varna, 1444. National Geographic 2. Bozhilov and Vasilev, History of Medieval Bulgaria, 1999, Publisher: “Anubis.” 3. J.Smith, The Crusades: A History, 2005 Bloomsbury Academic

  3. 40 Best Polish Consorts images | Poland, History, Poland history

    Aug 26, 2012 - Spouses of the Monarchs of Poland. See more ideas about Poland, History, Poland history.

  4. The Truth behind Christopher Columbus’s Polish Roots ...

    The twelve-toed king. It is told that 15 th-century Polish King Władysław III had six toes on each foot.He was also the son of the great Polish king Władysław Jagiełło, who defeated the Teutonic Order in the famous battle of Grunwald, and ruled over a mighty empire that ranged from the Baltic to the Black Sea.

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  6. Royal Castle in Warsaw Poland

    (Zygmunt III.) ordered the expansion shortly after Warsaw became the capitol of Poland in 1596. Later the castle was expanded several times. King Wladyslaw IV. built the Wladyslawowska Tower (in the courtyard) and King August III remodeled the outside of the castle facing towards the Vistula and the wing facing towards the north.

  7. Kingdom Of Poland Coins By Century (963 - 1586) - Page 5 ...

    Lviv (Lwow in Polish, Lemberg in German) came under Polish rule in 1340 under Kazimierz III, and remained part of Poland and the Polish-Lithuanian comonwealth until the first partition of Poland in 1772. I have no coins from this mint in my collection.

  8. Poland - Daily life and social customs | Britannica

    Poland - Poland - Daily life and social customs: Because of rapid industrialization and urbanization, as well as a certain distrust of rural conservatism during the years of communist rule, Poland’s traditional folk culture has been seriously undermined since World War II. Regional dress, regional dialects and forms of speech, peasant arts and crafts, and religious and folk festivals have ...

  9. Kingdom Of Poland Coins By Century (963 - 1586) - Coin ...

    Sept.28- Oct.5 - 12th and 13th c. (Boleslaw III to Wenceslaus of Bohemia) Oct.5-12 - 14th c. and to 1434 (Wladyslaw Lokietek to Wladyslaw Jagiello) Oct. 12-19 - 15th c. (Wladyslaw III of Varna to Jan Olbracht) Oct. 19-26 - 1501 to 1546 (Alexander and Zygmunt/Sigismund I) Oct. 26-Nov.2 - 1547 to 1586 (Zygmunt/Sigismund II to Stefan Batory.

  10. Poland - Languages | Britannica

    Poland - Poland - Languages: The country’s official language, Polish (together with other Lekhitic languages and Czech, Slovak, and Upper and Lower Sorbian), belongs to the West Slavic branch of Slavic languages. It has several dialects that correspond in the main to the old tribal divisions; the most significant of these (in terms of numbers of speakers) are Great Polish (spoken in the ...

  11. Sep 12, 2020 · Poland, country of central Europe. It is located at a geographic crossroads that links the forested lands of northwestern Europe to the sea lanes of the Atlantic Ocean and the fertile plains of the Eurasian frontier. Poland’s capital city is Warsaw, and other important cities include Krakow and Gdansk.