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Legnica is a city in southwestern Poland, in the central part of Lower Silesia, on the Kaczawa River and the Czarna Woda. Between 1 June 1975 and 31 December 1998 Legnica was the capital of the Legnica Voivodeship. It is currently the seat of the county and since 1992 the city has been the seat of a Diocese. As of 2019, Legnica had a population of 99,350 inhabitants. The city was first referenced in chronicles dating from the year 1004, although previous settlements could be traced back to the 7
Dec 30, 2018 · Bolesław III the Generous (Polish: Bolesław III Rozrzutny; b. 23 September 1291 - d. Brieg, 21 April 1352), was a Duke of Legnica, Brzeg (Brieg) since 1296 until 1342, and Duke of Wroclaw since 1296 until 1311. He was the eldest son of Henry V the Fat, Duke of Legnica and Wroclaw, by his wife Elisabeth, daughter of Boleslaw the Pious, Duke of Greater Poland.
Natalia Tułasiewicz (1906–1945), Layperson of the Archdiocese of Poznań (Rzeszów, Poland – Oberhavel, Germany) Władysław Goral (1898–1945), Titular Bishop of Meloë in Isauria; Auxiliary Bishop of Lublin (Lubelskie, Poland – Oranienburg, Germany) Declared "Venerable": March 26, 1999; Beatified: June 13, 1999 by Pope John Paul II
Ziółek, Władysław (85), Metropolitan Archbishop emeritus of Łódź Bishops (125) Bab , Adam Piotr (46) , Titular Bishop of Arna and Auxiliary Bishop of Lublin ( Poland )
Ingo Kober (born 22 July 1942 in Liegnitz, now Legnica in Poland) was the third president of the European Patent Office. After completing his legal studies After completing his legal studies 1570 (992 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
- Ethnic Cleansing
- Number of Victims
- Question of Genocide
- See Also
- Further Reading
- External Links
Polish-Ukrainian tensions dated back several hundred years, with territorial, religious, and social dimensions, especially the Khmelnytsky Uprising of the 17th century, persisting in the national memories of both groups. While relations were not always harmonious, Poles and Ukrainians interacted with each other on every civic, economic, and political level throughout hundreds of years. With the rise of nationalism in the 19th century, the ethnicity of citizens became an issue, and the conflicts erupted anew after the First World War. Both Poles and Ukrainians claimed the territories of Volhynia and Eastern Galicia. The political conflicts escalated in the Second Polish Republic during the interwar period, particularly in the 1930s as a result of a cycle of paramilitary activity by the Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists, formed in Poland, and the ensuing state repressions. Collective punishmentmeted out to thousands of mostly innocent peasants exacerbated animosity between the Po...
Only one group of Ukrainian nationalists, OUN-B under Mykola Lebed and then Roman Shukhevych, intended to ethnically cleanse Volhynia of Poles. Taras Bulba-Borovets, the founder of the Ukrainian People's Revolutionary Army, rejected this idea and condemned the anti-Polish massacres when they started. After Hitler's attack on the Soviet Union, both the Polish Government in Exile and the Ukrainian OUN-B considered the possibility that in the event of mutually exhaustive attrition warfare betwee...
In late 1943 and early 1944, after most Poles in Volhynia had either been murdered or had fled the area, the conflict spread to the neighboring province of Galicia, where the majority of the population was still Ukrainian, but where the Polish presence was strong. Unlike in the case of Volhynia, where Polish villages were usually destroyed and their inhabitants murdered without warning, in east Galicia Poles were sometimes given the choice of fleeing or being killed. An order by an UPA comman...
German and Soviet involvement
While Germans actively encouraged the conflict, for most of the time they attempted to not get directly involved. However, there are reports[by whom?]of Germans supplying weapons to both Ukrainians and Poles. Special German units formed from collaborationist Ukrainian, and later Polish auxiliary police were deployed in pacification actions in Volhynia, and some of their crimes were attributed to either the Polish Home Army or the Ukrainian UPA. According to Yuriy Kirichuk the Germans were act...
The death toll among civilians murdered during the Volhynia Massacre is still being researched. At least 10% of ethnic Poles in Volhynia were killed during this time by the UPA. Accordingly, "Polish casualties comprised about 1% of the prewar population of Poles on territories where the UPA was active and 0.2% of the entire ethnically Polish population in Ukraine and Poland." Łossowski emphasizes that documentation is far from conclusive, as in numerous cases there were no survivors who would...
Ukrainian casualties at the hands of Poles are estimated at 2,000-20,000 in Volhynia and 1,000-20,000 for Eastern Galicia. For all areas affected by conflict, the Ukrainian casualties are estimated as from 10,000 to 30,000 between 1943 and 1947. However, according to G.Motyka, the estimation of 30,000 Ukrainian casualties is baseless. Ukrainian deaths also include those which occurred during Operation Vistula.Timothy Snyder states that it is likely the UPA killed as many Ukrainians as it did...
According to Gregorz Motyka, author of a fundamental monograph about the UPA,estimations of 30,000 Ukrainian casualties are unsupported.
The Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists(OUN), of which the Ukrainian Insurgent Army would have become the armed wing, promoted removal, by force if necessary, of non-Ukrainians from the social and economic spheres of a future Ukrainian state. The Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists adopted in 1929 the Ten Commandments of the Ukrainian Nationalists, which all members of the Organization were expected to adhere to. This Decaloguestated "Do not hesitate to carry out the most dangerous deeds" and "Treat the enemies of your nation with hatred and ruthlessness". The decision to ethnically cleanse the area East of Bug River was taken by the Ukrainian Insurgent Army early in 1943. In March 1943, OUN(B) (specifically Mykola Lebed) imposed a collective death sentence of all Poles living in the former eastern part of the Second Polish Republic and a few months later local units of the UPA were instructed to complete the operation with haste. The decision to cleanse the territory of its P...
The question of official acknowledgment of the ethnic cleansing remains a matter of a discussion between Polish and Ukrainian historians and political leaders. Efforts are ongoing to bring about reconciliation between Poles and Ukrainians regarding these tragic events. The Polish side has made steps towards reconciliation. In 2002 president Aleksander Kwaśniewski expressed regret over the resettlement program, known as Operation Vistula, stating that "The infamous Operation Vistula is a symbol of the abominable deeds perpetrated by the communist authorities against Polish citizens of Ukrainian origin." He states that the argument that "Operation Vistula was the revenge for the slaughter of Poles by the Ukrainian Insurgent Army" in 1943-1944, was "fallacious and ethically inadmissible," as it invoked "the principle of collective guilt." The Ukrainian government has not yet issued an apology. On July 11, 2003, presidents Aleksander Kwaśniewski and Leonid Kuchma attended a ceremony hel...
The Institute of National Remembrance investigated the crimes committed by the UPA against the Poles in Volhynia, Galicia, and prewar Lublin Voivodeship; collecting over 10,000 pages of documents and protocols. The massacres are classified by the Commission prosecutor Piotr Zając as having character of genocide. According to Zając, "there is no doubt that the crimes committed against the people of Polish nationality have the character of (...) genocide". On 15 July 2009 the Sejm of the Republic of Polandunanimously adopted a resolution regarding "the tragic fate of Poles in Eastern Borderlands". The text of the resolution states that July 2009 marks the 66th anniversary "of the beginning of anti-Polish actions by the Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists and the Ukrainian Insurgent Army on Polish Eastern territories - mass murders characterised by ethnic cleansing with marks of genocide." However, according to Katchanovski, the actions which occurred in Volhynia cannot be classifie...(English) Subtelny, Orest (1988). Ukraine: A History. Toronto: University of Toronto Press. ISBN 0-8020-5808-6.(English) Filip Ożarowski Wolyn Aflame, Publishing House WICI, 1977, ISBN 0-9655488-1-3.(English) Wiktor Poliszczuk "Bitter truth": The criminality of the Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists (OUN) and the Ukrainian Insurgent Army (UPA), the testimony of a Ukrainian, ISBN 0-9699444-9-7(English) Tadeusz Piotrowski: Genocide and Rescue in Wolyn: Recollections of the Ukrainian Nationalist Ethnic Cleansing Campaign Against the Poles During World War II, McFarland & Company, 2000, IS...Timothy Snyder. (2003). The Causes of Ukrainian-Polish Ethnic Cleansing 1943,The Past and Present Society: Oxford University Press.Timothy Snyder. (2003). The Reconstruction of Nations, New Haven: Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-09569-4Piotrowski, Tadeusz (2000). Genocide and Rescue in Wolyn. McFarland. ISBN 0-7864-0773-5.Niedzielko, Romuald (2007) (in Polish). Kresowa księga sprawiedliwych 1939–1945. O Ukraińcach ratujących Polaków poddanych eksterminacji przez OUN i UPA. Warszawa: IPN. ISBN 978-83-60464-61-8.(Polish) The Polish Institute of National Membrance, Ewa Siemaszko, Balance of the crime(Polish) Pictures from massacres. Association Commemorating Victims of the Crime of Ukrainian nationalists(Ukrainian)
New Listing SIGNED 1924 WATERCOLOR STILL LIFE PAINTING POLAND POLISH. $39.99. Time left 9d ... Old Xylographie Um 1860 Legnica Poland. ... From Germany. or Best Offer ...
The Battle of Legnica (bitwa pod Legnicą), also known as the Battle of Liegnitz (Schlacht von Liegnitz) or Battle of Wahlstatt (Schlacht bei Wahlstatt), was a battle between the Mongol Empire and the combined defending forces of European fighters that took place at Legnickie Pole (Wahlstatt) near the city of Legnica in the Silesia province of ...
Bishop Zbigniew Kiernikowski, Bishop of Legnica, Poland Bishop Józef Tadeusz Kierski †, Bishop of Przemyśl , Poland Archbishop Henryk Kietlicz †, Archbishop of Gniezno , Poland
The Year of Our Lord 1963 Bishop Events May to June. See Also: January to February | March to April | July to August | September to October | November to December | Overview | Diocese Events | Necrology | Previous Year (1962) | Next Year (1964)
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