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Wallachia or Walachia ( Romanian: Țara Românească, lit. 'The Romanian Land' or 'The Romanian Country', pronounced [ˈt͡sara romɨˈne̯askə]; archaic: Țeara Rumânească, Romanian Cyrillic alphabet: Цѣра Рꙋмѫнѣскъ) is a historical and geographical region of Romania. It is situated north of the Lower Danube and south of the ...
Wallachia is situated north of the Danube (and of present-day Serbia and Bulgaria) and south of the Southern Carpathians, and is traditionally divided between Muntenia in the east (as the political center, Muntenia is often understood as being synonymous with Wallachia), and Oltenia (a former banat) in the west. (A Banate was a tributary state, usually of Hungary.) The division line between the two is the Olt River. Wallachia's traditional border with Moldavia coincided with the Milcov River for most of its length. To the east, over the Danube north-south bend, Wallachia neighbors Dobruja). Over the Carpathians, Wallachia shared a border with Transylvania. Wallachian princes have for long held possession of areas north of this line (Amlaş, Ciceu, Făgăraş, and Haţeg), which are generally not considered part of Wallachia-proper. The capital city changed over time, from Câmpulung to Curtea de Argeş, then to Târgovişte and, after the late 1500s, to Bucharest.
From Roman rule to the state's establishment
In the Second Dacian War (105 C.E.) western Oltenia became part of the Roman province of Dacia, with parts of Wallachia included in the Moesia Inferior province. The Roman limeswas initially built along the Olt River (119), before being moved slightly to the east in the second century—during which time it stretched from the Danube up to Rucăr in the Carpathians. The Roman line fell back to the Olt in 245, and, in 271, the Romans pulled out of the region. The area was subject to Romanization s...
One of the first written pieces of evidence of local voivodes (commanders) is in connection with Litovoi (1272), who ruled over land each side of the Carpathians (including Făgăraş in Transylvania), and refused to pay tribute to the Hungarian King Ladislaus IV. His successor was his brother Bărbat (1285-1288). The continuing weakening of the Hungarian state by further Mongol invasions (1285-1319) and the fall of the Árpád dynastyopened the way for the unification of Wallachian polities, and t...
Initially profiting from Ottoman support, Michael the Brave ascended to the throne in 1593, and attacked the troops of Murad III north and south of the Danube in an alliance with Transylvania's Sigismund Báthory and Moldavia's Aron Vodă. He soon placed himself under the suzerainty of Rudolf II, the Holy Roman Emperor, and, in 1599-1600, intervened in Transylvania against Poland's king Sigismund III Vasa, placing the region under his authority; his brief rule also extended to Moldavia later in...
Situated at a cultural and civilizational crossroads, Wallachian culture, like that of the rest of Romania, is a blend of different influences, including Slav, Saxon, Ukrainian, Roman, Gypsy and Turkish. While hostility towards the powers and cultures that conquered the region over the years fed a strong desire for self-determination, animosity did not always characterize relationships. In many respects, Wallachia also bridged-cultures and created a space where exchange took place between different peoples. Conflict was often at the level of the princes and leaders, while life at the local level went on regardless of who was winning or losing on the battlefield. At the local level, people valued what they saw as useful or as beautiful in the different cultures that impacted their lives. Thus, When the story of inter-civilizations relations is told, periods of fruitful exchange and even of peaceful coexistence (not infrequently under some form of imperial rule, must not be neglected....East, W. Gordon. 1973. The Union of Moldavia and Wallachia, 1859; an Episode in Diplomatic History. New York, NY: Octagon Books. ISBN 9780374924508.Florescu, Radu, and Raymond T. McNally. 1974. Dracula: A Biography of Vlad the Impaler, 1431-1476. London, UK: Hale. ISBN 9780709146148.Hentea, Călin. 2007. Brief Romanian Military History. Lanham, MD: Scarecrow Press. ISBN 9780810858206.Panaite, Viorel. 2000. The Ottoman Law of War and Peace: The Ottoman Empire and Tribute Payers. East European monographs, no. 562. Boulder, CO: East European Monographs. ISBN 9780880334617.
Wallachia's unique mix of historical and natural attractions promises a different experience each day. Discover heritage buildings and museums in the capital city, enjoy day trips to a royal palace or century-old monastery, hike the mountains or follow Brancusi's art trail - the choice is yours.
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The name Wallachia, generally not used by Romanians themselves (but present in some contexts as Valahia or Vlahia), is derived from the word "walha" used by Germanic peoples to describe Celts, and later romanized Celts and all Romance-speaking people. In northwest Europe this gave rise to Wales, Cornwall, Wallonia, among others, while in Southeast Europe it evolved into the ethnonym Valach, used to designate Germanic speakers' Romance-speaking neighbours, and subsequently taken over by Slavic-speakers to refer to Romanians, with variants such as Vlach, Blach, Bloc, Bloh, Boloh etc.—see also: Vlachs. In the early Middle Ages, in Slavonic texts, the name of Zemli Ungro-Vlahiskoi (Земли Унгро-Влахискои or "Hungaro-Wallachian Land") was also used as a designation for its location. The term, translated in Romanian as "Ungrovalahia", remained in use up to the modern era in a religious context, referring to the Romanian Orthodox Metropolitan seat of Hungaro-Wallachia, in contrast to Thessa...
In the Second Dacian War (105 AD) western Oltenia became part of the Roman province of Dacia, with parts of Wallachia included in the Moesia Inferior province. The Roman limes was initially built along the Olt River (119), before being moved slightly to the east in the 2nd century—during which time it stretched from the Danube up to Rucărin the Carpathians. The Roman line fell back to the Olt in 245 and, in 271, the Romans pulled out of the region. The area was subject to Romanization also du...
Early Middle Ages
Byzantine influence is evident during the 5th to 6th century, such as the site at Ipoteşti-Cândeşti, but from the second half of the 6th century and in the 7th century Slavic peoples crossed the territory of Wallachia and settled in it, on their way to Byzantium, occupying the southern bank of the Danube. In 593, the Byzantine commander-in-chief Priscus defeated Slavs, Avars and Gepids on future Wallachian territory, and, in 602, Slavs suffered a crucial defeat in the area; Flavius Mauricius...
One of the first written pieces of evidence of local voivodes is in connection with Litovoi (1272), who ruled over land each side of the Carpathians (including Hațeg Country in Transylvania), and refused to pay tribute to the Hungarian King Ladislaus IV. His successor was his brother Bărbat (1285–1288). The continuing weakening of the Hungarian state by further Mongol invasions (1285–1319) and the fall of the Árpád dynastyopened the way for the unification of Wallachian polities, and to indep...
Slavery (Romanian language: robie) was part of the social order from before the founding of the Principality of Wallachia, until it was abolished in stages during the 1840s and 1850s. Most of the slaves were of Roma (Gypsy) ethnicity. The very first document attesting the presence of Roma people in Wallachia dates back to 1385, and refers to the group as aţigani (from, athiganoi a Greek-language word for "heretics", and the origin of the Romanian term ţigani, which is synonymous with "Gypsy"). The exact origins of slavery are not known. Slavery was a common practice in Europe at the time, and there is some debate over whether the Romani people came to Wallachia as free men or as slaves. In the Byzantine Empire, they were slaves of the state and it seems the situation was the same in Bulgaria and Serbia until their social organization was destroyed by the Ottoman conquest, which would suggest that they came as slaves who had a change of 'ownership'. Historian Nicolae Iorga associated...
With an area of approximately 77,000 km2 (30,000 sq mi), Wallachia is situated north of the Danube (and of present-day Bulgaria), east of Serbia and south of the Southern Carpathians, and is traditionally divided between Muntenia in the east (as the political center, Muntenia is often understood as being synonymous with Wallachia), and Oltenia(a former banat) in the west. The division line between the two is the Olt River. Wallachia's traditional border with Moldavia coincided with the Milcov River for most of its length. To the east, over the Danube north-south bend, Wallachia neighbours Dobruja (Northern Dobruja). Over the Carpathians, Wallachia shared a border with Transylvania; Wallachian princes have for long held possession of areas north of the line (Amlaş, Ciceu, Făgăraş, and Haţeg), which are generally not considered part of Wallachia-proper. The capital city changed over time, from Câmpulung to Curtea de Argeş, then to Târgovişteand, after the late 17th century, to Bucharest.
Contemporary historians estimate the populatian of Wallachia in the 15th century, at 500,000 people. In 1859, the population of Wallachia was 2,400,921 (1,586,596 in Muntenia and 814,325 in Oltenia).
According to the latest 2002 census data, the region has a total population of approximately 8,750,000 inhabitants, distributed among the ethnic groups as follows: Romanians (97%), Roma(2.5%), others (0.5%).
The largest cities (as per the 2011 census) in the Wallachia region are: 1. Bucharest (1,677,985) 2. Craiova(243,765) 3. Ploieşti (197,522) 4. Brăila(168,389) 5. Piteşti(148,264) 6. Buzău(108,384) 7. Râmnicu Vâlcea(92,573) 8. Drobeta-Turnu Severin(86,475)History of BucharestList of rulers of WallachiaVlachsBerza, Mihai. "Haraciul Moldovei şi al Ţării Româneşti în sec. XV–XIX", in Studii şi Materiale de Istorie Medie, II, 1957, p. 7–47Djuvara, Neagu. Între Orient şi Occident. Ţările române la începutul epocii moderne, Humanitas, Bucharest, 1995Giurescu, Constantin. Istoria Bucureştilor. Din cele mai vechi timpuri pînă în zilele noastre, Ed. Pentru Literatură, Bucharest, 1966Ştefănescu, Ştefan. Istoria medie a României, Vol. I, Bucharest, 1991(Romanian) Giurescu, Constantin. Istoria Românilor, Vol. I, 5th edition, Bucharest, 1946
Walachia, also spelled Wallachia, Romanian Țara Românească, Turkish Eflak, principality on the lower Danube River, which in 1859 joined Moldavia to form the state of Romania. Its name is derived from that of the Vlachs, who constituted the bulk of its population. Walachia was bounded on the north and northeast by the Transylvanian Alps, on ...
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Wallachia, in reality, is a region of Europe south of Transylvania and north of Bulgaria. Now part of Romania, Wallachia was in the Middle Ages an independent principality. One of its rulers, Vlad III Drăculea, lent his surname to Bram Stoker's fictional vampire.