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  1. Warsaw Pact - Wikipedia › wiki › Warsaw_Pact

    The Warsaw Treaty Organization (WTO), officially the Treaty of Friendship, Cooperation and Mutual Assistance, commonly known as the Warsaw Pact (WP), was a collective defense treaty signed in Warsaw, Poland between the Soviet Union and seven other Eastern Bloc socialist republics of Central and Eastern Europe in May 1955, during the Cold War.

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    • Warsaw, Poland
  2. The Warsaw Pact was a collective defence treaty established by the Soviet Union and seven other Soviet satellite states in Central and Eastern Europe: Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary, Poland and Romania (Albania withdrew in 1968). Formally known as the Treaty of Friendship, Co-operation and Mutual Assistance, the Warsaw ...

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  4. Warsaw Pact: Definition, History, and Significance › warsaw-pact-4178983
    • Warsaw Pact Countries
    • Warsaw Pact History
    • The Warsaw Pact During The Cold War
    • End of The Cold War and The Warsaw Pact

    The original signatories to the Warsaw Pact treaty were the Soviet Union and the Soviet satellite nations of Albania, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Bulgaria, Romania, and the German Democratic Republic. Seeing the NATO Western Bloc as a security threat, the eight Warsaw Pact nations all pledged to defend any other member nation or nations that came under attack. The member nations also agreed to respect each other’s national sovereignty and political independence by not intervening in each other’s internal affairs.In practice, however, the Soviet Union, due to its political and military dominance in the region, indirectly controlled most of the governments of the seven satellite nations.

    In January 1949, the Soviet Union had formed “Comecon,” the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance, an organization for the post-World War II recovery and advancement of the economies of the eight communist nations of Central and Eastern Europe. When West Germany joined NATO on May 6, 1955, the Soviet Union viewed the growing strength of NATO and a freshly rearmed West Germany as a threat to communist control. Just one week later, on May 14, 1955, the Warsaw Pact was established as a mutual military defense complement of the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance. The Soviet Union hoped the Warsaw Pact would help it contain West Germany and allow it to negotiate with NATO on a level playing field of power. In addition, Soviet leaders hoped a unified, multilateral political and military alliance would help them reign in the growing civil unrest in Eastern European countries by strengthening the ties between the Eastern European capitals and Moscow.

    Fortunately, the closest the Warsaw Pact and NATO ever came to actual war against each other during the Cold War years from 1995 to 1991 was the 1962 Cuban Missile Crisis. Instead, Warsaw Pact troops were more commonly used for maintaining communist rule within the Eastern Bloc itself. When Hungary tried to withdraw from the Warsaw Pact in 1956, Soviet troops entered the country and removed the Hungarian People’s Republic government. Soviet troops then put down the nationwide revolution, killing an estimated 2,500 Hungarian citizens in the process. In August 1968, approximately 250,000 Warsaw Pact troops from the Soviet Union, Poland, Bulgaria, East Germany, and Hungary invaded Czechoslovakia. The invasion was triggered by Soviet leader Leonid Brezhnev’s concerns when the Czechoslovakian government of political reformer Alexander Dubček restored freedom of the press and ended government surveillance of the people. Dubček’s so-called “Prague Spring” of freedom ended after Warsaw Pact...

    Between 1968 and 1989, Soviet control over the Warsaw Pact satellite nations slowly eroded. Public discontent had forced many of their communist governments from power. During the 1970s, a period of détentewith the United States lowered tensions between the Cold War superpowers. In November 1989, the Berlin Wall came down and communist governments in Poland, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Romania, and Bulgaria started to fall. Within the Soviet Union itself, the “openness” and “restructuring” political and social reforms of glasnost and perestroika under Mikhail Gorbachevforetold the eventual collapse of the USSR’s communist government As the end of the Cold War neared, troops of the once-communist Warsaw Pact satellite states of Poland, Czechoslovakia and Hungary fought alongside U.S.-led forces to liberate Kuwait in the First Gulf Warin 1990. On July 1, 1991, Czechoslovak President, Vaclav Havel formally declared the Warsaw Pact disbanded after 36 years of military allianc...

  5. The Warsaw Pact is formed - HISTORY › the-warsaw-pact-is-formed

    Nov 13, 2009 · The Warsaw Pact, so named because the treaty was signed in Warsaw, included the Soviet Union, Albania, Poland, Romania, Hungary, East Germany, Czechoslovakia and Bulgaria as members.

  6. Warsaw Pact - WorldAtlas › articles › warsaw-pact
    • Formation of The Warsaw Pact
    • Structure of The Warsaw Pact
    • Dissolution of The Warsaw Pact

    As its name implies, the Warsaw Pact was established in Warsaw, the capital of Poland. It was actually called the Warsaw Treaty Organization, though it was commonly referred to as the Warsaw Pact, at least in the West. According to the introduction of the Warsaw Treaty, the military alliance was formed in response to the decision of the Western powers to allow West Germany to arm itself again, for the first time since World War II, and include it as part of NATO. The Warsaw Pact was comprised of 8 countries: the Soviet Union, Albania, Poland, Romania, Hungary, East Germany, Czechoslovakia, and Bulgaria. All of these countries were communist states. In addition to being a response to the possibility of a rearmed West Germany, the Warsaw Pact was also meant to be a counterbalance against NATO. The idea was that the communist military alliance could contain NATO and also make it so that the communist bloc could negotiate with the West on an equal footing. Like NATO, the Warsaw Pact inc...

    The Warsaw Pact supposedly put mechanisms in place that allowed for collective decision-making. The real power in the Warsaw Pact, however, lay in the hands of the Soviet Union. In fact, the communist military alliance effectively put all the military forces of its member countries under Soviet command. Other members of the alliance were excluded from peacetime regional strategic-operational commands. They also had no say on the use of nuclear weapons, and held none of the key command posts. The only matter in which the other members of the Warsaw Pact had any input was the conduct of joint maneuvers and military exercises. There were both positive and negative aspects of Soviet dominance over the communist military alliance in terms of any possible armed conflict with the West. The positive aspect was that decisions in the Warsaw Pact could be made more efficiently than in NATO, where decisions DO have to be made collectively among its members. At the same time, however, without th...

    The Warsaw Pact remained intact until 1991, though Albania was expelled from the alliance in 1962, when its regime disagreed with the leadership of the USSR on matters concerning communist ideology. By the 1980s, however, the Warsaw Pact started to crack with the rise of non-communist, pro-democracy movements in the alliance’s member states. In addition, the members of the military alliance were suffering from economic hardships. By the late 1980s, political changes in most of the Warsaw Pact’s member states made the military alliance virtually ineffective. The first country to pull out of the communist alliance was East Germany. In September of 1990, communist East Germany ceased to exist, merging with West Germany, following the fall of the Berlin Wall a year prior. After East Germany left the Warsaw Pact, the leaders of Czechoslovakia and Poland expressed their desire to leave the alliance. By October of 1990, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, and Poland had withdrawn from all the joint m...

  7. Warsaw Pact Treaty May 14, 1955 - Wilson Center › document › 123891

    Warsaw Pact Treaty Citation: “Warsaw Pact Treaty,” May 14, 1955, History and Public Policy Program Digital Archive, American Foreign Policy, 1950-1955: Basic Documents Vol 1, Department of State Publication 6446, General Foreign Policy Series 117 (Washington, DC : Government Printing Office, 19).

  8. The Warsaw Pact. The Warsaw Pact was established in 1955. It was a military alliance of communist countries. It relied on the theory of collective security – if one Warsaw Pact member state was ...

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