Eventually, seven countries came together to form the Warsaw Pact:
- Albania (until 1968)
- East Germany (until 1990)
- The Soviet Union
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- History of The Pact
- Invasion of Czechoslovakia
- End of The Pact
After World War II, the Soviet Union sought to control as much of Central and Eastern Europe as it could. In the 1950s, West Germany was rearmed and allowed to join NATO. The countries that bordered West Germany were fearful that it would again become a military power, as it had been just a few years earlier. This fear caused Czechoslovakia to attempt to create a security pact with Poland and East Germany. Eventually, seven countries came together to form the Warsaw Pact: 1. Albania (until 1968) 2. Bulgaria 3. Czechoslovakia 4. East Germany (until 1990) 5. Hungary 6. Poland 7. Romania 8. The Soviet Union The Warsaw Pact lasted for 36 years. In all of that time, there was never a direct conflict between the organization and NATO. However, there were many proxy wars, especially between the Soviet Union and the United States in places such as Koreaand Vietnam.
On Aug. 20, 1968, 250,000 Warsaw Pact troops invaded Czechoslovakia in what was known as Operation Danube. During the operation, 108 civilians were killed and another 500 were wounded by the invading troops. Only Albania and Romania refused to participate in the invasion. East Germany did not send troops to Czechoslovakia but only because Moscow ordered its troops to stay away. Albania eventually left the Warsaw Pact because of the invasion. The military action was an attempt by the Soviet Union to oust Czechoslovakia's Communist Party leader Alexander Dubcek whose plans to reform his country did not align with the Soviet Union's wishes. Dubcek wanted to liberalize his nation and had many plans for reforms, most of which he was unable to initiate. Before Dubcek was arrested during the invasion, he urged citizens not to resist militarily because he felt that presenting a military defense would have meant exposing the Czech and Slovak peoples to a senseless bloodbath. This sparked man...
Between 1989 and 1991, the Communist parties in most of the countries in the Warsaw Pact were ousted. Many of the Warsaw Pact's member nations considered the organization to be essentially defunct in 1989 when none assisted Romania militarily during its violent revolution. The Warsaw Pactformally existed for another couple of years until 1991—just months before the USSR disbanded—when the organization was officially dissolved in Prague.
The original members of the alliance included Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary, Poland, Romania, and the Soviet Union. Albania was the first nation to withdraw, an event that occurred in 1968. Countries Not in the UN The United Nations, or the UN, is a global organization that was originally founded in 1945.
Jul 27, 2020 · The Wiky Legal Encyclopedia covers legislation, case law, regulations and doctrine in the United States, Europe, Asia, South America, Africa, UK, Australia and around the world, including international law and comparative law.
Warsaw Pact, treaty establishing a mutual-defense organization composed originally of the Soviet Union and Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary, Poland, and Romania. The treaty provided for a unified military command and for the maintenance of Soviet military units within other participating states.
The Warsaw Pact was a collective defence treaty established by the Soviet Union and seven other Soviet satellite states in Central and Eastern Europe: Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary, Poland and Romania (Albania withdrew in 1968). Formally known as the Treaty of Friendship, Co-operation and Mutual Assistance, the Warsaw Pact was created on 14 May 1955, immediately after the accession of West Germany to the Alliance.
- Formation of The Warsaw Pact
- Structure of The Warsaw Pact
- Dissolution of The Warsaw Pact
As its name implies, the Warsaw Pact was established in Warsaw, the capital of Poland. It was actually called the Warsaw Treaty Organization, though it was commonly referred to as the Warsaw Pact, at least in the West. According to the introduction of the Warsaw Treaty, the military alliance was formed in response to the decision of the Western powers to allow West Germany to arm itself again, for the first time since World War II, and include it as part of NATO. The Warsaw Pact was comprised of 8 countries: the Soviet Union, Albania, Poland, Romania, Hungary, East Germany, Czechoslovakia, and Bulgaria. All of these countries were communist states. In addition to being a response to the possibility of a rearmed West Germany, the Warsaw Pact was also meant to be a counterbalance against NATO. The idea was that the communist military alliance could contain NATO and also make it so that the communist bloc could negotiate with the West on an equal footing. Like NATO, the Warsaw Pact inc...
The Warsaw Pact supposedly put mechanisms in place that allowed for collective decision-making. The real power in the Warsaw Pact, however, lay in the hands of the Soviet Union. In fact, the communist military alliance effectively put all the military forces of its member countries under Soviet command. Other members of the alliance were excluded from peacetime regional strategic-operational commands. They also had no say on the use of nuclear weapons, and held none of the key command posts. The only matter in which the other members of the Warsaw Pact had any input was the conduct of joint maneuvers and military exercises. There were both positive and negative aspects of Soviet dominance over the communist military alliance in terms of any possible armed conflict with the West. The positive aspect was that decisions in the Warsaw Pact could be made more efficiently than in NATO, where decisions DO have to be made collectively among its members. At the same time, however, without th...
The Warsaw Pact remained intact until 1991, though Albania was expelled from the alliance in 1962, when its regime disagreed with the leadership of the USSR on matters concerning communist ideology. By the 1980s, however, the Warsaw Pact started to crack with the rise of non-communist, pro-democracy movements in the alliance’s member states. In addition, the members of the military alliance were suffering from economic hardships. By the late 1980s, political changes in most of the Warsaw Pact’s member states made the military alliance virtually ineffective. The first country to pull out of the communist alliance was East Germany. In September of 1990, communist East Germany ceased to exist, merging with West Germany, following the fall of the Berlin Wall a year prior. After East Germany left the Warsaw Pact, the leaders of Czechoslovakia and Poland expressed their desire to leave the alliance. By October of 1990, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, and Poland had withdrawn from all the joint m...
- Warsaw Pact Countries
- Warsaw Pact History
- The Warsaw Pact During The Cold War
- End of The Cold War and The Warsaw Pact
The original signatories to the Warsaw Pact treaty were the Soviet Union and the Soviet satellite nations of Albania, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Bulgaria, Romania, and the German Democratic Republic. Seeing the NATO Western Bloc as a security threat, the eight Warsaw Pact nations all pledged to defend any other member nation or nations that came under attack. The member nations also agreed to respect each other’s national sovereignty and political independence by not intervening in each other’s internal affairs.In practice, however, the Soviet Union, due to its political and military dominance in the region, indirectly controlled most of the governments of the seven satellite nations.
In January 1949, the Soviet Union had formed “Comecon,” the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance, an organization for the post-World War II recovery and advancement of the economies of the eight communist nations of Central and Eastern Europe. When West Germany joined NATO on May 6, 1955, the Soviet Union viewed the growing strength of NATO and a freshly rearmed West Germany as a threat to communist control. Just one week later, on May 14, 1955, the Warsaw Pact was established as a mutual military defense complement of the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance. The Soviet Union hoped the Warsaw Pact would help it contain West Germany and allow it to negotiate with NATO on a level playing field of power. In addition, Soviet leaders hoped a unified, multilateral political and military alliance would help them reign in the growing civil unrest in Eastern European countries by strengthening the ties between the Eastern European capitals and Moscow.
Fortunately, the closest the Warsaw Pact and NATO ever came to actual war against each other during the Cold War years from 1995 to 1991 was the 1962 Cuban Missile Crisis. Instead, Warsaw Pact troops were more commonly used for maintaining communist rule within the Eastern Bloc itself. When Hungary tried to withdraw from the Warsaw Pact in 1956, Soviet troops entered the country and removed the Hungarian People’s Republic government. Soviet troops then put down the nationwide revolution, killing an estimated 2,500 Hungarian citizens in the process. In August 1968, approximately 250,000 Warsaw Pact troops from the Soviet Union, Poland, Bulgaria, East Germany, and Hungary invaded Czechoslovakia. The invasion was triggered by Soviet leader Leonid Brezhnev’s concerns when the Czechoslovakian government of political reformer Alexander Dubček restored freedom of the press and ended government surveillance of the people. Dubček’s so-called “Prague Spring” of freedom ended after Warsaw Pact...
Between 1968 and 1989, Soviet control over the Warsaw Pact satellite nations slowly eroded. Public discontent had forced many of their communist governments from power. During the 1970s, a period of détentewith the United States lowered tensions between the Cold War superpowers. In November 1989, the Berlin Wall came down and communist governments in Poland, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Romania, and Bulgaria started to fall. Within the Soviet Union itself, the “openness” and “restructuring” political and social reforms of glasnost and perestroika under Mikhail Gorbachevforetold the eventual collapse of the USSR’s communist government As the end of the Cold War neared, troops of the once-communist Warsaw Pact satellite states of Poland, Czechoslovakia and Hungary fought alongside U.S.-led forces to liberate Kuwait in the First Gulf Warin 1990. On July 1, 1991, Czechoslovak President, Vaclav Havel formally declared the Warsaw Pact disbanded after 36 years of military allianc...