Washington, D.C., formally the District of Columbia (D.C.), also known as just Washington or just D.C., is the capital city of the United States. It is located on the east bank of the Potomac River which forms its southwestern and southern border with the U.S. state of Virginia, and shares a land border with the U.S. state of Maryland on its remaining sides.
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When English people first came to the area, there was a Native American village on the spot called Nakochtank. This name survives in the name of the Anacostia River. This river was known for the healing properties of its pure water and it is recorded that the Emperor Powhatan, who lived in what is now Richmond, Virginia, made the trip all the way to Nakochtank once for this reason. The 1789 United States Constitution said that a capital city would be created in a district, but did not say where it should be. James Madison and others thought it should be far away from other states and cities. This way, it would be independent and not controlled by any state. In 1790, a compromise was reached and capital was placed between Virginia and Maryland. It was a square, ten miles (16 km) long on each side, and split by the Potomac River, which separated the two states. Half of the district was in Maryland and the other half was in Virginia, and the two states gave this land to the government....
Washington, D.C. was planned before it was built. Pierre L'Enfant drew a plan for the city that said where all the streets, parks, and important buildings would be. Unlike most cities in the United States, D.C. has many roundabouts or traffic circles. The city was supposed to have long and wide avenues, and many open spaces for monuments and parks. The National Mallis an example of this.
Performing arts and music
Washington, D.C. is the center of the nation for its arts. The National Symphony Orchestra, the Washington National Opera, and the Washington Ballet are all inside the John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts. The Kennedy Center Honors are given every year to the people who have greatly helped the cultural life of the United States. The President and First Ladyusually go to the Honors ceremony.
As the national capital of the United States, Washington, D.C. has numerous media outlets in various mediums. Some of these media are known throughout the United States, including The Washington Postand various broadcasting networks headquartered in D.C.
According to a 2010 study, Washington-area commuters spent 70 hours a year in traffic delays, which tied with Chicago for having the nation's worst road congestion. However, 37% of Washington-area commuters take public transportation to work, the second-highest rate in the country.An additional 12% of D.C. commuters walked to work, 6% carpooled, and 3% traveled by bicycle in 2010. Washington has very few freeways. The funds that had been dedicated for freeway construction were instead redirected to the region's public transportation infrastructure. The interstate highways that do continue into Washington, including Interstate 66 and Interstate 395, both terminate shortly upon entering the city. The Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority (WMATA) operates the Washington Metro, the city's rapid transit system, as well as Metrobus. Both systems serve the District and its suburbs. Metro opened on March 27, 1976 and presently consists of 86 stations and 106.3 miles (171.1 km) of t...Guide to Washington, D.C., materials from the Library of Congress
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Archaeological evidence indicates American Indians settled in the area at least 4,000 years ago, around the Anacostia River. Early European exploration of the region took place early in the 17th century, including explorations by Captain John Smith in 1608. At the time, the Patawomeck (loosely affiliated with the Powhatan) and the Doeg lived on the Virginia side, as well as on Theodore Roosevelt Island, while the Piscataway (also known as Conoy) tribe of Algonquians resided on the Maryland side.: 23 Native inhabitants within the present-day District of Columbia included the Nacotchtank, at Anacostia, who were affiliated with the Conoy. Another village was located between Little Falls and Georgetown,: 23 and English fur trader Henry Fleetdocumented a Nacotchtank village called Tohoga on the site of present-day Georgetown. The first colonial landowners in the present-day District of Columbia were George Thompson and Thomas Gerrard, who were granted the Blue Plains tract in 1662, along...
The United States capital was originally located in Philadelphia, beginning with the First and Second Continental Congress, followed by the Congress of the Confederation upon ratification of the first federal constitution. In June 1783, a mob of angry soldiers converged upon Independence Hall to demand payment for their service during the American Revolutionary War. Congress requested that John Dickinson, the governor of Pennsylvania, call up the militia to defend Congress from attacks by the...
Plan of the City of Washington
In early 1791, President Washington appointed Pierre (Peter) Charles L'Enfant to devise a plan for the new city in an area of land at the center of the federal territory that lay between the northeast shore of the Potomac River and the northwest shore of the Potomac's Eastern Branch. L'Enfant then designed in his "Plan of the city intended for the permanent seat of the government of the United States ... " the city's first layout, a grid centered on the United States Capitol, which would stan...
The District of Columbia relied on Congress to support capital improvements and economic development initiatives. However, Congress lacked loyalty to the city's residents and was reluctant to provide support. Congress did provide funding for the Washington City Canalin 1809, after earlier private financing efforts were unsuccessful. Construction began in 1810 and the canal opened in late 1815, connecting the Anacostia River with Tiber Creek. Construction of the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal (C&O)...
War of 1812
During the War of 1812, British forces conducted an expedition between August 19 and 29, 1814, that took and burned the capital city. On August 24, the British routed an American militia, which had gathered at Bladensburg, Maryland to protect the capital (see Battle of Bladensburg). The militia then abandoned Washington without a fight. President James Madisonand the remainder of the U.S. government fled the capital shortly before the British arrived. The British then entered and burned the c...
Railroads arrive in Washington
The B&O opened a rail line from Baltimore to Washington in 1835.: 157 Passenger traffic on the Washington Branch had increased by the 1850s, as the company opened a large station in 1851 on New Jersey Avenue NW, just north of the Capitol.: 92 Further railroad development continued after the Civil War, with a new B&O line (the Metropolitan Branch) connecting Washington to the west, and the introduction of competition from the Baltimore and Potomac Railroad in the 1870s. In 1907, Union Station...
In 1901, the Senate Park Improvement Commission of the District of Columbia (the "McMillan Commission"), which Congress had formed the previous year, formulated the McMillan Plan, an architectural plan for the redevelopment of the National Mall. The commission was inspired by L'Enfant's 1791 plan for the city, which had not been fully realized. The members of the commission also sought to emulate the grandeur of European capitals such as Paris, London, and Rome. They were also strongly influenced by the City Beautiful movement, a Progressive ideology that intended to build civic virtue in the poor through important, monumental architecture. Several of the Commission members, including Daniel Burnham and Frederick Law Olmsted, Jr. had in fact participated in the 1893 World Columbian Exposition, which was widely popular and helped to spread interest in the City Beautiful movement. The McMillan Plan, in many respects, was an early form of urban renewal that removed many of the slums th...
Terrorism and security
The Washington area was a main target of the September 11, 2001 attacks. American Airlines Flight 77 was hijacked by five Islamic terrorists and flew into the Pentagon in Arlington County, just across the Potomac River from Washington, killing 125 people inside the building, as well as 64 onboard the airliner, including the five terrorists. United Airlines Flight 93, which was also hijacked and which went down in an open field near Shanksville, Pennsylvania, supposedly intended to target eith...
Washington Navy Yard shooting
On September 16, 2013, the Washington Navy Yard shooting occurred when lone gunman Aaron Alexis fatally shot twelve people and injured three others in a mass shooting at the headquarters of the Naval Sea Systems Command (NAVSEA) inside the Washington Navy Yard in the Southeast quadrant of the city. The attack, which took place in the Navy Yard's Building 197, began around 8:20 a.m. EDT and ended when Alexis was killed by police around 9:20 a.m. EDT. It was the second-deadliest mass murder on...
On November 8, 2016, Washington voters were asked to advise the Council to approve or reject a proposal, which included advising the council to petition Congress to admit the District as the 51st State and approve a constitution and boundaries for the new state. The voters of the District of Columbia voted overwhelmingly to advise the Council to approve the proposal, with 86% of voters voting to advise approving the proposal.Challenges, including Republican opposition in Congress and constitu...
New migration patterns have appeared. Washington has a steadily declining black population, due to many African Americans' leaving the city for suburbs. At the same time, the city's Caucasian and Hispanic populations have steadily increased. Since 2000 there has been a 7.3% decrease in the African-American population, and a 17.8% increase in the white population. In addition, many African Americans are going to the South in a New Great Migration, because of family ties, increased opportunities and lower cost of living.They still are a majority in the city, comprising 51 percent of the population.Crew, Harvey W.; Webb, William Bensing; Wooldridge, John (1892). Centennial History of the City of Washington, D. C. Dayton, Ohio: United Brethren Publishing House. LCCN 06028029. OCLC 2843595. Ret...Hazleton, George Cochrane, Jr. (1914). The National Capitol: Its Architecture, Art, and History. New York: J.F. Taylor & Company. LCCN 96845486. OCLC 1848763. Retrieved December 31, 2017 – via Goog...Stewart, John (1898). "Early Maps and Surveyors of the City of Washington, D.C." Records of the Columbia Historical Society. 2: 48–71. OCLC 40326234. Retrieved December 31, 2017 – via Google Books.
The Pentagon is the world's largest office building, with about 6.5 million square feet (150 acres; 60 ha) of floor space, of which 3.7 million sq ft (85 acres; 34 ha) are used as offices. Some 23,000 military and civilian employees, and another 3,000 non-defense support personnel, work in the Pentagon. It has five sides, five floors above ...
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1. Da capo, a musical term 2. DC Recordings, owned by Jonathan Saul Kane 3. Destiny's Child, an American R&B group 4. Drum Connection, a German pop group 5. DC Talk, a Christian rap and rock trio.
1. Da Capo(visual novel) 2. Desert Combat, a Battlefield 1942mod 3. Digital Chaos, a professional Dota 2eSports team 4. Dino Crisis, a survival horror game series 5. Dreamcast, a video game console 6. Donut County, a video game by Ben Esposito
1. D.C.(TV series) 2. DC Comics, an American comic book publisher 3. DC Inside, a South Korean internet forum 4. DC (Succession), an episode of television series SuccessionDC author abbreviation of Swiss botanist Augustin Pyramus de Candolle(1778–1841)DC, a dominical letter indicating a leap year starting on Thursday
Biology and medicine
1. DC., standard author abbreviation for botanist Augustin Pyramus de Candolle(1778-1841) 2. Dendritic cell, a type of immune cell
1. dc (computer program), a desktop calculator 2. Data center, a physical location housing computing-related gear 3. Device Context, part of the Microsoft Windows API 4. DigiCipher, a digital encoding scheme 5. Direct Connect (protocol) 6. Domain Component, an attribute in LDAP 7. Domain controller, a server used to manage a Windows domain 8. Dublin Core, a metadata standard 9. Dynamic contrast, an LCD technology 10. constant component a.k.a. DC coefficient in discrete cosine transform
1. dc (elliptic function), one of Jacobi's elliptic functions 2. Axiom of dependent choice, in set theory 3. 600 (number), in Roman numerals 4. 220 (number), in hexadecimal
The Lincoln Memorial is a US national memorial built to honor the 16th president of the United States, Abraham Lincoln.It is on the western end of the National Mall in Washington, D.C., across from the Washington Monument, and is in the form of a neoclassical temple.