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  1. Welsh toponymy - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Welsh_toponymy

    Both English and Welsh names mean "enclosed forest" Holyhead: Caergybi English name meaning "holy headland", Welsh meaning "St. Cybi's fort" Knighton: Tref-y-clawdd English name meaning "town of the knights", Welsh meaning "town beside [Offa's] dyke" Menai Bridge: Porthaethwy

  2. Wikipedia:Unusual place names - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Wikipedia:Unusual_place_names

    A very long railway station sign for a very long name only pronounceable by Welsh people. A Bay State fire department's patch, with the longest place name in the United States. This page is meant for Wikipedians to list articles about places with unusual names .

    • A Danish town that is a real pain in the "aars". You have been warned.
    • A town in Jamaica that thinks it's floating.
    • Sounds a lot like "arse shot".
    • A town in Maryland which had an accident.
  3. Glossary of names for the British - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Poms_(slang)

    Vellaikaari means white woman and Vellaikaarargal or Vellaiyargal is the plural form meaning white people. Suddo and Ingrisikarayo are Sri Lankan and Sinhalese names for British and other western white-skinned people.

  4. Welsh toponymy — Wikipedia Republished // WIKI 2

    wiki2.org › en › Welsh_toponymy
    • History
    • Language Characteristics
    • Development of Place-Names in Wales
    • Relationship Between Welsh and English Place-Names
    • Official Policy on Place-Names in Wales
    • Welsh Names For Other Places in Great Britain and Ireland
    • See Also
    • External Links

    Dur­ing the 4th to 11th cen­turies, while An­glo-Sax­ons and other mi­grants from Eu­rope set­tled ad­join­ing areas of Britain, Wales de­vel­oped as a dis­tinc­tive en­tity, de­vel­op­ing its lan­guage, cul­ture, legal code, and po­lit­i­cal struc­tures. By stages be­tween the 11th and 16th cen­turies, Wales was then sub­dued, con­quered and even­tu­ally in­cor­po­rated into the King­dom of Eng­land while still re­tain­ing many dis­tinct cul­tural fea­tures, most no­tably its lan­guage. Since then, there has been a mix­ing of cul­tures in Wales, with the Eng­lish lan­guage dom­i­nant in in­dus­try and com­merce, but with Welsh re­main­ing as a liv­ing lan­guage, par­tic­u­larly in its strong­hold, y Fro Gym­raegor "Welsh lan­guage coun­try" in north­west, mid- and west Wales. Welsh cul­ture and po­lit­i­cal au­ton­omy has been re­asserted in­creas­ingly since the mid 19th cen­tury.

    The Welsh lan­guage is a West­ern Brit­tonic lan­guage de­scended from the Com­mon Brit­tonic spo­ken through­out Britain in the cen­turies be­fore the An­glo-Saxon and Viking in­va­sions that led to the cre­ation of Eng­land. Many place-names in Britain, par­tic­u­larly of nat­ural fea­tures such as rivers and hills, de­rive di­rectly from Com­mon Brit­tonic. Ob­vi­ous ex­am­ples of place-names of Welsh ori­gin in­clude Pen­rith ("head­land by the ford") and the nu­mer­ous Rivers Avon, from the Welsh afon("river"). Place-names from the West­ern Brit­tonic-speak­ing Hen Ogledd occur in Cum­bria and the Scot­tish Low­lands. These in­clude the name of Ed­in­burgh, from Cum­bric Din Eidin"Eidin's Fort". The Cor­nish lan­guage is a South­west­ern Brit­tonic lan­guage and many place-names in Corn­wall and to a lesser ex­tent neigh­bour­ing Devon, Som­er­set and Dorset there­fore have sim­i­lar ori­gins to names in Wales, such as the River Avon, Devon. The set­tle­ment name Tre- is iden­t...

    Early in­hab­i­tants of Wales gave names first to note­wor­thy nat­ural fea­tures, such as rivers, hills, moun­tains, har­bours and shores. Be­fore the Roman oc­cu­pa­tion in the first cen­tury, there does not seem to have been a com­ing to­gether in or­gan­ised set­tle­ments, and there­fore lit­tle rea­son to give names to such places. The Roman towns which were es­tab­lished were gen­er­ally for­ti­fied and were given the generic name of cas­tra, which in Welsh be­came caer, orig­i­nally with the mean­ing of "for­ti­fied en­clo­sure". Many of these con­tin­ued as towns after the Ro­mans left, in­clud­ing Caernar­fon, Car­marthen (Caerfyrd­din), Caer­leon, and Caer­went. Else­where, many vil­lages and later towns took their names from nat­ural fea­tures. For ex­am­ple, Abergele refers to the "mouth of the [river] Gele", Harlech means "fair rock", Rhud­d­lan "red bank", and Porth­cawl "har­bour with sea-kale". Aberys­t­wythmeans "mouth of the Ys­t­wyth", a river a mile or so away fr...

    In the ma­jor­ity of cases in Wales, the Welsh and Eng­lish names for a place are iden­ti­cal, al­most al­ways be­cause the Welsh name is used. So, for ex­am­ple, Aberys­t­wyth, Blae­nau Ffes­tin­iog, Ban­gor, Machyn­l­leth and Llan­dudnoall have the same spelling in Welsh and Eng­lish, al­though it is also often the case that many Eng­lish peo­ple do not pro­nounce the name in the same way as the Welsh. There are also many in­stances where the Welsh and Eng­lish names are very sim­i­lar, both in spelling and pro­nun­ci­a­tion. Ex­am­ples are Caer­philly (Caerf­fili), Raglan (Rhaglan), Tre­orchy (Tre­orci), Barry (Y Barri) and Merthyr Tyd­fil (Merthyr Tudful). In most of these cases, Eng­lish usage adopted and an­gli­cised the Welsh name, al­though there are some cases, es­pe­cially close to the Eng­lish bor­der, where the Eng­lish name was adopted by the Welsh. Ex­am­ples are Flint (Y Fflint) and Wrex­ham (Wrec­sam) in north east Wales, and Caldicot (Cil-y-coed) in south east Wales...

    The nam­ing of places in Wales can be a mat­ter of dis­pute and un­cer­tainty. In some cases there is an issue of whether both the Welsh and Eng­lish names should be used, or only one, and which should be given pri­or­ity. In other cases it is be­cause usage and style have changed over the years, and there is de­bate over which form or spelling of a pla­ce­name should be used. Both the Welsh Gov­ern­ment and the Ord­nance Sur­vey have poli­cies on stan­dar­d­is­ing place-names, draw­ing on ad­vice from the Welsh Lan­guage Com­mis­sioner and the Place-name Re­search Cen­tre at the Uni­ver­sity of Wales, Ban­gor. The pol­icy of the Welsh Gov­ern­ment on place-names as shown on road signs within its ju­ris­dic­tion is set out in its Welsh Lan­guage Scheme. This states: "The signs for which we are re­spon­si­ble (mostly mo­tor­way and trunk road signs) will be bilin­gual. Signs which are in Eng­lish only at the mo­ment will be made bilin­gual when they are re­placed.... When both lan­gu...

    The mod­ern Welsh lan­guage con­tains names for many towns and other ge­o­graph­i­cal fea­tures across Britain and Ire­land. In some cases, these de­rive from the Bry­thonic names which were used dur­ing or be­fore the Roman oc­cu­pa­tion: for ex­am­ple, Llundain (Lon­don), Cernyw (Corn­wall), Dyf­naint (Devon), and Ebrauc/Efrog (York). The ori­gin of the mod­ern Welsh name for Eng­land it­self, Lloegr [ɬɔiɡr], is dis­puted, but one widely believed[citation needed] the­ory – which, how­ever, has no et­y­mo­log­i­cal foun­da­tion – is that it de­rives from pur­port­edly po­etic words mean­ing "lost land", and was orig­i­nally ap­plied to areas of Mer­cia after the Saxoncon­quest be­fore being ap­plied to the whole of Eng­land. Many Eng­lish county towns, founded as Roman cas­tra and now hav­ing the Eng­lish suf­fix "-c(h)ester", also have Welsh names, in most cases using the pre­fix Caer-. Ex­am­ples in­clude Caer or Caer­lleon (for Chester), Caer­loyw (Glouces­ter), Caer­wran­gon (W...

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  6. Owain Glyndŵr - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Owen_Glyndwr

    Owain ap Gruffydd, lord of Glyndyfrdwy (c. 1359 – c. 1415), or simply Owain Glyndŵr or Glyn Dŵr (pronounced [ˈoʊain ɡlɨ̞nˈduːr], anglicised to Owen Glendower), was a Welsh leader who instigated a fierce and long-running yet ultimately unsuccessful war of independence with the aim of ending English rule in Wales during the Late Middle Ages.

  7. Walhaz - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Walhaz

    *Walhaz is a reconstructed Proto-Germanic word meaning "Roman", "Romance-speaker", or "Celtic-speaker". The term was used by the ancient Germanic peoples to describe inhabitants of the former Western Roman Empire, who were largely romanised and spoke Latin or Celtic languages. The adjectival form is attested in Old Norse valskr, meaning "French"; Old High German walhisk, meaning "Romance"; New High German welsch, used in Switzerland and South Tyrol for Romance speakers; Dutch Waals "Walloon"; Ol

  8. Surname - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Ancestral_name
    • Cultural Differences
    • Order of Names
    • History
    • Compound Surnames
    • Culture and Prevalence
    • Spanish-Speaking World
    • Portuguese-Speaking Countries
    • Further Reading
    • External Links

    In the English-speaking world, a surname is commonly referred to as a last name because it is usually placed at the end of a person's full name, after any given names. In many parts of Asia, as well as some parts of Europe and Africa, the family name is placed before a person's given name. In most Spanish-speaking and Portuguese-speakingcountries, two surnames are commonly used and in some families even three or more are used (often due to a family claim to nobility). Surnames have not always existed and today are not universal in all cultures. This tradition has arisen separately in different cultures around the world. In Europe, the concept of surnames became popular in the Roman Empire and expanded throughout the Mediterranean and Western Europe as a result. During the Middle Ages this practice died out as Germanic, Persian, and other influences took hold. During the late Middle Ages surnames gradually re-emerged, first in the form of bynames(typically indicating an individual's...

    In many cultures (particularly in European and European-influenced cultures in the Americas, Oceania, etc., as well as West Asia/North Africa, South Asia, and most Sub-Saharan African cultures), the surname or family name ("last name") is placed after the personal, forename (in Europe) or given name ("first name"). In other cultures the surname is placed first, followed by the given name or names. The latter is often called the Eastern naming order because Europeans are most familiar with the examples from the East Asian cultural sphere, specifically, Greater China, Korea (Republic of Korea and Democratic People's Republic of Korea), Japan, and Vietnam. This is also the case in Cambodia, Laos, parts of South India, Sri Lanka, and Madagascar. But there are parts of Europe that also follow the Eastern Order, such as Hungary, Austria and adjacent areas of Germany (that is, Bavaria),[note 1] Albania, Kosovo, and Romania. Since family names are normally written last in European societies...

    While the use of given names to identify individuals is attested in the oldest historical records, the advent of surnames is a relatively recent[when?] phenomenon. A four-year study led by the University of the West of England, which concluded in 2016, analysed sources dating from the 11th to the 19th century to explain the origins of the surnames in the British Isles. The study found that over 90% of the 45,602 surnames in the dictionary are native to Britain and Ireland, with the most common in the UK being Smith, Jones, Williams, Brown, Taylor, Davies, and Wilson. The findings have been published in the Oxford English Dictionary of Family Names in Britain and Ireland, with project leader, Professor Richard Coates calling the study "more detailed and accurate" than those before. He elaborated on the origins; "Some surnames have origins that are occupational – obvious examples are Smith and Baker. Other names can be linked to a place, for example Hill or Green, which relates to a v...

    While in many countries surnames are usually one word, in others a surname may contain two words or more, as described below.

    In the United States, 1,712 surnames cover 50% of the population, and about 1% of the population has the surname Smith, which is also the most frequent English name and an occupational name ("metal worker"), a contraction, for instance, of blacksmith or other metalsmiths. Several American surnames are a result of corruptions or phonetic misappropriations of European surnames, perhaps as a result of the registration process at the immigration entry points. Spellings and pronunciations of names remained fluid in the United States until the Social Security System enforced standardization. Approximately 70% of Canadians have surnames that are of English, Irish, French, or Scottish derivation. According to some estimates, 85% of China's population shares just 100 surnames. The names Wang (王), Zhang (张) and Li (李) are the most frequent.

    In Spain and in most Spanish-speaking countries, the custom is for people to have two surnames. Usually the first surname comes from the father and the second from the mother, but it could be the other way round. When speaking or in informal situations only the first one is used, although both are needed for legal purpose. A child's first surname will usually be their father's first surname, while the child's second surname will usually be the mother's first surname. For example, if José García Torres and María Acosta Gómez had a child named Pablo, then his full name would be Pablo García Acosta. One family member's relationship to another can often be identified by the various combinations and permutations of surnames. In some instances, when an individual's given name and first family name are too common (such as in José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero and Mario Vargas Llosa), both family names are used (though not necessarily both given names). A person could even take the maternal name...

    In the case of Portuguesenaming customs, the main surname (the one used in alphasorting, indexing, abbreviations, and greetings), appears last. Each person usually has two family names: though the law specifies no order, the first one is usually the maternal family name, whereas the last one is commonly the paternal family name. In Portugal, a person's full name has a minimum legal length of two names (one given name and one family name from either parent) and a maximum of six names (two first names and four surnames – he or she may have up to four surnames in any order desired picked up from the total of his/her parents and grandparents' surnames). The use of any surname outside this lot, or of more than six names, is legally possible, but it requires dealing with bureaucracy. Parents or the person him/herself must explain the claims they have to bearing that surname (a family nickname, a rare surname lost in past generations, or any other reason one may find suitable). In Brazil t...

    Bowman, William Dodgson. The Story of Surnames(London, George Routledge & Sons, Ltd., 1932)
    Blark. Gregory, et al. The Son Also Rises: Surnames and the History of Social Mobility(Princeton University Press; 2014) 384 pages; uses statistical data on family names over generations to estimat...
    Cottle, Basil. Penguin Dictionary of Surnames(1967)
    Hanks, Patrick and Hodges, Flavia. A Dictionary of Surnames(Oxford University Press, 1989)
    Wilkinson, Hugh E. (December 2010). "Some Common English Surnames: Especially Those Derived from Personal Names" (PDF). Aoyama Keiei Ronshu. 45 (3). Archived from the original (PDF)on 15 January 2013.
    Family Facts Archive, Ancestry.com, including UK & US census distribution, immigration, and surname origins (Dictionary of American Family Names, Oxford University Press)
    Neil Summers (4 November 2006). "Welsh surnames and their meaning". Amlwch history databases. Retrieved 19 September 2008.
  9. Nov 08, 2019 · Welsh people and Welsh speakers have relocated all over the world, and in North America there is a very strong interest in Welsh life by those with ancestry. However it can be difficult to find what provision there is, so here Michelle Fecio and Neil Rowlands present a non-comprehensive list, organised by continent and with, where existing ...

  10. What are the lists of Welsh place names? - Quora

    www.quora.com › What-are-the-lists-of-Welsh-place

    A UK roadmap book would be a good place to start. Maybe Google Maps would be a good place for an online resource. Now I’ll be slightly more helpful. I wont list actual place names, but I will cover some common things you find in Welsh place names ...

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