Both English and Welsh names mean "enclosed forest" Holyhead: Caergybi English name meaning "holy headland", Welsh meaning "St. Cybi's fort" Knighton: Tref-y-clawdd English name meaning "town of the knights", Welsh meaning "town beside [Offa's] dyke" Menai Bridge: Porthaethwy
A very long railway station sign for a very long name only pronounceable by Welsh people. A Bay State fire department's patch, with the longest place name in the United States. This page is meant for Wikipedians to list articles about places with unusual names .
- A Danish town that is a real pain in the "aars". You have been warned.
- A town in Jamaica that thinks it's floating.
- Sounds a lot like "arse shot".
- A town in Maryland which had an accident.
Vellaikaari means white woman and Vellaikaarargal or Vellaiyargal is the plural form meaning white people. Suddo and Ingrisikarayo are Sri Lankan and Sinhalese names for British and other western white-skinned people.
- Language Characteristics
- Development of Place-Names in Wales
- Relationship Between Welsh and English Place-Names
- Official Policy on Place-Names in Wales
- Welsh Names For Other Places in Great Britain and Ireland
- See Also
- External Links
During the 4th to 11th centuries, while Anglo-Saxons and other migrants from Europe settled adjoining areas of Britain, Wales developed as a distinctive entity, developing its language, culture, legal code, and political structures. By stages between the 11th and 16th centuries, Wales was then subdued, conquered and eventually incorporated into the Kingdom of England while still retaining many distinct cultural features, most notably its language. Since then, there has been a mixing of cultures in Wales, with the English language dominant in industry and commerce, but with Welsh remaining as a living language, particularly in its stronghold, y Fro Gymraegor "Welsh language country" in northwest, mid- and west Wales. Welsh culture and political autonomy has been reasserted increasingly since the mid 19th century.
The Welsh language is a Western Brittonic language descended from the Common Brittonic spoken throughout Britain in the centuries before the Anglo-Saxon and Viking invasions that led to the creation of England. Many place-names in Britain, particularly of natural features such as rivers and hills, derive directly from Common Brittonic. Obvious examples of place-names of Welsh origin include Penrith ("headland by the ford") and the numerous Rivers Avon, from the Welsh afon("river"). Place-names from the Western Brittonic-speaking Hen Ogledd occur in Cumbria and the Scottish Lowlands. These include the name of Edinburgh, from Cumbric Din Eidin"Eidin's Fort". The Cornish language is a Southwestern Brittonic language and many place-names in Cornwall and to a lesser extent neighbouring Devon, Somerset and Dorset therefore have similar origins to names in Wales, such as the River Avon, Devon. The settlement name Tre- is ident...
Early inhabitants of Wales gave names first to noteworthy natural features, such as rivers, hills, mountains, harbours and shores. Before the Roman occupation in the first century, there does not seem to have been a coming together in organised settlements, and therefore little reason to give names to such places. The Roman towns which were established were generally fortified and were given the generic name of castra, which in Welsh became caer, originally with the meaning of "fortified enclosure". Many of these continued as towns after the Romans left, including Caernarfon, Carmarthen (Caerfyrddin), Caerleon, and Caerwent. Elsewhere, many villages and later towns took their names from natural features. For example, Abergele refers to the "mouth of the [river] Gele", Harlech means "fair rock", Rhuddlan "red bank", and Porthcawl "harbour with sea-kale". Aberystwythmeans "mouth of the Ystwyth", a river a mile or so away fr...
In the majority of cases in Wales, the Welsh and English names for a place are identical, almost always because the Welsh name is used. So, for example, Aberystwyth, Blaenau Ffestiniog, Bangor, Machynlleth and Llandudnoall have the same spelling in Welsh and English, although it is also often the case that many English people do not pronounce the name in the same way as the Welsh. There are also many instances where the Welsh and English names are very similar, both in spelling and pronunciation. Examples are Caerphilly (Caerffili), Raglan (Rhaglan), Treorchy (Treorci), Barry (Y Barri) and Merthyr Tydfil (Merthyr Tudful). In most of these cases, English usage adopted and anglicised the Welsh name, although there are some cases, especially close to the English border, where the English name was adopted by the Welsh. Examples are Flint (Y Fflint) and Wrexham (Wrecsam) in north east Wales, and Caldicot (Cil-y-coed) in south east Wales...
The naming of places in Wales can be a matter of dispute and uncertainty. In some cases there is an issue of whether both the Welsh and English names should be used, or only one, and which should be given priority. In other cases it is because usage and style have changed over the years, and there is debate over which form or spelling of a placename should be used. Both the Welsh Government and the Ordnance Survey have policies on standardising place-names, drawing on advice from the Welsh Language Commissioner and the Place-name Research Centre at the University of Wales, Bangor. The policy of the Welsh Government on place-names as shown on road signs within its jurisdiction is set out in its Welsh Language Scheme. This states: "The signs for which we are responsible (mostly motorway and trunk road signs) will be bilingual. Signs which are in English only at the moment will be made bilingual when they are replaced.... When both langu...
The modern Welsh language contains names for many towns and other geographical features across Britain and Ireland. In some cases, these derive from the Brythonic names which were used during or before the Roman occupation: for example, Llundain (London), Cernyw (Cornwall), Dyfnaint (Devon), and Ebrauc/Efrog (York). The origin of the modern Welsh name for England itself, Lloegr [ɬɔiɡr], is disputed, but one widely believed theory – which, however, has no etymological foundation – is that it derives from purportedly poetic words meaning "lost land", and was originally applied to areas of Mercia after the Saxonconquest before being applied to the whole of England. Many English county towns, founded as Roman castra and now having the English suffix "-c(h)ester", also have Welsh names, in most cases using the prefix Caer-. Examples include Caer or Caerlleon (for Chester), Caerloyw (Gloucester), Caerwrangon (W...
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Owain ap Gruffydd, lord of Glyndyfrdwy (c. 1359 – c. 1415), or simply Owain Glyndŵr or Glyn Dŵr (pronounced [ˈoʊain ɡlɨ̞nˈduːr], anglicised to Owen Glendower), was a Welsh leader who instigated a fierce and long-running yet ultimately unsuccessful war of independence with the aim of ending English rule in Wales during the Late Middle Ages.
*Walhaz is a reconstructed Proto-Germanic word meaning "Roman", "Romance-speaker", or "Celtic-speaker". The term was used by the ancient Germanic peoples to describe inhabitants of the former Western Roman Empire, who were largely romanised and spoke Latin or Celtic languages. The adjectival form is attested in Old Norse valskr, meaning "French"; Old High German walhisk, meaning "Romance"; New High German welsch, used in Switzerland and South Tyrol for Romance speakers; Dutch Waals "Walloon"; Ol
- Cultural Differences
- Order of Names
- Compound Surnames
- Culture and Prevalence
- Spanish-Speaking World
- Portuguese-Speaking Countries
- Further Reading
- External Links
In the English-speaking world, a surname is commonly referred to as a last name because it is usually placed at the end of a person's full name, after any given names. In many parts of Asia, as well as some parts of Europe and Africa, the family name is placed before a person's given name. In most Spanish-speaking and Portuguese-speakingcountries, two surnames are commonly used and in some families even three or more are used (often due to a family claim to nobility). Surnames have not always existed and today are not universal in all cultures. This tradition has arisen separately in different cultures around the world. In Europe, the concept of surnames became popular in the Roman Empire and expanded throughout the Mediterranean and Western Europe as a result. During the Middle Ages this practice died out as Germanic, Persian, and other influences took hold. During the late Middle Ages surnames gradually re-emerged, first in the form of bynames(typically indicating an individual's...
In many cultures (particularly in European and European-influenced cultures in the Americas, Oceania, etc., as well as West Asia/North Africa, South Asia, and most Sub-Saharan African cultures), the surname or family name ("last name") is placed after the personal, forename (in Europe) or given name ("first name"). In other cultures the surname is placed first, followed by the given name or names. The latter is often called the Eastern naming order because Europeans are most familiar with the examples from the East Asian cultural sphere, specifically, Greater China, Korea (Republic of Korea and Democratic People's Republic of Korea), Japan, and Vietnam. This is also the case in Cambodia, Laos, parts of South India, Sri Lanka, and Madagascar. But there are parts of Europe that also follow the Eastern Order, such as Hungary, Austria and adjacent areas of Germany (that is, Bavaria),[note 1] Albania, Kosovo, and Romania. Since family names are normally written last in European societies...
While the use of given names to identify individuals is attested in the oldest historical records, the advent of surnames is a relatively recent[when?] phenomenon. A four-year study led by the University of the West of England, which concluded in 2016, analysed sources dating from the 11th to the 19th century to explain the origins of the surnames in the British Isles. The study found that over 90% of the 45,602 surnames in the dictionary are native to Britain and Ireland, with the most common in the UK being Smith, Jones, Williams, Brown, Taylor, Davies, and Wilson. The findings have been published in the Oxford English Dictionary of Family Names in Britain and Ireland, with project leader, Professor Richard Coates calling the study "more detailed and accurate" than those before. He elaborated on the origins; "Some surnames have origins that are occupational – obvious examples are Smith and Baker. Other names can be linked to a place, for example Hill or Green, which relates to a v...
While in many countries surnames are usually one word, in others a surname may contain two words or more, as described below.
In the United States, 1,712 surnames cover 50% of the population, and about 1% of the population has the surname Smith, which is also the most frequent English name and an occupational name ("metal worker"), a contraction, for instance, of blacksmith or other metalsmiths. Several American surnames are a result of corruptions or phonetic misappropriations of European surnames, perhaps as a result of the registration process at the immigration entry points. Spellings and pronunciations of names remained fluid in the United States until the Social Security System enforced standardization. Approximately 70% of Canadians have surnames that are of English, Irish, French, or Scottish derivation. According to some estimates, 85% of China's population shares just 100 surnames. The names Wang (王), Zhang (张) and Li (李) are the most frequent.
In Spain and in most Spanish-speaking countries, the custom is for people to have two surnames. Usually the first surname comes from the father and the second from the mother, but it could be the other way round. When speaking or in informal situations only the first one is used, although both are needed for legal purpose. A child's first surname will usually be their father's first surname, while the child's second surname will usually be the mother's first surname. For example, if José García Torres and María Acosta Gómez had a child named Pablo, then his full name would be Pablo García Acosta. One family member's relationship to another can often be identified by the various combinations and permutations of surnames. In some instances, when an individual's given name and first family name are too common (such as in José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero and Mario Vargas Llosa), both family names are used (though not necessarily both given names). A person could even take the maternal name...
In the case of Portuguesenaming customs, the main surname (the one used in alphasorting, indexing, abbreviations, and greetings), appears last. Each person usually has two family names: though the law specifies no order, the first one is usually the maternal family name, whereas the last one is commonly the paternal family name. In Portugal, a person's full name has a minimum legal length of two names (one given name and one family name from either parent) and a maximum of six names (two first names and four surnames – he or she may have up to four surnames in any order desired picked up from the total of his/her parents and grandparents' surnames). The use of any surname outside this lot, or of more than six names, is legally possible, but it requires dealing with bureaucracy. Parents or the person him/herself must explain the claims they have to bearing that surname (a family nickname, a rare surname lost in past generations, or any other reason one may find suitable). In Brazil t...Bowman, William Dodgson. The Story of Surnames(London, George Routledge & Sons, Ltd., 1932)Blark. Gregory, et al. The Son Also Rises: Surnames and the History of Social Mobility(Princeton University Press; 2014) 384 pages; uses statistical data on family names over generations to estimat...Cottle, Basil. Penguin Dictionary of Surnames(1967)Hanks, Patrick and Hodges, Flavia. A Dictionary of Surnames(Oxford University Press, 1989)Wilkinson, Hugh E. (December 2010). "Some Common English Surnames: Especially Those Derived from Personal Names" (PDF). Aoyama Keiei Ronshu. 45 (3). Archived from the original (PDF)on 15 January 2013.Family Facts Archive, Ancestry.com, including UK & US census distribution, immigration, and surname origins (Dictionary of American Family Names, Oxford University Press)Neil Summers (4 November 2006). "Welsh surnames and their meaning". Amlwch history databases. Retrieved 19 September 2008.
Nov 08, 2019 · Welsh people and Welsh speakers have relocated all over the world, and in North America there is a very strong interest in Welsh life by those with ancestry. However it can be difficult to find what provision there is, so here Michelle Fecio and Neil Rowlands present a non-comprehensive list, organised by continent and with, where existing ...
A UK roadmap book would be a good place to start. Maybe Google Maps would be a good place for an online resource. Now I’ll be slightly more helpful. I wont list actual place names, but I will cover some common things you find in Welsh place names ...
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